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UNIVERSITY* 

ILLINOIS LIBRARY 
AT URBANACHAMPAIGN 



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THE LIBRARY OF THE 



JUL Z3 1973 



.UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
AT. .URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 




IMJIOTHB 




WATER 
RESOURCES 
ABSTRACTS 



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VOLUME 6, NUMBER 13 

JULY 1, 1973 



W73-07801 -- W73-08450 



888? 






SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS is published semimonthly for the 
Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) by the National Tech- 
nical Information Service (NTIS), U.S. Department of Commerce. NTIS was 
established September 2, 1970, as a new primary operating unit under the 
Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Science and Technology to improve public 
access to the many products and services of the Department. Information 
services for Federal scientific and technical report literature previously pro- 
vided by the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information 
are now provided by NTIS. 

SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS is available to Federal agencies, 
contractors, or grantees in water resources upon request to: Manager, Water 
Resources Scientific Information Center, Office of Water Resources Research, 
U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 20240. 

SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS is also available on subscription 
from the National Technical Information Service. Annual subscription is $45 
(domestic), $56.25 (foreign), single copy price $3. Certain documents ab- 
stracted in this journal can be purchased from the NTIS at prices indicated in 
the entry. Prepayment is required. 



SEiscira 

WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS 



A Semimonthly Publication of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center, 
Office of Water Resources Research, U.S. Department of the Interior 




VOLUME 6, NUMBER 13 

JULY 1, 1973 



W73-07801 -- W73-08450 



The Secretary of the U. S. Department of the Interior has determined that the publication of this periodical 
is necessary in the transaction of the public business required by law of this Department. Use of funds 
for printing this periodical has been approved by the Director of the Office of Management and 3udget 
through August 31, 1973. 



As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the 
Interior has basic responsibilities for water, fish, wildlife, mineral, land, 
park, and recreational resources. Indian and Territorial affairs are other 
major concerns of America's "Department of Natural Resources." 

The Department works to assure the wisest choice in managing all our 
resources so each will make its full contribution to a better United 
States-now and in the future. 



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FOREWORD 

Selected Water Resources Abstracts, a semimonthly journal, includes abstracts 
of current and earlier pertinent monographs, journal articles, reports, and 
other publication formats. The contents of these documents cover the water- 
related aspects of the life, physical, and social sciences as well as related 
engineering and legal aspects of the characteristics, conservation, control, use, 
or management of water. Each abstract includes a full bibliographical citation 
and a set of descriptors or identifiers which are listed in the Water Resources 
Thesaurus. Each abstract entry is classified into ten fields and sixty groups 
similar to the water resources research categories established by the Com- 
mittee on Water Resources Research of the Federal Council for Science and 
Technology. 

WRSIC IS NOT PRESENTLY IN A POSITION TO PROVIDE COPIES OF DOCU- 
MENTS ABSTRACTED IN THIS JOURNAL. Sufficient bibliographic information 
is given to enable readers to order the desired documents from local libraries 
or other sources. 

Selected Water Resources Abstracts is designed to serve the scientific and 
technical information needs of scientists, engineers, and managers as one 
of several planned services of the Water Resources Scientific Information 
Center (WRSIC). The Center was established by the Secretary of the Interior 
and has been designated by the Federal Council for Science and Technology 
to serve the water resources community by improving the communication of 
water-related research results. The Center is pursuing this objective by co- 
ordinating and supplementing the existing scientific and technical information 
activities associated with active research and investigation program in water 
resources. 

To provide WRSIC with input, selected organizations with active water resources 
research programs are supported as "centers of competence" responsible for 
selecting, abstracting, and indexing from the current and earlier pertinent 
literature in specified subject areas. 

Additional "centers of competence" have been established in cooperation with 
the Environmental Protection Agency. A directory of the Centers appears on 
inside back cover. 

Supplementary documentation is being secured from established discipline- 
oriented abstracting and indexing services. Currently an arrangement is in 
effect whereby the BioScience Information Service of Biological Abstracts 
supplies WRSIC with relevant references from the several subject areas of 
interest to our users. In addition to Biological Abstracts, references are acquired 
from Bioresearch Index which are without abstracts and therefore also appear 
abstractless in SWRA. Similar arrangements with other producers of abstracts 
are contemplated as planned augmentation of the information base. 

The input from these Centers, and from the 51 Water Resources Research 
Institutes administered under the Water Resources Research Act of 1964, as 
well as input from the grantees and contractors of the Office of Water Re- 
sources Research and other Federal water resources agencies with which the 






in 



Center has agreements becomes the information base from which this journal 
is, and other information services will be, derived; these services include 
bibliographies, specialized indexes, literature searches, and state-of-the-art 
reviews. 

Comments and suggestions concerning the contents and arrangements of this 
bulletin are welcome. 

Water Resources Scientific Information Center 
Office of Water Resources Research 
U.S. Department of the Interior 
Washington, D. C. 20240 



IV 



CONTENTS 



FOREWORD. 



.in 



SUBJECT FIELDS AND GROUPS 

(Use Edge Index on back cover to Locate Subject Fields and 
Indexes in the journal.) 



01 NATURE OF WATER 

Includes the following Groups: Properties; Aqueous Solutions and 
Suspensions 

02 WATER CYCLE 

Includes the following Groups: General; Precipitation; Snow, Ice, 
and Frost; Evaporation and Transpiration; Streamflow and Runoff; 
Groundwater; Water in Soils; Lakes; Water in Plants; Erosion and 
Sedimentation; Chemical Processes; Estuaries. 

03 WATER SUPPLY AUGMENTATION AND CONSERVATION 

Includes the following Groups: Saline Water Conversion; Water 
Yield Improvement; Use of Water of Impaired Quality; Conservation 
in Domestic and Municipal Use; Conservation in Industry; Con- 
servation in Agriculture. 

04 WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 

Includes the following Groups: Control of Water on the Surface; 
Groundwater Management; Effects on Water of Man's Non-Water 
Activities; Watershed Protection. 

05 WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 

Includes the following Groups: Identification of Pollutants; Sources 
of Pollution; Effects of Pollution; Waste Treatment Processes; 
Ultimate Disposal of Wastes; Water Treatment and Quality Altera- 
tion; Water Quality Control. 



06 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 

Includes the following Groups: Techniques of Planning; Evaluation 
Process; Cost Allocation, Cost Sharing, Pricing/ Repayment; Water 
Demand; Water Law and Institutions; Nonstructural Alternatives; 
Ecologic Impact of Water Development. 

07 RESOURCES DATA 

Includes the following Groups: Network Design; Data Acquisition; 
Evaluation, Processing and Publication. 

08 ENGINEERING WORKS 

Includes the following Groups: Structures; Hydraulics; Hydraulic 
Machinery; Soil Mechanics; Rock Mechanics and Geology; Con- 
crete; Materials; Rapid Excavation; Fisheries Engineering. 

09 MANPOWER, GRANTS, AND FACILITIES 

Includes the following Groups: Education-Extramural; Education- 
In-House; Research Facilities; Grants, Contracts, and Research 
Act Allotments. 

10 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION 

Includes the following Groups: Acquisition and Processing; Refer- 
ence and Retrieval; Secondary Publication and Distribution; Spe- 
cialized Information Center Services; Translations; Preparation of 
Reviews. 

SUBJECT INDEX 

AUTHOR INDEX 

ORGANIZATIONAL INDEX 

ACCESSION NUMBER INDEX 

ABSTRACT SOURCES 



SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS 



01. NATURE OF WATER 
1A. Properties 



AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE STRUC- 
TURE, THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETIC 
BEHAVIOR OF WATER, 

Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, Mo. 
F. T. Greene, J. Beachey, and T. A. Milne. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service a PB-214 974, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Office of Saline Water 
Research and Development Progress Report No. 
789, July 1972. 46 p, 26 fig, 3 tab, 9 ref . 14-01-0001- 
1479. 

Descriptors: 'Thermodynamics, *Water structure, 

•Water properties, "Thermodynamic behavior, 

"Molecular structure, "Hydrogen bonding, 

Kinetics, Polymers. 

Identifiers: Mass spectrometers, Molecular beam 

technique, Equilibrium, Water dimers, Water 

trimers. 

A combination of mass spectrometry and molecu- 
lar beam techniques has been applied to the study 
of the equilibrium thermodynamics and the rates 
of formation of water clusters. Reliable equilibri- 
um thermochemical data have been obtained for 
water dimer while preliminary data have been 
gathered for water trimer and several larger 
polymers. These results support a hydrogen bond 
strength in water of 5 kcal per mole. Extensive 
measurements were also made of the concentra- 
tions of several water clusters following the free- 
jet expansion of water vapor from higher pres- 
sures. These data contain unique kinetic informa- 
tion. A kinetic model for the formation of dimers 
in free-jet expansions has been developed and 
temperature dependent rate constants for the for- 
mation of argon dimer deduced. (OSW) 
W73-08188 



IB. Aqueous Solutions and 
Suspensions 



THERMOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF 
DIMETHYLMERCURY IN AQUEOUS AND 
NONAQUEOUS SOLUTIONS, 

Missouri Univ., Rolla. Dept. of Chemistry. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05 A. 
W73-07806 



02. WATER CYCLE 
2A. General 



INTRODUCTION OF TIME VARIANCE TO 
LINEAR CONCEPTUAL CATCHMENT 
MODELS, 

Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford (England). 
A. N. Mandeville, and T. O'Donnell. 
Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 298- 
310, April 1973. 7 fig, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: "Rainfall-runoff relationships, 
"Mathematical models, "Unit hydrographs, 
"Variability, Time series analysis, Runoff 
forecasting, Mathematical studies. 

Time-variant versions of the usual linear concep- 
tual models relating rainfall and runoff based on 
the linear channel and the linear reservoir are 
defined. Expressions are obtained for their im- 
pulse responses. The convolution integral is used 
both to study different combinations of the two 
basic time-variant components and to obtain the 
response of any time-variant linear system to a 
given input. The theoretical background of more 
advanced models is discussed and it is suggested 



that time variance may be introduced into any 
linear model founded on these two conceptual 
components. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07885 



DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL KERNELS 
FOR SECOND-ORDER STATIONARY SUR- 
FACE RUNOFF SYSTEMS, 

Technion - Israel Inst, of Tech., Haifa. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

M. H. Diskin, and A. Boneh. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 311- 

325, April 1973. 6 fig, 3 tab, 24 ref. 

Descriptors: "Rainfall-runoff relationships, 
"Mathematical models, Systems analysis, Op- 
timization, Streamflow forecasting, Runoff 
forecasting. 

Discretization of input, output, and kernel func- 
tions of a second-order Volterra series representa- 
tion of the surface runoff system leads to a set of 
linear equations for the unknown ordinates of the 
two-kernel functions. The equations may be 
solved by an iterative descent optimization 
procedure. The objective function for the op- 
timization procedure is the sum of squared devia- 
tions between observed and predicted output or- 
dinates for all storms included in the record. The 
constraining equations are included by an iterative 
scheme based on the penalty function method. The 
algorithm converges to the optimal solution in a 
finite number of iterations, and its rate of conver- 
gence is independent of initial values adopted for 
the unknowns. A numerical example based on an 
eight-storm record is included. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07886 



STORM FLOW FROM HARDWOOD- 
FORESTED AND CLEARED WATERSHEDS IN 
NEW HAMPSHIRE, 

Forest Service (USDA), Durham, N.H. Northeast- 
em Forest Experiment Station. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04C. 
W73-07889 



MEASURE OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL 

DRAINAGE BASIN FORM, 

Cambridge Univ. (England). Dept. of Geography. 
M. G. Anderson. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 378- 
383, April 1973. 3 fig, 1 tab, 19 ref. 

Descriptors: "Terrain analysis, "Maps, "Mapping, 

"Topography, "Watersheds (Basins), 

Geomorphology, Topographic mapping, Valleys. 

Slopes, Small watersheds. River basins, Channel 

morphology. 

Identifiers: "Map analysis. 

The form of a small basin can be generated from a 
minimum of six coefficients derived from map 
analysis. The coefficients are: A, area; 1 , length of 
the basin; G, gradient of the mainstream; and 3, 
polynomial coefficients. The model reproduces 
correctly the important characteristics of surface 
roughness and spatial autocorrelation. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W73-07892 



MODELING INFILTRATION DURING A 
STEADY RAIN, 

Minnesota Univ., St. Paul. Dept. of Agricultural 

Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02G. 

W73-07893 



MULTISITE DAHY FLOW GENERATOR, 

Department of the Environment, Ottawa (On- 
tario). Water Management Service. 
R. L. Pentland, and D. R. Cuthbert. 



Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 470- 
473, April 1973. 2 fig, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: "Simulation analysis, "Statistical 
methods, "Streamflow forecasting, Canada, 
Regression analysis, Hydrograph analysis, Flood 
forecasting, Synthetic hydrology. 
Identifiers: "Fraser River (Canada). 

A daily flow generation model was developed to 
synthesize correlated flood hydrographs on the 
main stem and tributaries of a large river system. 
Statistical parameters on which the synthetic data 
are based are derived from historical data. The 
historical data are first subjected to a logarithmic 
transform, and regression equations are 
established between the monthly totals and the 
standard deviations of the flow logarithms for 
each calendar month of interest. These relation- 
ships are used later in the procedure for destan- 
dardizing the generated data so that flow variabili- 
ty will be related to the monthly mean to the extent 
that it is related in nature. Before serial correlation 
relationships are derived, the historical data are 
also standardized (by subtracting the long-term 
mean and dividing by the standard deviation) and 
normalized by using a Pearson type 3 transform. 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07899 



STUDIES ON THE FLUVIAL ENVIRONMENT, 
ARCTIC COASTAL PLAIN PROVINCE, 
NORTHERN ALASKA, VOLUMES I AND H, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 
W73-07906 



WATER RESOURCES OF LAND AREAS (FOR- 
MUtOVANIYE RESURSOV VOD SUSHI). 

Izdatel'stvo 'Nauka', Moscow, G. P. Kalinin, edi- 
tor, 1972. 136 p. 

Descriptors: "Hydrology, "Water resources, 
"Land, Water types. Water levels. Runoff, 
Streamflow, Surface-groundwater relationships, 
Water storage, Water balance. Evaporation, 
Precipitation (Atmospheric), Air temperature. 
Heat balance, Soil types. Infiltration, Water quali- 
ty, Model studies, Variability, Maps. 
Identifiers: "USSR, Continental hydrology. 

This collection, published by the USSR Academy 
of Sciences' Institute of Water Problems, contains 
9 papers devoted to investigations of the relation- 
ships between oceanic water and water of con- 
tinental land masses, surface waters and ground- 
water, and heat and water balances. The subjects 
of the individual papers are: (1) variability of an- 
nual atmospheric precipitation and air temperature 
in Europe and North America; (2) variations in 
secular sea levels; (3) use of space-time charac- 
teristics of runoff variability for extrapolation; (4) 
space-time distribution of surface-groundwater 
relationships; (5) infiltration of melt water into 
soil; (6) application of a statistical model of infil- 
tration to water-quality analysis; (7) relation 
between heat and water balances in European 
Russia in connection with redistribution of stream- 
flow; (8) water-balance investigations of irrigated 
soils between periods of irrigation; and (9) 
minimum discharge in rivers of Iraq. (Josefson- 
USGS) 
W73-07910 



WATER TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS IN THE 
NORTH ATLANTIC IN 1948-1968, 

Leningrad Higher School of Marine Engineering 

(USSR). 

A. A. Zverev. 

Oceanology, Vol 12, No 2, p 182-186, 1972. 3 fig, 2 

tab, 4 ref. Translated from Okeanologiya (USSR), 

Vol 12, No 2, 1972. 






Field 02-WATER CYCLE 
Group 2A — General 



Descriptors: 'Oceanography, 'Atlantic Ocean, 
•Water temperature, 'Variability, Fluctuations, 
Meteorology, Equations. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, Ocean weather stations. 

Ix>ng-period variations in water temperature 
anomalies in the North Atlantic were analyzed 
from weather ship data collected in 1948 <>K 
Between 1948 and 1953, average water tempera- 
ture for all ocean weather stations in the area in 
creased from minus 0.42 deg C to plus 0.36 deg C, 
or by 0.78 deg C. Between 1953 and 1963, the 
water temperature decreased by 48 deg C (from 
plus 0.36 deg C to minus 0.12 deg C), followed by a 
slight increase in 1964-66. Changes in water tem- 
perature reveal long-period variations on which 
sharp short-period fluctuations are superimposed. 
The change in sea temperatures in the North At- 
lantic exhibits an opposite (mirror image) pattern 
in western and northern regions. (Josefson-USGS) 
W73-07914 



INSTANTANEOUS UNIT HYDROGRAPHS, 
PEAK DISCHARGES AND TIME LAGS IN UR- 
BANIZING WATERSHEDS, 

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. School of Civil En- 
gineering. 

R. A. Rao, and J. W. Delleur. 
Research report, (1972). 7 fig, 3 tab, 28 equ, 20 ref. 
OWRR-B-002-IND (3). 

Descriptors: 'Urban hydrology, 'Watersheds 
(Basins), 'Unit hydrographs, 'Runoff, Analytical 
techniques, Estimating, Time lag, Peak discharge, 
Floods, Hydrologic data, Reservoirs, Equations, 
Mathematical models, Regression analysis. Rain- 
fall-runoff relationships. 

Identifiers: Physiographic characteristics, Storm 
characteristics, Fourier transform method, Single 
linear reservoir method. 

Aspects of investigating the effects of urbaniza- 
tion on runoff by using the Instantaneous Unit 
Hydrograph (IUH), and aspects of analysis of 
magnitudes and times to peak of annual maximum 
floods are discussed. The effects of urbanization 
of a watershed on the runoff has been investigated 
in the past by using linear conceptual models in 
which the time lag appears as an important 
parameter. However, in this approach the effects 
of noise in the data, of sampling rate, and of errors 
due to the lack of synchronization between the ef- 
fective rainfall and runoff on the instantaneous 
unit hydrograph do not become readily apparent. 
A case in which the cumulative effect of these fac- 
tors is predominant is presented as an example of 
the possible difficulties which might be encoun- 
tered in the analysis of urban hydrologic data by 
the unit hydrograph methods. The disadvantages 
of relating the peak discharge, the time to peak 
discharge and the time lag to only the physio- 
graphic characteristics are discussed. Alternative 
regression relationships which involve storm 
characteristics a long with the physiographic 
characteristics to estimate the peak discharge, 
time to peak discharge, and time lag are presented. 
(Bell-Cornell) 
W73-07917 



WATER-RESOURCES RECONNAISSANCE OF 
THE OZARK PLATEAUS PROVINCE, 
NORTHERN ARKANSAS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08069 



SEPARATION OF THE SURFACE AND SUB- 
SURFACE FLOW FROM SNOWMELT BY THE 
USE OF RADIOACTIVE TRACERS, 

Department of the Environment (Alberta). Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W73-08146 



INFLUENCE OF LATE SEASON PRECIPITA- 
TION ON RUNOFF OF I RE KINGS RIVER 
Sierra Hydrotechnology, PlacerviUc, Calif 
1 I' Mannaford. 

In Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
WeMein Snow Conference, Apnl 18-20, 1972 
Phoenix, An/: Printed by Colorado State Uruver 
Mty, Fort Collins, p 67-74, 1972 9 fig, 3 ref 

Descriptors 'MathemaUcal models, 'Water yield, 
•Hydrograph analysis, 'Snowmelt. 'Rainfall ni 
noff relationships, Base flow, Data collection*, 
Meteorological data, Climatic data, 'California, 
Storms, Precipitation (Atmospheric) 
Identifiers 'Kings River (Calif), 'Sierra Nevada 
(Calif). 

In the Kings River basin of the southern Sierra 
Nevadas, late-season, high-elevation storms arc 
important factors in the hydrology of the area Nu- 
merous occurrences producing from a few hun- 
dred to perhaps 10,000 acrefeet or more may be 
expected to occur almost every year In aggregate 
they may represent from five to twenty percent of 
the total runoff in the May-September period 
While the supplemental water produced by late- 
season precipitation cannot be accurately 
forecast, accurate knowledge of the quantity and 
timing of such supplemental flow would be valua 
ble to the water manager. Resent studies involving 
weather modification during the May-September 
period suggest that perhaps substantial augmenta- 
tion of runoff from late season storms may be a 
possibility. (See also W73-08138) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08151 



A PLAN FOR STUDY OF WATER RESOURCES 
IN THE PLATTE RIVER BASIN, NEBRASKA 
-WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE 
STREAM-AQUIFER RELATIONS, 

Geological Survey, Lincoln, Nebr. Water 
Resources Div. 

C. F. Keech, J. E. Moore, and P. A. Emery. 
Geological Survey open-file report, January 1973. 
36 p, 3 fig, 57 ref. 

Descriptors: •Surface-groundwater relationships, 
'Mathematical models, 'Nebraska, Hydrogeolo- 
gy, Water resources development. 
Identifiers: 'Platte River (Nebr). 

A study is being made of the Platte River basin in 
Nebraska. The study is a federal and state in- 
teragency effort to formulate a comprehensive 
plan for the conservation, development, and 
management of the water and related land 
resources of the Platte River basin. A quantitative 
description of the operation of the hydrologic 
system emphasizes the relation of groundwater to 
surface water. A digital model will simulate the 
physical character and operation of the stream- 
aquifer system. Some of the uses of the model are 
evaluation of effects of proposed conjunctive use 
projects, effects of changes in water use, and 
study of future water problems such as water- 
logged areas, groundwater mining, and streamflow 
depletion. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08357 

2B. Precipitation 

ATMOSPHERIC ENERGETICS AS RELATED 
TO CYCLOGENESIS OVER THE EASTERN 
UNITED STATES, 

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. 

P. W. West. 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

Contractor Report CR-2189, January 1973. 103 p, 

31 fig, 4 tab, 40 ref. NAS Grant 8-26751 . 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric physics, 'Energy 
budget, 'Equations, 'Cyclones, Forecasting, Data 
collections, Mathematical studies, Kinetics, Cy- 
cles, Precipitation (Atmospheric). 
Identifiers: 'Cyclogenesis, Atmospheric ener- 
getics, Eastern United States. 



A method it presented for invetUgaWm the *- 
phenfc energy budget at feinted i/j cycfaai 

I MTgy budget equaliont represent batM. 

icd processes which produce changes in al 
BMObm nam mi provide a means to study 
the interacUon of the cyclone with the larger tcakt 

■ ohon An extension of previoui rtudiet it 
presented CompuUUont are earned oui mm « 
[united almotphenc volume which encompfctket 
the cyclone, and boundary fluxet of energy thai 
were ignored in most previous tludtet arc cvalu 
atcd I wo examples of cyclogeneut over the cart 
em United Slates were chosen for tludy Results 
indicate that diabaUc proccttct can be a signifi- 
cant factor in the development of a cyclone, the 
downward transport of kinetic energy from liy 
stream level can be an important source of energy 
for a developing cyclone . and there it considerable 
interaction between a cyclone and lit environ- 
ment (Woodard USG Si 
W73-08083 



TRANSPOSITION OK STORMS FOR ESTIMAT- 
ING KIvOOD PROBABILITY DLSTRIBl I IONS, 
Colorado Stale Univ . Port Collint Dept 
Engineering 

hor primary bibliographic entry tee Pield 02E 
W73-08O85 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE WESTERN SNOW 
CONFERENCE, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 
W73-08I38 



AIR TEMPERATURE OBSERVATIONS AND 

FORECASTS-THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE 

PREDICTION OF SPRINT; SNOWMELT IN THE 

EAGEL RIVER BASIN, COLORADO, 

National Weather Service, Salt Lake Chy, Utah. 

River Forecast Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W73-08144 



THE LABOR DAY STORM OF 1>70 IN 
ARIZONA, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Watershed 
Management 

D. B. Thorud, and P. F. Ffolliott. 
In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, Arpfl 18-20, 1972. 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, p 37-42, 1972. 2 fig, 9 ref 

Descriptors: 'Floods, 'Storms, 'Arizona, Tropi- 
cal cyclones, Meteorology, Climatology, Dis- 
asters, Erosion, Storm structure, Weather pat- 
terns, Flood forecasting. 

The 1970 Labor Day storm caused more loss of life 
than any other storm in Arizona's recent history. 
The storm began on September 2nd, when moist 
air, associated with tropical storm Norma, flowed 
into Arizona from the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf 
of California. During the next two days the air 
mass reached sufficient depth to allow the forma- 
tion of thunderstorms. A convergent flow of air in 
the lower atmosphere over southern Arizona on 
the 4th caused heavy rainfall. This rainfall ended 
late on the 4th. On the morning of the 5th, a cold 
front extended from southwestern Utah into 
southern Nevada, and an associated deep upper 
trough was located over Nevada and southern 
California. In advance of the cold front, a surface 
trough extended from Las Vegas, Nevada, to Palm 
Springs, California. Strong, southerly winds 
developed early on the 5th. Orographic rainfall in- 
creased sharply over the mountains of central 
Arizona as the troughs approached. A combination 
of the advancing trough and normal daytime heat- 
ing generated lines of thunderstorms by midafter- 
noon. The heavy rainfall brought flooding 
throughout central and northeastern Arizona, 
southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado. 
(See also W73-08138) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08145 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Snow, Ice, and Frost — Group 2C 



WATERSHED HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL 
DATA REQUIRED FOR WEATHER MODD7ICA- 
TION, 

North American Weather Consultants, Santa Bar- 
bara, Calif. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03B. 
W73-O8150 



THE BOREAL BIOCLIMATES, 

Toronto Univ., (Ontario). Dept. of Geography. 
F. K. Hare, and J. C. Ritchie. 
Geogr Rev. Vol 62, No 3, p 335-365. 1972. Dlus. 
Identifiers: Albedo, *Bio climates, 'Boreal, Cli- 
mates, Energy, Forests, Tundra, Woodland, 
'Remote sensing. 

The long-established zonal divisions of the boreal 
forest (forest-tundra, open woodland and closed 
forest)are examined in the light of new informa- 
tion about energy income and of satellite photo- 
graphs of the divisions themselves. The North 
American divisions are found to lie fairly con- 
sistently between certain values of mean annual 
net radiation, but these values are much in- 
fluenced by the vegetation structure because of 
the importance of snow cover in determining 
spring albedo. The phytomass and net production 
data from the Bazilevish-Rodin synthesis are ex- 
amined in the light of energy income. Efficiency of 
energy conversion (all-wave) varies from below 
0.5% in the tundra to 1.2% or above in the closed 
forest.-Copy right 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08437 

2C. Snow, Ice, and Frost 



HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER OF FREEZING 
WATER-SOIL SYSTEM, 

British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Dept. of 

Chemical Engineering. 

G. F. Kennedy, and J. Lielmezs. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 395- 

400, April 1973. 7 fig, 9 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Freezing, 'Frozen soils, 'Frost, 
•Mass transfer, 'Heat transfer, Water chemistry, 
Soil water, Soil water movement, Flow, Convec- 
tion, Diffusion, Thermodynamics. 

Equations are given to describe fluxes of heat and 
mass, and transfer potential distributions for tem- 
perature and moisture content for a freezing soil 
system. Within a given set of physical and mathe- 
matical restrictions the derived equations will ac- 
count for transient conditions, multiphase 
systems, phase changes, and multiextensive pro- 
perty transfers. The development of these transfer 
equations involves defining the system and stating 
the physical conditions, developing conservation 
equations, developing flux equations subject to 
the proper use of the principles of thermodynam- 
ics of irreversible processes (linearized Onsager 
flux equations), and combining conservation and 
flux equations to yield the transfer equation. (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W73-07894 



SPRING DISCHARGE OF AN ARCTIC RIVER 
DETERMINED FROM SALINITY MEASURE- 
MENTS BENEATH SEA ICE, 

Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. Coastal Stu- 
dies Inst. 
H.J.Walker. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 474- 
480, April 1973. 4 fig, 3 tab, 15 ref. ONR Contract 
N00014-69-A-021 1-0003. 

Descriptors: 'Discharge measurement, 'Stream- 
flow, 'Alaska, 'Ice breakup, 'Sea ice, Mixing, 
Salinity, Stream gages, Discharge (Water), Per- 
mafrost, Arctic. 
Identifiers: 'Colville River (Alaska). 



Salinity measurements under sea ice seaward of 
the Colville delta in Alaska made possible the cal- 
culation of the river's discharge during breakup in 
1971. Between May 27 and June 15 the discharge 
was 5.70 billion cu m, which is about 58% of the 
total for 1971 . The entire drainage basin of the Col- 
ville River is confined to the zone of continuous 
permafrost. In winter both surface water and 
groundwater freeze, and the river ceases to flow. 
This cessation of flow allows seawater to occupy 
completely the delta front and to replace river 
water in the lower reaches of the river. After flush- 
ing the saltwater from the river channels, the 
floodwater intrudes between sea ice and seawater 
as it flows into the ocean. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07900 



GLAZE AND RIME (GOLOLED I EMOROZ'), 

Ye. P. Dranevich. 

Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1971 . 228 p. 

Descriptors: 'Sleet, 'Rime, 'Meteorology, 'At- 
mospheric physics, 'Ice, Freezing, Dew, Humidi- 
ty, Water vapor, Wind velocity, Snow, Rain, Fog, 
Physical properties, Topography, Maps, Synoptic 
analysis, Weather data, Isotherms, Forecasting. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Glaze (Ice), Hoarfrost. 

Meteorological and synoptic conditions of forma- 
tion and space-time distribution of glaze (sleet) 
and rime were investigated in the Leningrad, Nov- 
gorod, and Pskov Oblasts in Northwest USSR. 
The effects of topography on frequency, duration, 
and extent of glaze and rime phenomena are ex- 
amined, and a detailed analysis is made of cases of 
especially dangerous ice deposits. Techniques for 
forecasting ice accretion on ground surfaces and 
formation of glaze zones associated with moving 
warm fronts are accompanied by a map showing 
the area] distribution of glaze and freezing rain. 
(Josefson-USGS) 
W73-07902 



STUDIES ON THE FLUVIAL ENVIRONMENT, 
ARCTIC COASTAL PLAIN PROVINCE, 
NORTHERN ALASKA, VOLUMES I AND H, 

R. I. Lewellen. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va 22151 Vol I- 
AD-74 9150 Price $6.00 printed copy; Vol D-AD-74 
9151 Price $3.00 printed copy, $1.45 microfiche 
each. Robert I. Lewellen, Littleton, Colorado, 
1972. 282 p, 208 fig, 90 tab, 245 ref, 6 append. 

Descriptors: 'Geomorphology, 'Coastal plains, 
'Alaska, 'Artie, Fluvial sediments, Geologic for- 
mations, Surveys, Hydrologic data, Data collec- 
tions, Ice, Streamflow, Stream gages, Sediment 
transport, Geology, Climatic data, Seasonal, 
Thawing, Soils, Frozen ground, Melting, Runoff, 
Tidal effects. Shores, Erosion, Meteorological 
data. Water chemistry, Vegetation, Hydrographs, 
Maps, Photography, Data processing. 
Identifiers: 'Artie Coastal Plain Province 
(Northern Alaska). 

Studies on the fluvial environment of the Arctic 
Coastal Plain Province, Northern Alaska, include 
research which ranges in magnitude from small 
polygon troughs to the Inaru River Basin. The 208 
figures include stereograms, ground and aerial 
photographs, graphs, curves, and maps. Ninety ta- 
bles appear in the publication. Complete hydro- 
graphs for two tundra streams are included. 
Discussions include soil subsidence, soil con- 
solidation, details of specific study sites and the 
findings, and a section on the Late Pleistocene and 
Recent. Instrumentation, methods, and the uses of 
aerial photography are included. Over 240 biblio- 
graphic entries provide references and a founda- 
tion for future research. Chronologies of physical 
events which occurred in the drainage basins are 
listed. Basic statistics and reproductions of com- 
puter printouts of the microclimatic data are 
presented in the Appendices. The information 
(contained in 2 volumes) provides a guide to 



management and developers and can be utilized as 
engineering criteria. (Woodard-USGS) 
W73-07906 



THE WEAR OF SANDSTONE BY COLD, SLID- 
ING ICE, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Univ. (England). Dept, of 

Geography. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W73-08074 



TORS, ROCK WEATHERING AND CLIMATE 
IN SOUTHERN VICTORIA LAND, ANTARC- 
TICA, 

Keele Univ. (England). Dept of Geography. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W73-08075 



VALLEY ASYMMETRY AND SLOPE FORMS 
OF A PERMAFROST AREA IN THE 
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES, CANADA, 

Cambridge Univ. (England). Dept. of Geography. 

B. A. Kennedy, and M. A. Melton. 

In: Polar Geomorphology; Institute of British 

Geographers Special Publication No 4, p 107-121, 

June 1972. 6 fig, 4 tab, 24 ref. US Army Grant DA- 

ARO-D-31-124-G939. 

Descriptors: 'Geomorphology, 'Arctic, 'Erosion, 
'Mass wasting, 'Valleys, 'Permafrost, Profiles, 
Slopes, Topography, Degradation (Slope), Snow 
cover, Creep, Solifluction, Freezing, Thawing. 

Valley asymmetry and slope forms in a small area 
of sedimentary rocks adjacent to the Mackenzie 
River delta are related to the major variations in 
climate, available relief, and geomorphic 
processes. The area is greatly varied 
geomorphologically and it does not fit the classic 
penglacial pattern. Asymmetry in maximum slope 
angles reverses between (a) areas of more severe 
climate and low available relief-where north-fac- 
ing slopes are significantly steeper than those fac- 
ing south, and (b) the zone of milder climate and 
deeper valleys, where south-facing slopes are the 
steeper. Slopes that are directly under the control 
of fluvial erosion show less response to dif- 
ferences in the degree of basal corrasion than to 
variations in aspect. This is unlike nonpennafrost 
areas. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08076 



THE NATURE OF THE ICE-FOOT ON THE 
BEACHES OF RADSTOCK BAY, SOUTH-WEST 
DEVON ISLAND, N.W.T., CANADA IN THE 
SPRING AND SUMMER OF 1970, 

Mc Master Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept. of 

Geography. 

S. B. McCann, and R. J. Carlisle. 

In: Polar Geomorphology; Institute of British 

Geographers Special Publication No 4, p 175-186, 

June 1972. 6 fig, 14 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sea ice, 'Beaches, 'Arctic, Melting, 
Ice breakup, Canada, Geomorphology, Beach ero- 
sion, Ice, Waves (Water), Surf, Ablation. 
Identifiers: 'Ice foot (Beaches), 'Devon Island 
(Canada). 

The ice foot is that part of the sea ice which is 
frozen to the shore and is therefore unaffected by 
tidal movements. The ice foot present along the 
coast of southwest Devon Island, Canada, in the 
early summer of 1970 is described and series of 
profiles across the feature, surveyed at intervals 
during the period of breakup, are presented. The 
form of the ice foot along Radstock Bay in the 
spring and summer of 1970 was the most 
pronounced observed in three seasons of field 
work on the coast of southwest Devon Island. The 
size and extent of the ice foot in any year clearly 
depend on the sea conditions existing at the time 
of freezing in the previous autumn. The 1970 ice 



P 

r 



F.eld 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 2C — Snow, Ice, and Frost 



foot originated in conditions of medium-si/ed 
waves for the area. As there were only a few floes 
included in the ice foot and little evidence of buck- 
ling, the bay was relatively ice-free at the time of 
ice-foot formation, probably in mid- or Late Oc- 
tober 1969. The control of beach slope on ice-foot 
width and thickness, as seen in the Kadstock Hay 
measurements, is such that as slope increases so 
the width and thickness of the ice foot decrease. 
Erosion of channels by water draining seaward 
from the melting snow in the backshore /one, 
early in the season, is important in breaching the 
ice foot. The sea ice had moved out of the outer 
part of Kadstock Bay, adjacent to the study beach, 
by August 9, and the ice foot had been ablated and 
eroded away by August IS. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-O80K0 



PROCESS AND SEDIMENT SIZE ARRANGE- 
MENT ON HIGH ARCTIC TALUS, 
SOUTHWEST DEVON ISLAND, N.W.T., 
CANADA. 

Alberta Univ., Edmonton. Dept. of Geography. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W73-08090 



NATURE AND RATE OF BASAL TILL DEPOSI- 
TION IN A STAGNATING ICE MASS, BUR- 
ROUGHS GLACIER, ALASKA, 

Ohio State Univ. Research Foundation, Colum- 
bus. Inst, of Polar Studies. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W73-O8091 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE WESTERN SNOW 
CONFERENCE, 

Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972, 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, 1972. 88 p. 

Descriptors: 'Snow, 'Water resources, 'Con- 
ferences, *Water resources development, 
Weather modification, Urbanization, Conserva- 
tion, Water supply. 

Recent feeling about the environment as it con- 
cerns the snow resource is changing with the spirit 
of the times. This is the keynote of the Seminar on 
'Environment and the Snow Resource,' given in 
the 40th annual Western Snow Conference. The 
basic water and snow resource is not changing, but 
man's influence on this resource is producing 
change. In the case of urbanization, the effects of 
man on natural patterns of water supply may be 
largely inadvertent and often harmful, but man's 
intentional activities may often improve the en- 
vironment to yield either more direct benefit to 
water users or greater aesthetic and recreational 
advantages. (See W73-08139 thru W73-08154) (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W73-08138 



COPING WITH POPULATION GROWTH AND 
A LIMITED RESOURCE, 

Arizona Water Commission, Phoenix. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06 A. 

W73-O8140 



RENOVATING SEWAGE EFFLUENT BY 
GROUNDWATER RECHARGE, 

Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Water Conservation Lab. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 0SD. 

W73-08141 



THE APPLICATION OF SNOWMELT 
FORECASTING TO COMBAT COLUMBIA 



RIVKR NITROGEN SIJPKRSATURA I ION 

PROBLEMS, 

Corps of F.ngineers, Portland, Oreg North Pacific 

l)iv 

D. D. Speers. 

In Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972, 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, p 17-22, 1972. 6 fig, 5 ref 

Descriptors: 'Reservoir operation, 'Columbia 
River, 'Nitrogen, 'Snowmell, 'Streamflow 
forecasting, Simulation analysis, Fish manage- 
ment, Fisheries, Reservoir releases, Water quali 
ty , Water quality control. 
Identifiers: Columbia River basin. 

Nitrogen supcrsaturation on the Columbia River 
causes fisheries losses. The cause of nitrogen su- 
pcrsaturation and its effect on fish arc reviewed. 
An effective means of reducing the problem is 
regulation of upstream reservoirs, and snowmelt 
forecasting plays an important role in this regula- 
tion. Two types of forecasts are utilized; volumet- 
ric forecasts determined by multiple regression 
procedures, and daily simulation of runoff using 
the SSARR computer model. These procedures 
are briefly described and examples of their appli- 
cation in combating the nitrogen supcrsaturation 
problem are given. (See also W73-08I38) (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W73-08142 



FORECAST STUDY FOR PRAIRIE PROVINCES 
WATER BOARD, 

Water Survey of Canada, Calgary (Alberta). Al- 
berta and Northwest Territories District Office. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 
W73-08143 



AJR TEMPERATURE OBSERVATIONS AND 
FORECASTS-THFJR RELATIONSHD? TO THE 
PREDICTION OF SPRING SNOWMELT IN THE 
EAGEL RIVER BASIN, COLORADO, 

National Weather Service, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
River Forecast Center. 
A. L. Zimmerman. 

In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972, 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, p 30-36, 1972. 4 fig, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Snowmelt, 'Streamflow forecast- 
ing, 'Weather data, Snowpacks, Temperature, 
Data collections, Meteorology, 'Colorado. 
Identifiers: 'Eagle River basin (Colorado). 

A simple temperature index to snowmelt based on 
daily maximum temperature performs quite well in 
the Eagle River basin in Colorado in the spring 
snowmelt season during clear-weather melt condi- 
tions. During weather situations involving a sig- 
nificant change of air mass, air temperature is like- 
ly to be a poorer index to snowmelt than during 
relatively stable, dry periods. Therefore, addi- 
tional air temperature data for a given river basin 
might not significantly improve snowmelt predic- 
tion during such periods. The predictability of air 
temperatures in a time frame of several days im- 
proves as the general circulation prognoses im- 
prove. (See also W73-08138) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08144 



THE LABOR DAY STORM OF 1970 IN 
ARIZONA, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Watershed 

Management. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02B. 

W73-08145 



SKPARA'MON <» fMK SI K»A' ► AM) SI B 

si uy\< v. Kum moM snow mi- i t by thic 
i BE Of KAMOACnVl in a* VMS, 

iJcpartment of the p.n vironrnent (Alberta; Water 

nccs Oiv 
Q V liolecek, and A A N outturn 
In Proceeding* of the 40lh Annual Meeting of (be 
Western Snow ( ooieience, April Ifs20 IV72. 
Phoenix An/ Printed by Colorado State Univej 
sity. Port Collins, p 43-48. 1972 3 fig. 2 lab, 5 ref 

iJescripUiis 'Snowmelt, 'Surface runoff, 'Sub- 
surface ninoff. 'tracers. Tracking technique*. 
Water yield, Radioisotopes, Radioactivity 
techniques, Piezometers, Surf ace -ground water 
relationships, Soil water movement, Recharge. 
Water balance, Hydrograpfa analysis, Recession 



Hie separation of surface and subsurface flow 
resulting from snowmell from a 15 acre plot in 
North-Central Alberta was accomplished by 
means of a radioisotope tracer The snow cover 
was sprayed with 50 to 1 50 milli runes of Iodine - 
125. Surface flow retained its radioactive charac- 
teristics while the subsurface flows lost it* con 
lamination because of filtering action by the soil 
mantle This method can be used to study the im- 
pact of Land utilization on the hydrolopc cycle. 
(See also W73-081 38) (Kanpp-USGS) 
W73-08146 



SNOW, RELATED ACTIVITIES AND CON- 
CERNS ON THE GRAND MESA, WESTERN 
COLORADO, 

Forest Service (USDA), Delta, Colo. Grand Me»a- 
Uncompahgre National Forests. 
J.J. Chnstncr 

In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972, 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, p 49-52, 1972. 4 ref 

Descriptors: 'Snowpacks, 'Snow cover, 'Winter 

sports, Skiing, Recreation, Environmental effects, 

Snowmelt, Water yield, Water conservation, 

•Colorado. 

Identifiers: 'Grand Mesa (Colo), 'Snowmobiling. 

Melt water from accumulated snow on the Grand 
Mesa plays a very important role in the agriculture 
of western Colorado. The recent large increase in 
people engaging in wintertime on-the-snow activi- 
ties has resulted in the altering of snow redistribu- 
tion patterns and the changing of snow density. 
The effects of these changes on forest and range 
ecosystems are Largely unknow. Further studies 
are required to evaluate the changes that are oc- 
curring. (See also W73-081 38) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08147 



A WILDERNESS SNOW COURSE, 
Forest Service (USDA), Kalispell, Mont. Flathead 
National Forest 
R.Delk. 

In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972, 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, p 53-57, 1971 1 fig, 1 tab, 5 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Snow surveys, 'Montana, 'Runoff 
forecasting, Snowpacks, Forests, Forest 
watersheds, Land use. 

Identifiers: 'Wilderness areas, 'Bob Marshall Wil- 
derness Area (Mont). 

The Holbrook Snow Course, located in the Bob 
Marshall Wilderness area, Flathead National 
Forest, Montana, has become the focal point of 
controversy concerning the use of motorized vehi- 
cles in wilderness areas. Travel to Holbrook was 
by fixed-wing aircraft and helicopter from 1951 
through 1969, and beginning on March 1 , 1970, by 
Forest Service personnel traveling to the area on 
skis. The Wilderness Act of 1964 (PL-88-577), 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Snow, Ice, and Frost — Group 2C 



which requires use of 'primitive' means of travel, 
and its relation to wilderness snow courses are 
discussed. Problems and hazards encountered dur- 
ing the ski trips are discussed. The importance of 
the snow course and the value of the wilderness 
resource are evaluated. A plan to move the course 
to another site in an attempt to consolidate ad- 
ministrative uses in the Wilderness area is also 
presented. This plan has resulted in a problem of 
data correlation which has not yet been solved. 
(See also W73-08138) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08148 



WILDERNESS IN THE NATIONAL PARKS, 

National Park Service, Denver, Colo. Denver Ser- 
vice Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04C. 
W73-08149 



WATERSHED HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL 
DATA REQUIRED FOR WEATHER MODD7ICA- 
TION, 

North American Weather Consultants, Santa Bar- 
bara, Calif. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03B. 
W73-O8150 



INFLUENCE OF LATE SEASON PREdPITA- 
TION ON RUNOFF OF THE KINGS RIVER, 

Sierra Hydrotechnology, Placerville, Calif. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 
W73-08151 



AVANLANCHE AWARENESS AND SAFETY 
FOR SNOW SCD2NTISTS IN THE FIELD, 

Geological Survey, Sacramento, Calif. 
W. R. Hotchkiss. 

In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972, 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, p 75-80, 1972. 1 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Avalanches, *Snow surveys, 
•Safety, Hazards, Snow management, 
Geomorphology. 

During the winter of 1970-71, avalanches in the 
United States caught 58 people, buried 46, and 
lolled 12. Snow scientists should periodically up- 
date their knowledge of how to classify avalanche 
events and to evaluate avalanche hazards. A prac- 
tical, three-part classification of avalanches is 
proposed. Part I includes static observations made 
following the event; Part II includes dynamic ob- 
servations made at the time of the event; and Part 
HI includes genetic deductions based on a descrip- 
tion of the meteorological background. Evaluation 
of hazard is possible through careful observation 
of the definitive factors which cause avalanches: 
accumulation of newly fallen and wind-trans- 
ported snow, free water percolating through the 
snowpack, and progressive weakening of internal 
layers of the snowpack. Knowledge of avalanche 
classification and hazard evaluation together with 
the use of sound judgment should promote 
avalanche awareness and safety. (See also W73- 
08138) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08152 



SECTION 22, 'SNOW SURVEY AND WATER 
SUPPLY FORECASTING,' OF THE SCS NA- 
TIONAL ENGINEERING HANDBOOK, 

Soil Conservation Service, Portland, Oreg. Water 
Supply Forecast Unit. 
M. Barton, and G. L. Pearson. 
In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972, 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, p 81-82, 1972. 

Descriptors: *Snow surveys, *Water yield, •Ru- 
noff forecasting, Water supply, Precipitation 



gages, Telemetry, Data collections, Data 
processing. 

The Soil Conservation Service is issuing Section 
22 entitled 'Snow Survey and Water Supply 
Forecasting' of the SCS National Engineering 
Handbook. Section 22 provides detailed informa- 
tion on many aspects of snow surveys and water 
supply forecasting. It will be useful not only for 
specialists in this field but also for scholars and 
students because it is a compilation of information 
not previously available in a single publication. It 
is available from U. S. Government Printing Of- 
fice. Section 22 is divided into nine chapters. 
Major topics are: Data Collection for Water 
Supply Forecasting, Telemetry in Data Collection, 
Travel to Collect Data, Data Processing, Water 
Supply Forecasting, and Maintenance of Installa- 
tions and Equipment. Section 22 is the first com- 
prehensive text on snow surveys and water supply 
forecasting since Dr. J. E. Church introduced 
modern snow survey techniques at Mt. Rose, 
Nev., in 1904 to 1910. (See also W73-08138) (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W73-08153 



SOUTH DAKOTA WEATHER MODIFICATION 
PROGRAM, 

South Dakota Weather Control Commission, 

Pierre. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03B. 

W73-08154 



AVALANCHES ON SAKHALIN AND THE 
KURIL ISLANDS (LAVINY SAKHALINA I KU- 
RIL'SKIKH OSTROVOV). 

Sakhalinskoye Upravleniye 

Gidrometeorologicheskoy Sluzhby ; Gidrometeoiz- 
dat, K. F. Voytkovskiy, and V. Ye. Barabash, edi- 
tors, Leningrad, 1971. 180 p. 

Descriptors: 'Avalanches, *Snow, 'Snow cover, 
•Snowfall, 'Islands, Snow surveys, Meteorology, 
Climatology, Topography, Orography, Mountains, 
Winds, Storms, Disasters, Safety, Engineering 
structures, Control structures, Transporation, 
Communication, Seasonal. 
Identifiers: *USSR, 'Sakhalin Island, •Kuril 
Islands, Avalanche hazard. Avalanche control, 
Snow density, Snow loads. 

Evolution and occurrence of avalanches on Sak- 
halin and the Kuril Islands were investigated for 
avalanche-hazard evaluation and avalanche 
prevention and control in this collection of 14 
papers prepared on the basis of research con- 
ducted by a number of organizations in the USSR. 
These include the Sakhalin Administration of the 
Hy drome teorologicaJ Service, the Department of 
Geography of Moscow State University, the In- 
stitute 'Sakhalingrazhdanproyekt,' the 
Novosibirsk Institute of Railroad Transportation 
Engineers, and the Novosibirsk Scientific 
Research Institute of Power Engineering. Among 
the topics discussed are: (1) avalanche activity on 
Sakhalin Island; (2) avalanche hazard on the Kuril 
Islands; (3) construction and testing of avalanche- 
control installations; (4) mass avalanching on 
Southern Sakhalin in the winter of 1969-70; (5) 
snow avalanches on sections of railway lines in 
Southern Sakhalin; (6) determination of snow 
loads on avalanche-control structures; and (7) dis- 
tribution of snow in mountainous areas of Sak- 
halin. (See W73-08166 thru W73-08171) (Josefson- 
USGS) 
W73-08165 



A GENERAL REVD2W OF AVALANCHE AC- 
TIVITY ON SAKHALIN ISLAND (OBSHCHIY 
OBZOR LAVINNOGO REZHIMA O. SAK- 
HALIN), 

A. V. Ivanov. 



In: Laviny Sakhalina i Kuril'skikh ostrovov. Sak- 
halinskoye Upravleniye Gidrometeorologicheskoy 
Sluzhby; Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, p 4-25, 
1971. 4 fig, 2 tab, 14 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Avalanches, 'Snow, 'Snow cover, 
Snowfall, Storms, Winds, Precipitation (At- 
mospheric), Air temperature, Rime, Meteorology, 
Climatology, Topography, Orography, Vegeta- 
tion, Forests, Earthquakes, Disasters, Mapping. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Sakhalin Island, Avalanche 
hazard, Avalanche classification, Avalanche 
cones, Snow stability. 

Investigations of snow avalanches on Sakhalin 
Island were based on data collected in 1 965-70 by 
the Sakhalin Administration of the 
Hy drome teorologicaJ Service. The major factors 
responsible for avalanche formation on the island 
are topography, climate, and mountain vegetation. 
About 50% of all avalanches observed had a 
volume of less than 2,000 cu m, while 15% or 
fewer had a volume of more than 10,000 cu m. 
Despite their relatively small size, the avalanches 
pose a serious threat to railroad and highway con- 
struction and have caused much damage to 
forested areas. A regionalization of the island by 
degree of avalanche hazard is based on frequency 
of avalanche occurrence, snow conditions, forest 
cover, and character of the relief and vegetation. 
(See also W73-08165) (Josefson-USGS) 
W73-08166 



A DESCRIPTION OF AVALANCHE HAZARD 
ON THE KURIL ISLANDS (KHARAK- 
TERISTIKA LAVINNOY OPASNOSTI KURIL'- 
SKIKH OSTROVOV), 

Moscow State Univ. (USSR). Problemnaya 
Laboratoriya Nezhnykh Lavin i Selei. 
N. A. V o Iodic he va. 

In: Laviny Sakhalina i Kuril'skikh ostrovov. Sak- 
halinskoye Upravleniye Gidrometeorologicheskoy 
Sluzhby; Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, p 26-39, 
1971. 4 fig, 15 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Islands, 'Avalanches, 'Snow, 
•Snow cover, Snowfall, Storms, Winds, Precipita- 
tion (Atmospheric), Meteorology, Climatology, 
Topography, Orography, Vegetation, Volcanoes, 
Craters, Aerial photography. Maps. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Kuril Islands, 'Avalanche 
hazard, Snowslides, Geobotany. 

Preparation of a map of snow avalanche-hazard 
regions in the Kuril Islands was based on geo- 
graphical analysis of topography, climate, and 
vegetation; field surveys of mountainous areas; 
aerial photographic interpretation; and aircraft ob- 
servations. The islands are grouped according to 
avalanche danger into four classes as (1) very high 
(northern islands of Paramushir, Atlasova, 
Onekotan, Shiashkotan, and other smaller islands 
southward to Ketoy); (2) slight (Simushir, Urup 
and the group of small islands between them); (3) 
potential (Kunashir and It urup); and (4) none 
(islands of the Lesser Kuril chain). (See also W73- 
08165) (Josefson-USGS) 
W73-08167 



MASS AVALANCHING ON SOUTHERN SAK- 
HALIN IN THE WINTER OF 1969-70 (MASSOV- 
VY SKHOD LAVIN NA YUZHNOM SAK- 
H ALINE ZIMOY 1969-70 G.), 
A. V. Ivanov. 

In: Laviny Sakhalina i Kuril'skikh ostrovov. Sak- 
halinskoye Upravleniye Gidrometeorologicheskoy 
Sluzhby; Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, p 74-87, 
1971. 5 fig, 3 tab, 5 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Avalanches, 'Snow, 'Snowfall, 
'Diseasters, 'Meteorology, Precipitation intensi- 
ty, Snow cornice, Cyclones, Air temperature, 
Winds, Storms, Topography, Slopes, Mountains, 
Seasonal, Winter. 

Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Sakhalin Island, Snow densi- 
ty, Geobotany. 






Field 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 2C — Snow, Ico, and Fro»t 



Excessive precipitation, strong winds, and \»» 
longed and intense snowfalls were the principal 
factors responsible for mass movement >>f 
avalanches in mountains of Southern Sakhalin in 
the winter of 1969-70. Precipitation intensity dur 
ing a 24-hour avalanche period for different parts 
of Southern Sakhalin varied between 0.6 and 2.8 
mm/fir. The rate of increase of snow depth during 
snowfall averaged 0.5-1.0 cm/hr, reaching BU 
imuiii values of 4-6 cm/hr in individual 3-hour 
periods. Dry-powder snow avalanches caused con- 
siderable damage to the national economy. Road 
and rail traffic was disrupted between Yuzhno- 
Sakhalinsk and Kholmsk and between Shebunino 
and Il'inskiy for long periods of time; forested 
areas were devastated; and numerous buildings 
and structures were demolished. Hxcept for iso- 
lated cases of avalanching on stretches of 
highways and railway lines, wet-snow avalanches 
created no serious problems. On the basis of 1965- 
70 observation data, reports of local inhabitants, 
and geobotanical investigations, the greatest 
volumes and distances of flowage of avalanches in 
the area in the last 30-50 years occurred in the 
winter of 1969-70. (See also W73-08165) (Josefson- 
USGS) 
W73-08168 



SNOW AVALANCHES ON SECTIONS OF RAIL- 
WAY LINES IN SOUTHERN SAKHALIN (O 
SNEZHNYKH LAVINAKH NA UCHASTKAKH 
ZHELEZNYKH DOROG YUZHNOGO SAK- 
HALINA), 

Institut Inzhenerov Zheleznodorozhnogo Trans- 
porta, Novosibirsk (USSR). 
E. P. Isayenko, and Yu. A. Marin. 
In: Laviny Sakhalina i Kuril'skikh ostrovov. Sak- 
halinskoye Upravleniye Gidrometeorologicheskoy 
Sluzhby; Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, p 102-108, 
1971. 2 fig, 4 tab, 4 ref. 

Descriptors: *Avalanches, 'Snow, 'Snow cover, 
•Snowfall, 'Railroads, Slopes, Mountains, 
Storms, Winds, Forecasting. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Sakhalin Island, Avalanche 
hazard, Avalanche control, Snowslides. 

Snow avalanches on railway lines in mountainous 
areas of Southern Sakhalin were investigated for 
avalanche prevention and control. Data are 
presented on exposure of avalanche-hazard slopes 
on the rail line between Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk and 
Kholmsk, and conditions conducive to snow- 
avalanche formation are examined for avalanche- 
hazard forecast. (See also W73-08165) (Josefson- 
USGS) 
W73-08169 



FORMATION AND PHYSICO-MECHAN1CAL 
PROPERTIES OF SNOW COVER ON 
AVALANCHE-HAZARD SLOPES ALONG THE 
RAILWAY LINE BETWEEN YUZHNO-SA- 
KHALINSK AND KHOLMSK (OSOBENNOSTI 
FORMTROVANIYA I FIZTKO-ME- 

KHANICHESKIYE SVOYSTVA SNEZHNOGO 
POKROVA NA LAVTNOOPASNKH SKLONAKH 
VDOL' ZHELEZNOY DOROGI YUZHNO-SA- 
KHALINSK -KHOLMSK), 
Institut Inzhenerov Zheleznodorozhnogo Trans- 
porta, Novosibirsk (USSR). 
E. P. Isayenko, Yu. A. Marin, and V. I. 
Yadroshnikov. 

In: Laviny Sakhalina i Kuril'skikh ostrovov. Sak- 
halinskoye Upravleniye Gidrometeorologicheskoy 
Sluzhby; Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, p 109-123, 
1971. 7 fig, 7 tab, 3 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Avalanches, 'Snow cover, 'Slopes, 
•Railroads, 'Properties, Mechanical properties, 
Physical properties, Temperature, Thermocline, 
Meteorology, Cyclones, Winds, Storms, Moun- 
tains, Snow surveys, Seasonal. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Sakhalin Island, 'Avalanche 
hazard, Avalanche control, Snow stability, Snow 
density, Snow classification. 



Snow deposition. stratigraphy, temperature 
i. giint .mil pi, rnoaj properties were 

investigated on avalanche hazard slopes along a 
25-km line of railroad tra< k between Yushno Sak 
halinsk and Kholmsk in the southern half of Sak 
halin Island InvestigaUons were earned out in 
I9f7 70 by the Novosibirsk Institute of Railroad 
Transportation Engineers for protection of rail 
roads from snow avalanches The data obtained 
provide information on the formation and develop 
ment of snowpacks in the vicinity of the nulway 
line and can be used for planning avalanche con- 
trol (See also W73-0HI65)(Josefson-USGSi 
W73-O8170 



DISTRIBUTION OK SNOW IN MOUN'IAINOt I 
AREAS Of SAKHALIN (RASPRKDELKNIYk 
SNKZHNOGO POKROVA V M)RNYKH 
KAYONAKH SAKHALINA), 

I I- Monastyrskiy. 

In: Laviny Sakhalina i Kuril'skikh ostrovov Sak 
halinskoye Upravleniye Gidrometeorologicheskoy 
Slu/Jiby, Gidrometeoizdat, leningrad, p 140-144, 
1971. 2 fig, I tab, 3 ref 

Descriptors: 'Snow, 'Snow cover, 'Mountains, 
Distribution, Depth, Snowfall, Snowmell, Water 
equivalent, Altitude, Snow surveys. Seasonal. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Sakhalin Island, Snow densi- 
ty 

Annual duration of snow cover on plains in the 
central part of Sakhalin Island is 5-6 months and in 
the southern part of the island about 5 months. 
Because of slower melting in spring, snow is 
retained 1-2 months longer in the mountains than 
on the plains. Snow depth in the mountains usually 
reaches maximum values during the second half of 
March and averages 60-100 cm in the central part 
and 100-150 cm in the southern part. At lower al- 
titudes (0-300 m), snow disappears completely in 
the south by the end of April and in the north by 
the middle of March. In the central part of the 
island, snow on the east coast lasts 20-30 days 
longer than snow on the west coast. Provided 
depth of snow cover is less than 1 m, a linear rela- 
tion exists between snow depth and density from 
mid-December to mid-March. On the basis of 
snow-survey data, snow density in March varies 
between 0.18 and 0.35 g/cu cm and in April 
between 0.23 and 0.40 g/cu cm. For 1961-70, the 
vertical gradient of maximum snow-water 
equivalent was assumed to equal 40 mm/ 100m for 
central regions of the island and 70 mm/ 100 m for 
regions in the south. (See also W73-08165) (Josef- 
son-USGS) 
W73-08171 



AN ANALYSIS OF YEARLY DIFFERENCES ES 
SNOWPACK INVENTORY-PREDICTION 

RELATIONSHIPS, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept of Watershed 
Management 

P. F. Ffolliott, D. B. Thorud, and R. W. Enz. 
In: Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona 
and the Southwest, Proceedings of the 1972 
meetings of the Arizona Section- American Water 
Resources Assn. and the Hydrology Section- 
Arizona Academy of Science, May 5-6, 1972, 
Prescott, Arizona, Vol 2, (1972), p 31-42. 3 fig, 2 
tab, 7 ref. OWRR A-014-ARIZ (8). 14-31-0001- 
3203. 

Descriptors: 'Runoff forecasting, 'Snowpacks, 
'Spatial distribution, 'Forest management, 
'Vegetation effects, Forecasting, Census, 
Forests, Watershed management, Snow surveys, 
Water equivalent, Water yield, Snow manage- 
ment, Canopy, 'Arizona. 

Identifiers: 'Inventory-prediction, Ponderosa 
pine. 

Inventory-prediction relationships between snow- 
pack conditions and forest attributes may be use- 
ful in estimating water yields derived from snow, 



but such relationships fere developed usually from 
source data collected over a short uosc period 
Analyses of long term data suggest uvcuw. | 
diction relationships developed from Limited dalt 
may have more general application bwt«o 
Available records from 10 snow courses in the 
porsderosa pine type in Arizona provided sou/ce 
data in this study, which was designed to cuipin 
cfelly analyze inventory prediction rrUliocisiup* 
developed from long-term Soow Survey record* 
Ihe primary hypothesis letted and evaluated by 
statistically analyzing the family of regression 
equations representing a snow course, was that, 
given a precipitation input, the distribution of 
snowpack water equivalent at peak seasonal accu- 
mulation is determined by the spatial arrangf atcnt 
of the forest cover, e g basal area ' jeneraily 12 of 
the 1 8 snow courses evaluated appeared to support 
the hypothesis, three courses did not, and three 
courses were considered inconclusive 'White 
Arizona) 
W73-0K301 



REVERSING BARCHAN DUNES IN LOWE* 
VICTORIA VALLEY, ANTARCTIC A 

Lunar Science Inst , Houston, lex 

lor primary bibliographic entry tec Field 02J 

W73-08373 



VENTIFACT EVOLUTION IN WRIGHT VAL- 
LEY, ANTARCTIC A 
Lunar Science Inst., Houston, lex 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W73-08374 



PLANT SUCCESSION ON TUNDRA MUD- 
FLOWS: PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS, 

Carlelon Univ., Ottawa (Ontario). Dept. of Biolo- 
gy 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02G. 

W73-08409 



2D. Evaporation and Transpiration 



COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE TRANS- 
PIRATION IN PEDUNCULATE OAK-HOR- 
NBEAM COPSE AND ON AGRICULTURAL 
KIKI lis IN PETROVTNA (TUROPOLJE NEAR 
ZAGREB), ON SERBO-CROATLVN), 
M. Gracanin, L. nijanic, V Gazi, and N. Hulina. 
Acta Bot Croat. 30 p 57-84. 1 97 1 Lllus. 
Identifiers: Agriculture, Copse, Erigeron canaden- 
sis D, Hornbeam D, Light, Moisture, 'Oak D, 
Opening, Pedunculate, 'Petrovina (Yugoslavia), 
Soils, Stomate, Temperature, Transpiration, 
Wheat M. 

Studies were made in humid, moderately warm 
area (yearly precipitation 930 mm, average tem- 
perature 10 degrees C) with moderately podzolized 
loam-clay soils. Studies were made on various tree 
species, 3 varieties of wheat and species of weeds. 
Measurements of transpiration were made from 
April 29 to Sept 4, 1969 every 2 hr daily from 8 
a.m. to 6 p.m. Relative humidity, temperature of 
the air and soil, light intensity and soil dampness 
were also measured. The condition of the stoma tes 
(size of opening) were also measured with the infil- 
tration method (alcohol and xylene). The tree spe- 
cies were found to have a significantly lower trans- 
piration rate than the wheat or weed species. The 
daily sum of transpiration was from 2 .59 to 7.22 g/g 
fresh weight for the forest species and 9.65 to 
1 1.73 g/g for the wheat varieties. The weed species 
showed a high transpiration capacity. Erigeron 
canadensis had a maTimmn daily sum of transpira- 
tion of 19.68 g/g. Wheat and weed species appear 
to affect the soil water balance much more than 
the forest species. The agricultural soil was much 
dryer than the forest soil. External conditions 
(light intensity, temperature, relative humidity) 
can effect transpiration intensity. The greater 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Streamflow and Runoff — Group 2E 



heating of the leaves on agricultural areas and the 
subsequent increased vapor pressure in intercellu- 
lar areas can significantly increase transpiration. 
The size of the stomate opening was much larger 
in wheat than in the trees.-Copyright 1972, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73 08057 



THE REGRESSION OF NET RADIATION UPON 
SOLAR RADIATION, 

Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Water Resources 

Research Inst. 

L. W. Gay. 

Arch. Met. Geoph. Biokl., Ser. B, 19, p 1-14, 1971, 

also published as Paper 710, Forest Research Lab, 

Oregon State University. 3 fig, 14 p. OWRR A- 

OOl-ORE(lO). 

Descriptors: 'Regression analysis, 'Radiation, 
Net radiation, Solar radiation, F.vapo transpira- 
tion. Statistical model, Model studies. 

A number of studies have sought to relate net 
radiation over natural surfaces to incoming global 
radiation. Several deficiencies are noted in in- 
terpretation of the simple regression models used 
for this purpose in the past. A modification 
proposed for correction of these deficiencies in- 
troduces a new longwave exchange coefficient, 
lambda, that relates the change in net longwave 
radiation to the change in net shortwave radiation. 
Th s coefficient is a conceptual improvement of 
beta, the surface heating coefficient that has 
gained some acceptance. The definition of a 
unique lambda for various surfaces is shown to be 
the same problem faced by past studies that have 
sought to develop a unique regression equation 
over each surface. The coefficient lambda may 
serve as an index of the surface properties that 
govern the dissipation of absorbed global radia- 
tion. This index is also affected by environmental 
characteristics. Interpretation of the index is 
demonstrated for three types of surfaces under 
cloudless skies: a desert, a forest, and an irrigated 
crop. Further consideration of the coefficient, 
lambda reveals that the apparent success of 
regression relations linking net and global radia- 
tion may often be attributed to negligible variation 
of longwave exchange, rather than to the sound- 
ness of a particular regression model. 
W73-08175 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE TRANSPIRATION 
OF TWO SPECIES OF AMARANTHUS, (IN 
PORTUGUESE), 

Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Escola Superior de 
Agriculture I .uiz de Queiroz. 
H. Reyes-Zumeta, and P. N. Camargo. 
Cienc Cult. Vol 23, No 3, P 351-361. 1971, nius. 
(English summary). 

Identifiers: *Amaranthus, Amaranthus hybridus 
D, Amaranthus viridis D, Brazil, Coffee D, Planta- 
tion, Species, 'Transpiration. 

Observations were made on the variation of trans- 
piration in Amaranthus hybridus and A. viridis in 
Piracicaba, Brazil, during the rainy season. There 
was no apparent restriction in the total transpira- 
tion during the day. The relative transpiration 
(T/E%) showed that A. hybridus had no restric- 
tion, while A. viridis showed a strong restriction 
between 10:25 a.m. and 12:05 p.m. This behavior 
may be due to the habitats of the plants, A. viridis 
grew inside the coffee plantation, and A. hybridus 
grew 3 m from the crop border. The different 
transpirational behavior of the 2 spp. may be at- 
tributed to the stronger competition for water by 
the coffee plants with A. viridis than with A. 
hybridus. -Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W73-O8240 



IDENTIFICATION OF A DAY OF MOISTURE 
STRESS IN MAIZE AT CEDARA, 

Agricultural Research Inst., Cedara (South 

Afncs) 

J. B. Mallett, and J. M. DeJager. 

Agroplantae. Vol 3, No 3, p 45-50. 1971. nius. 

Identifiers: *Cedara (So. Africa), 'Evaporation, 

•Maize, 'Moisture stress, Soils, Transpiration. 

As atmospheric evaporative demand increases 
towards 10 mm per day the available soil moisture 
required to prevent stress from occurring steadily 
increases up to 75%. Above 75% plant available 
moisture, wilting is seldom induced. Evaporative 
demand was measured using a USA Weather Bu- 
reau Class A evaporation pan, while soil moisture 
and evapotranspiration were determined by means 
of mass-measuring lysimeters. -Copyright 1972, 
Biological Abstracts, Lac. 
W73-08337 



THE BIONIC RELATIONSHD? BETWEEN 
TRANSPHIATION IN VASCULAR PLANTS AND 
THE HEAT PIPE, 

Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. Dept. of 
Mechanical Engineering. 
J. F. Osterle, and J. G. McGowan. 
Math Biosci, Vol 14, No 3/4, p 317-323, 1972, DJus. 
Identifiers: 'Bionics, 'Heat pipe. Plants, Relation- 
ship, 'Transpiration, 'Vascular plants, Model stu- 
dies. 

The relationship between the transpiration system 
in vascular plants and the heat pipe was viewed 
from the standpoint of bionics-the science of 
systems whose function is based on living 
systems. The 2 systems were identical as revealed 
by a mathematical model based on equilibrium and 
nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Both energy 
conversion devices were found to be thermal 
pumps operating in a special mode. -Copyright 
1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08348 



EFFECTS OF ABSCISIC ACID AND ITS 
ESTERS ON STOMATAL APERTURE AND THE 
TRANSPDtATION RATIO, 

King's Coll., London (England). Dept of Botany. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 021. 
W73-08420 

2E. Streamflow and Runoff 



AN INEXPENSIVE, RECORDING TIDE 
GAUGE, 

Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY. Dept. of 

Biology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 

W73-07852 



HYDROGRAPH ANALYSIS AND SOME RE- 
LATED GEOMORPHIC VARIABLES, 
Nebraska Univ., Omaha. Dept. of Civil Engineer- 
ing. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W73-07878 



PREDICTING TDVCE-OF-TRAVEL IN STREAM 
SYSTEMS, 

Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W73-07879 



HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGY OF SUSQUEHAN- 
NA AND DELAWARE BASINS, 

State Univ., of New York, Binghamton. Dept. of 

Geology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W73-07880 



EUREKA-LT FITS A PEARSON TYPE 3 DIS- 
TRIBUTION, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 

W73-07883 



APP LICAT ION OF NONLINEAR SYSTEM 
BDENTDTICATION TO THE LOWER MEKONG 
RIVER, SOUTHEAST ASIA, 

Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 

W73-07884 



INTRODUCTION OF TIME VARIANCE TO 
LINEAR CONCEPTUAL CATCHMENT 

MODELS, 

Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford (England). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 
W73-07885 



DETERMINATION OF OPTTMAL KERNELS 
FOR SECOND-ORDER STATIONARY SUR- 
FACE RUNOFF SYSTEMS, 
Technion - Israel Inst, of Tech., Haifa. Dept. of 
Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 
W73-07886 



IDENTIFICATION OF MULTIPLE REACH 
CHANNEL PARAMETERS, 

California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Engineer- 
ing Systems. 

L. Becker, and W. W-G. Yeh. 
Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 326- 
335, April 1973. 3 fig, 3 tab, 8 ref, 2 append. 

Descriptors: 'Mathematical models, 'Open chan- 
nel flow, 'Numerical analysis, 'Routing, Finite 
element analysis, Computer programs. Stream- 
flow forecasting, Hydrograph analysis. 

The influence coefficient algorithm for the solu- 
tion of the parameter identification problem is ex- 
tended to multiple-reach channel flows. The stage 
hydrograph, velocity data, and observation station 
location requirements for an effective determina- 
tion of the parameters are discussed. Application 
involves identification of the individual reach fric- 
tion parameters, which are not physically mea- 
sureable and which have to be determined from 
the mathematical model by the use of concurrent 
input and output measurements. The influence 
coefficient algorithm is incorporated with numeri- 
cal solutions of the unsteady equations of flow 
through explicit finite difference formulations of 
these equations. The explicit formulations simplify 
the computer program but necessitate special 
precautions to avoid computational instabilities 
The stability criteria which must be observed are 
indicated. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07887 



STORM FLOW FROM HARDWOOD- 
FORESTED AND CLEARED WATERSHEDS IN 
NEW HAMPSHIRE, 

Forest Service (USDA), Durham, N.H. Northeast- 
em Forest Experiment Station. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04C. 
W73-07889 



MEASURE OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL 

DRAINAGE BASIN FORM, 

Cambridge Univ. (England). Dept. of Geography. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 
W73 -07892 



SPRING DISCHARGE OF AN ARCTIC RIVER 
DETERMINED FROM SAUNITY MEASURE- 
MENTS BENEATH SEA ICE, 

Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. Coastal Stu- 
dies Inst. 



F.eld 02— WATER CYCLE 

Group 2E — Streamflow and Runoff 



For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 
W73-O79O0 



BOTTOM CURRENTS IN TBI HUDSON 
CANYON, 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Miami, Fla. Atlantic Oceanographic and 
Meteorological Labs. 

O. H. Keller, D. Lambert, G. Rowe, and N. 
Staresinic. 

Science, Vol 180, No 4082, p 181-183, April 13, 
1973. 3 fig, 14 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sediment transport, 'Submarine 
canyons, 'Hudson River, 'Currents (Water), 
Streamflow, Tides, Stream gages. Current meters, 
Data collections, Flow measurement. Path of pol- 
lutants. 
Identifiers: 'Hudson submarine canyon. 

In the Hudson Canyon the current regime is 
characterized by a pronounced reversal of flow up 
and down the canyon. Velocities are commonly of 
the order of 8 to 1 5 cm/sec, reaching 27 cm/sec on 
occasion in the upper and central portion of the 
canyon. Although a 2.5-day recording of currents 
showed a net transport upcanyon, a combination 
of 66 current measurements from the submersible 
Alvm, analysis of sediment texture and organic 
carbon, and determination of the benthic fauna- 
nutrient relationship indicate that over the long 
term there is a net transport of fine material 
through the canyon to the outer continental rise. 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07903 



STUDIES ON THE FLUVIAL ENVIRONMENT, 
ARCTIC COASTAL PLAIN PROVINCE, 
NORTHERN ALASKA, VOLUMES I AND II, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 
W73-07906 



REGULATION OF STREAMFLOW (REGU- 
LrROVANIYE RECHNOGO STOKA), 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04 A. 
W73-07909 



ROTARY CURRENTS, ACCORDING TO MEA- 
SUREMENTS IN THE OCEAN, 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Gelendzhik. Institut Oke- 

anologii. 

V. B. Titov. 

Oceanology, Vol 12, No 2, p 177-181 , 1972. 2 fig, 1 

tab, 1 ref. Translated from Okeanologiya (USSR), 

Vol 12, No 2, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Oceanography, 'Currents (Water), 

'Rotational flow, 'Ocean currents, Rotations, 

Measurement, Instrumentation, Buoys, Depth, 

Velocity. 

Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Rotary currents. 

Five instances of unusual, clearly defined, 
periodic, cyclonic rotary ocean currents with an 
average period of about 1.5 hours have been ob- 
served in recent years on expeditions conducted 
by the Institute of Oceanology, USSR Academy of 
Sciences. A possible cause of formation of these 
rotary currents is the local transverse irregularity 
of the flow velocity field, which generates vortices 
with vertical axes of rotation. (Josef son-USGS) 
W73-07915 



INSTANTANEOUS UNIT HYDROGRAPHS, 
PEAK DISCHARGES AND TIME LAGS IN UR- 
BANIZING WATERSHEDS, 

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. School of Civil En- 
gineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 
W73-07917 



TRANSPOSITION Or SI OHMS rOR ESTIMAT- 
ING FLOOD PROBABILITY DLSIRIBI I IONS 
Colorado State Univ., Fori Collins I>eiJt of ' ml 
Engineering 
V K Gupta 

Colorado Stale University Hydrology Paper*, No 
59, November 1972. 35 p, 30 fig, 7 tab, 18 ref, I ap 
pend NSF (irant No 11444 

Descriptors: 'Storms, 'Floods, 'Flood forecast 
ing, 'Flood frequency, Methodology, IheoreUcal 
analysis. River basins, Stochastic processes, 
Hydrologic data, Historic floods. Flood data. 
Model studies, Rainfall-runoff relationships, Ke 
gional flood, Geomorphology , Streamflow, Mow 
characteristics. 

Contemporary literature in hydrology usually con- 
tains the concepts of maximum probable precipita- 
tion and maximum probable flood along with 
methods used to arrive at these limits These limits 
signify some physical upper limits for precipitation 
and flood; however, it is difficult to find physical 
justification for existence of these limits and more 
so the methods used to compute them. Also, the 
use of the word 'probable' is incorrect because 
these 'probable limits are not assigned any proba- 
bilities. In view of the misconceptions, practical 
methodology is described with a theoretical 
framework for estimating the probability of occur- 
rence of floods in a unit time interval, based on the 
random characteristics of storms. In general, 
many random characteristics can be defined for a 
storm, but as a first step only a three-dimensional 
random vector has been defined for the random 
characteristics of storms. The random vector is 
comprised of the coordinates of storm center loca- 
tion and storm orientation. The developed estima- 
tion methodology uses all information on historic 
storms observed in a region that contains the river 
basin. (Woodard-USGS) 
W73-08085 



INFLUENCE OF LATE SEASON PRECIPITA- 
TION ON RUNOFF OF THE KINGS RIVER, 

Sierra Hydrotechnology, Placerville, Calif. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 
W73-08151 



DRAINAGE AREAS, HARTFORD NORTH 
QUADRANGLE, CONNECTICUT, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08173 



EFFECTIVE HYDRAULIC ROUGHNESS FOR 
CHANNELS HAVING BED ROUGHNESS DIF- 
FERENT FROM BANK ROUGHNESS, 

Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, 

Vicksburg, Miss. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08B. 

W73-08350 



A PLAN FOR STUDY OF WATER RESOURCES 
IN THE PLATTE RIVER BASIN, NEBRASKA- 
-WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE 
STREAM-AQUIFER RELATIONS, 

Geological Survey, Lincoln, Nebr. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W73-08357 



APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING TO 
STREAM DISCHARGE PREDICTION, 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

Huntsville, Ala. George C. Marshall Space Flight 

Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 

W73-08359 



TIME-Or IHAVM SI I U Y BAlTKN KILL 
FROM <l.t MILK LA VI Of VUMOM *»r* 
YORK BORDER IO . I. ARILS MILLS, NEW 
YORK, 

',r.,l<,g»caJ Survey, Albany, N Y 

I "i primary bibliographic entry sec Field 05B 

W73-OKW. 



SURFACE WATER SUPPLY OF THE L'NiTKD 
STATES, l»«*-197ft: PART t-MLS.SOI.Rl RJVI 
BA.SIN, VOI.I ME 4-MLSSOI RJ RIVER BASIN 
BELOW NEBRASKA CITY, NEBRASKA 
Geological Survey, Washington, DC Water 
Resources I>iv 

Por primary bibliographic entry see Field 07f 
W73-0838I 



2F. Groundwater 



THE USE OF LANDSCAPK-INDICATOt 
METHODS IN HYDROGEOLOGICAL IN- 
VESTIGATIONS 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytalelei Pnrody 

(USSR) Geographic Div. 

I K Abrosimov, and Yu M Kleiner. 

In: Landscape Indicators -New Techniques in 

Geology and Geography Consultant*. Bureau, Div 

of Plenum Press, London and New York, p 34-38, 

1973. 15 ref. (Translated from Russian. 

Proceedings of Conference of Moscow Society of 

Naturalists, May 21-22, 1968 Moscow, Nauka 

Press). 

Descriptors: 'Mapping, 'Hydrogeology, 

•Geomorphology, Terrain analysis, 'Vegetatioo 
effects, Aenal photography, Remote sensing, 
Faults (Geologic), Fractures (Geologic), Karst, 
Karst hydrology, Springs, Investigations, Data 
collections, Groundwater, Topography 
Identifiers: 'USSR. 

The landscape-indicator method of prospecting for 
and mapping shallow groundwater is becoming 
widely used in water-indicator investigations in the 
USSR. Vegetation is used as a direct indicator of 
depth and mineralization of shallow water. Relief 
and lithology of surface rocks are indirect indica- 
tors of water, Thus, in arid regions, slightly indu- 
rated eolian deposits are the sites of lenses of fresh 
water, and these may be revealed by plant indica- 
tors in zones where such lenses discharge. Karst- 
fonning processes are rather clearly indicated by 
vegetation. Sinks and canyon-like karst valleys, in 
addition to physiognomic expression in the land- 
scape, are also marked by specific plant communi- 
ties. Lineaments (straight segments of stream val- 
leys, scarps, rectilinear shores, etc.), are most 
commonly geomorphic expressions of deep frac- 
tures, very well reflected in the landscape because 
of the discharge of groundwater along these frac- 
tures. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07843 



STUDY OF THE HYDROGEOLOGICAL CON- 
DITIONS OF ALLUVIAL FANS BY MULTIPLE 
LANDSCAPE AND GEOPHYSICAL METHODS, 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody 

(USSR). Geographic Div. 

N. N. Sharapanov, and A. V. Shavyrina. 

In: Landscape Indicators— New Techniques in 

Geology and Geography: Consultants Bureau, Div 

of Plenum Press, London and New York, p 39-47, 

1973. 2 fig, 3 tab, 2 ref. (Translated from Russian. 

Proceedings of Conference of Moscow Society of 

Naturalists, May 21-22, 1968, Moscow, Nauka 

Press). 

Descriptors: 'Alluvial fans, Terrain analysis, 
'Geophysics, 'Electrical studies, 'Hydrogeology, 
Surveys, Investigations, Data collections. Alluvi- 
um, Geomorphology, Alluvial channels, Ground- 
water, Topography. 
Identifiers: 'USSR. 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Groundwater — Group 2F 



A new method of studying alluvial fans on the 
piedmont plains of Central Asia, USSR, uses a 
combination of geophysical and landscape 
methods to replace a great amount of drilling. 
Geophysical methods include direct-current elec- 
trical surveying and induced potentials. The 
proposed combination of methods of investigation 
may solve the following geological-hydrogeologi- 
cal problems: (1) the grouping of alluvial fans by 
types according to morphology, source of materi- 
al, and possible degree of flooding; (2) determina- 
tion of thickness and lithology of the uncon- 
solidated deposits in fans of each type; (3) study of 
the hydrogeological conditions of these deposits 
(determination of water table, discrimination of 
zones of different mineralization, qualitative 
evaluation of reservoir properties of aquifers). On 
the basis of the data obtained, a hydrogeological 
map of the alluvial fans may be prepared. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W73-07844 



LANDSCAPE-INDICATOR INVESTIGATIONS 
OFKARST, 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody 
(USSR). Geographic Div. 
A. G. Chikishev. 

In: Landscape Indicators-New Techniques in 
Geology and Geography: Consultants Bureau, Div 
of Plenum Press, London and New York, p 48-63, 
1973. 5 fig, 54 ref. (Translated from Russian. 
Proceedings of Conference of Moscow Society of 
Naturalists, May 21-22, 1968, Moscow, Nauka 
Press). 

Descriptors: *Terrain analysis, *Karst, 
•Hydrogeology, *Geomorphology, Karst hydrolo- 
gy, Mapping, Aerial photography, Remote 
sensing, Vegetation effects, Data collections, 
Groundwater, Topography. 
Identifiers: *USSR. 

In mutiple investigations of karst by landscape in- 
dicators, aerial photography and direct aerial ob- 
servation are of fundamental importance. The use 
of air photos and preliminary aerial flights over the 
region make it possible to obtain the most 
complete information concerning the extent of 
karst development in the region, the morphologi- 
cal aspects of karst forms, and the hydrological 
conditions of karst formations without laborious 
surface work. In mountainous regions karst in 
limestones that crop out at the surface is reliably 
recognized by a characteristic variegated-porous 
picture of the photo image and pitted microrelief, 
emphasized by the darker tone of vegetation as- 
sociated with the low damper segments. Along 
with relief and hydrography, vegetation reacts 
sensitively to the physical and chemical properties 
of the rocks. The depth to which plants may in- 
dicate bedrock covered by unconsolidated 
deposits varies for different natural zones. The 
lithology may be indicated by plants in tundra re- 
gions to a depth of 1-2 m, in forest zones to a depth 
of 10 m, and in deserts to a depth of 20 m. (In rela- 
tion to the principal types of karst formation, 
plants are divided into calciphytes (confined to 
carbonate rocks), gypsophytes (on gypseous 
rocks), and halophytes (on halide rocks)). The con- 
tacts between carbonate rocks and other rocks 
varieties may be drawn with great reliability. 
Stands of trees on carbonate rocks, because of the 
extreme dryness of the underlying rock and the 
harmful effect of calcium in excess, are normally 
thinner than in neighboring districts underlain by 
other rocks. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07845 



INTERFACE REFRACTION AT THE BOUNDA- 
RY BETWEEN TWO POROUS MEDIA, 

Technion - Israel Inst, of Tech., Haifa. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 

W73-07896 



STEADY SEEPAGE FLOW TO SINK PAIRS 
SYMMETRICALLY SITUATED ABOVE AND 
BELOW A HORIZONTAL DIFFUSING INTER- 
FACE: 1. PARALLEL LINE SINKS, 
Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. Dept. of En- 
vironmental Engineering. 
E. J. Wolanski, and R. A. Wooding. 
Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 415- 
425, April 1973. 7 fig, 16 ref. 

Descriptors: *Saline water-freshwater interfaces, 
*Diffusion, *Groundwater movement, 'Saline 
water intrusion, Disperison, Encroachment, 
Withdrawal, Steady flow, Saturated flow, Safe 
yield, Boundary layers. 

The flow regime close to a pair of wells situated on 
opposite sides of a diffusing interface between 
freshwater overlying saline water is illustrated 
using an idealized symmetrical system. The inter- 
face is horizontal, and gravitational effects are 
neglected. A uniform flow is parallel to the inter- 
face, and the fresh and saline fluids are separated 
by a thin impermeable layer at a finite distance up- 
stream from the sinks. The edge of the impermea- 
ble layer provides a definite starting point for dif- 
fusive mixing at the interface. As part of a large- 
scale gravity system, flow in the upper fluid 
should bear a qualitative resemblance to real situa- 
tions where freshwater is moving slowly over 
nearly stationary saltwater. Boundary layer theory 
is used to treat the growth of the diffusive mixing 
layer, modified by the presence of the sinks. The 
flux of salt to the upper sink is calculated as a 
function of the spacing and strength of the uniform 
flow. A periodic system of sink pairs without an 
applied flow is also considered. Exact solutions of 
the boundary layer equations are readily obtained 
for the two-dimensional case. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07897 



UNSTEADY FLOW TO A PARTIALLY 
PENETRATING, FINITE RADIUS WELL IN AN 
UNCONFINED AQUIFER, 

Washington Univ., Seattle. 

K. L. Kipp, Jr. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 448- 

462, April 1973. 8 fig, 18 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Unsteady flow, 'Groundwater 
movement, 'Equations, 'Water yield, 'Draw- 
down, Saturated flow, Mathematical studies, Nu- 
merical analysis, Water wells, Hydraulic conduc- 
tivity, Aquifer testing, Hydrogeology. 
Identifiers: 'Partially penetrating wells. 

Unsteady flow to a single, partially penetrating 
well of finite radius in an unconfined aquifer is 
solved theoretically. The aquifer is homogeneous, 
isotropic, and infinite both in thickness and lateral 
extent. Perturbation expansion techniques 
linearize the free surface boundary conditions, so 
that the solution satisfies the boundary conditions 
through first order provided that the drawdowns 
remain small, and that a time limit is imposed. The 
basic potential field is created by distributing 
dipole moments over the surface of the well bore 
and solving the resulting integral equation numeri- 
cally. The solution can be used to model pumped 
well behavior for the initial period after the start of 
pumping. This solution is not restricted to the con- 
stant flow rate or constant head modes of simula- 
tion. The assumption of constant discharge opera- 
tion in earlier, more approximate solutions to this 
problem is more realistic than the assumption of 
constant head operation. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07898 



THE TRANSIENT FLOW PROBLEM - A ONE- 
DIMENSIONAL DIGITAL MODEL, 

Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Dept. of Civil and 

Architectural Engineering. 

R. Herrmann. 

MSc thesis, January, 1972. 58 p, 16 fig, 41 ref, 2 

append. OWRR-A-001-WYO (53). 



Descriptors: 'Groundwater basins, 'Groundwater 
movement, 'Numerical analysis, 'Simulation 
analysis, Digital computers, 'Flow, Equations, 
Water table, Porous media, Rivers, Drains, Wells, 
Saturated flow, Unsaturated flow, Continuity 
equation, Management, Dupuit-Forchheimer 
theory, Darcy's law, Laplaces equation, Steady 
flow, Unsteady flow, Surface waters, Mathemati- 
cal models, Systems analysis. 
Identifiers: Finite difference techniques, 
Boussinesq equation, Glover equation. 

Analysis of groundwater basins can be improved 
by utilizing numerical techniques and digital 
models to simulate underground flow situations. A 
solution of the combined flow problem is 
developed from existing theories of groundwater 
motion. The flow equations are developed for 
saturated flow below and unsaturated flow above 
the water table; a review of the development of 
these equations leads to a one dimensional equa- 
tion set which solves a two dimensional flow 
problem by an implicit iterative procedure. A 
digital model is developed that solves the bounda- 
ry value problem for time dependent flow through 
porous media with a free water table. The model is 
postulated so that extensive knowledge of flow 
theory and the physics of flow in porous media are 
not necessary for understanding the model equa- 
tion development. The method of solution is based 
on a finite difference approximation of theoretical 
time dependent flow equations. The practical ap- 
plications are for flow to a river, drain, or well. 
The assumptions necessary to the development of 
the practical solution of a field or hypothetical 
flow problem are discussed and justified. (Bell- 
Cornell) 
W73-07916 



EVENT-RELATED HYDROLOGY AND 

RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AT THE CAN- 
NIKIN SITE, AMCHTTKA ISLAND, ALASKA, 

Nevada Univ., Reno. Desert Research Inst. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W73-07961 



HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF 
THE V ALLEY-FOX AQUIFER IN THE ARKAN- 
SAS RIVER VALLEY, BENT COUNTY, 
COLORADO, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08068 



HYDRAULIC TESTS EN HOLE UAE-3, 
AMCHTTKA ISLAND, ALASKA, 

Geological Survey, Lake wood, Colo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04B. 

W73-08071 



GEOHYDROLOGY AND ARTTFICIAL- 

-RECHARGE POTENTIAL OF THE IRVINE 
AREA, ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, 

Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04B. 

W73-08072 



HYDROGEOLOGY AND ENGINEERING 
GEOLOGY (GIDROGEOLOGrYA I INZHENER- 
NAYA GEOLOGIYA). 
Gomyi Institut, Leningrad (USSR). 

Zapiski Leningradskogo Gornogo Instituta im. G. 
V. Plekhanova, Vol 62, No 2, Leningrad, Tolstik- 
hin, N. I., and Kiryukhin, V. A., editors, 1971. 136 
P- 

Descriptors: 'Hydrogeology, 'Engineering geolo- 
gy, 'Investigations, Groundwater, Groundwater 
movement, Aquifers, Reservoirs, Intakes, Per- 
mafrost, Properties, Rocks, Clays, Salts, 
Mineralogy, Mining, Quarries, Water types, Water 



r 



> 



Field 02— WATER CYCLfc 
Group 2F — Groundwater 



pollution. Analytical techniques, Maps, Disper- W73-0789I 

sion. 

Identifiers: *USSR, Mineral deposits, Icings 



A wide range of hydrogeological and geologic-en- 
gineering problems is examined in this collection 
of 19 papers published by the Leningrad Mining 
Institute. The topics discussed include ground- 
water classification and distribution; groundwater 
in regions of perennially frozen ground; subsur- 
face flow in southern regions of the Soviet Far 
East; dispersion halos in suprapermafrost waters; 
salt migration in humid regions; chemical and 
physico-mechanical properties of clay rocks; and 
icings in river basins of East Siberia. Techniques 
are presented for compiling geologic-engineering 
maps, and investigations are made of mine-water 
pollution in quarries and of changes in geologic-en- 
gineering conditions of mineral deposits after 
open-pit mining. (Josefson-USGS) 
W73-08163 



A PLAN FOR STUDY OF WATER RESOURCES 
IN THE PLATTE RIVER BASIN, NEBRASKA- 
-W1TH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE 
STREAM-AQUIFER RELATIONS, 

Geological Survey, Lincoln, Nebr. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W73-08357 



HYDROLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE CAN- 
NIKIN EVENT, 

Geological Survey, Denver, Colo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04B. 

W73-08367 



MAP SHOWING APPROXIMATE GROUND- 
WATER CONDITIONS IN THE PARKER 
QUADRANGLE, ARAPAHOE AND DOUGLAS 
COUNTIES, COLORADO, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08369 



AVATLABrLITY OF GROUNDWATER, HART- 
FORD NORTH QUADRANGLE, CONNEC- 
TICUT, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08370 



FUMAROLE WITH PERIODIC WATER FOUN- 
TATNING, VOLCAN ALCEDO, GALAPAGOS 
ISLANDS, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Geosciences. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 
W73-08377 



NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL GROUND- 
WATER RECHARGE, WET WALNUT CREEK, 
CENTRAL KANSAS, 
Geological Survey, Lawrence, Kans. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04B. 
W73-08379 



2G. Water in Soils 



SPLASH EROSION RELATED TO SOIL ERODI- 

BILITY INDEXES AND OTHER FOREST SOU. 

PROPERTIES IN HA WAD, 

Forest Service (USDA), Berkeley, Calif. Pacific 

Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W73-07888 



SEEPAGE STEPS IN THE NEW FOREST, 
HAMPSHIRE, ENGLAND, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 



MODELING INFILTRATION DURING A 
STEADY RAIN, 

Minnesota Univ., St Haul Dept of Agricultural 

Engineering. 

R. G. Mein, and C. L. Larson. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 384 

394, April 1973. 10 fig. 2 tab, 23 ref . 

Descriptors: 'Infiltration, 'Rainfall-runoff rela 
tionships, 'Mathematical models, Wetting, Soil 
water movement, Rainfall intensity, Hydraulic 
conductivity. 

A simple two-stage model describes infiltration 
under a constant intensity rainfall into a 
homogeneous soil with uniform initial moisture 
content. The first stage predicts the volume of in- 
filtration to the moment at which surface ponding 
begins. The second stage, which is the Green- 
Ampt model modified for the infiltration prior to 
surface saturation, describes the subsequent infil- 
tration behavior. A method is given for estimating 
the mean suction of the wetting front. Comparison 
of the model predictions with experimental data 
and numerical solutions of the Richards equation 
for several soil types shows excellent agreement. 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07893 



HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER OF FREEZING 
WATER-SOIL SYSTEM, 

British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Dept. of 

Chemical Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W73-07894 



APPROXIMATE SOLUTIONS FOR NON- 
STEADY COLUMN DRAINAGE, 

Asian Inst, of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand). Div. of 

Water Science and Engineering. 

A. Arbhabbirama, and Z. U. Ahmed. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 401- 

408, April 1973. 5 fig, Href. 

Descriptors: 'Infiltration, 'Percolation, 

'Drainage, 'Soil water movement, Unsaturated 
flow, Capillary action, Equations, Porous media, 
Porosity, Permeameters. 

Approximate solutions for nonsteady column 
drainage are obtained by application of pore size 
distribution in a capillary analogy. The analysis is 
based on the assumption that the (trainable pore 
space of porous media can be represented by a set 
of capillary tubes of various sizes having a size 
distribution that provides the same capillary pres- 
sure-saturation relationship as the real media. The 
solutions obtained approximately describe the cu- 
mulative outflow and the saturated front as func- 
tions of time and measurable soil parameters. 
Theoretical solutions are verified by using experi- 
mental and numerical results. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07895 



A TECHNIQUE USING POROUS CUPS FOR 
WATER SAMPLING AT ANY DEPTH IN THE 
UNSATURATED ZONE, 

Geological Survey, Lubbock, Tex. 

W. W. Wood. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 486- 

488, April 1973. 2 fig, 2 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sampling, 'Soil water, 'Soil 
moisture, 'Lysimeters, 'Zone of aeration, Instru- 
mentation, Unsaturated flow. 
Identifiers: 'Suction lysimeters, 'Soil water 
sampling, Porous cup lysimeters. 

Porous cups or suction lysimeters provide a simple 
and direct method for collecting water samples in 
the unsaturated zone. A new procedure is 
described in which a check valve is placed in the 



sample collection assembly This cooslrucuoij pa- 
miU complete collection al any depth without the 
lots of samples A detailed description of coo- 
m a/id operation illustrates the advance- 
ment over previous designs 'Knapj 
W73-O7V01 



MOVKMEN1 OF CHKMK AI-S IN KMU »V 

WATER, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana Dept of Agronomy 

I. I Kurt/, and S W. MeUted 

Soil Science, Vol 115, No 3, p 231-239. March 

1973 3 lab, 42 ref 

I>cscnplors 'Water chemistry, '(^caching, 
•Weathering, 'Soil water movement, Ion trans- 
port, Translocation. Reviews, Porous media, 
tracers, Tracking techniques, DiifuMOD, Adsorp- 
tion, Ion exchange 

'Ihe movement of water through soils and the 
transport of chemicals in soil are reviewed Some- 
times the path of water permits deductions about 
the direction and extent that solutes have been 
leached and weathering products have been trans- 
ported Conversely the best way to trace the 
movement of soil water is often to dissolve 
something in it thai can be easily traced. Dyes that 
can be detected visually or by fluorescence, 
radioactive ions or compounds, stable isotopes, 
and various salts and ions have been used as 
tracers. A major problem is that the solvent and 
solute rarely move at the same rate Equations 
have been derived to describe leaching through 
sods. Although these have not been applied very 
extensively to weathering, horizon formation, and 
the other processes of soil development, curvet 
showing the concentration of clay down through 
different profiles often resemble curves showing 
the concentration of a salt being leached down 
through different profiles In the temperate zone, 
water is the primary agent of weathering and the 
agent of transport of the weathering products. The 
composition of drainage waters can give at least a 
partial indication of the composition of the soil and 
the soil moisture. Likewise the composition of 
stream waters at low flow partially reflects the 
composition of water and the degree of weathering 
in the soils of the region. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07904 



MODELING THE MOVEMENT OF CHEMI- 
CALS IN SOILS BY WATER, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Agronomy. 

C W Boast 

Sod Science, Vol 115, No 3, p 224-230, March 

1973. 2 tab, 31 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Leaching, 'Ion transport, 'Soil 
water movement. Model studies, Reviews, Porous 
media, Dispersion, Diffusion, Adsorption, Ion 
exchange, Translocation. 

The movement of chemicals through soil may be 
described by applying modeling techniques to the 
soil-water system. Some of the macroscopic con- 
tinuum theories are reviewed and are presented in 
table form. The emphasis of most studies of the 
movement of chemicals has been on the influence 
of steady water flow. Recently approximations 
have been made to give better solutions for non- 
steady flows. In principle, flow models can be 
used to describe the processes of soil formation; 
however, the complexity of such mathematical 
models may be prohibitive. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-O7905 



SYSTEMS ANALYSIS FN DUUGATION AND 
DRAINAGE, 

California Univ., Riverside. Dry-Lands Research 

Inst. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03F. 

W73-07923 



10 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Water in Soils — Group 2G 



RADIONUCLIDE DISTRIBUTION IN SOIL 
MANTLE OF THE LITHOSPHERE AS A CON- 
SEQUENCE OF WASTE DISPOSAL AT THE 
NATIONAL REACTOR TESTING STATION. 

Idaho Operations Office (AEC), Idaho Falls. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

IV73-07958 



CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE 
MIGRATION OF RU106 IN SOILS, 

Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Cadarache 

France). Centre d 'Etudes Nucleaires. 

?or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-07963 



STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW OF THE 
)EFINITION OF QUALITY OF A SOU SAM- 
»LE AND MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SOIL 
SAMPLING, 

rechnische Universitaet, Berlin (West Germany). 
; or primary bibliographic entry see Field 08D. 
V73-08063 



rHE ADAPTATION OF CRITICAL STATE SOIL 
iffiCHANICS THEORY FOR USE IN FINITE 
CEMENTS, 

; or primary bibliographic entry see Field 08D. 
V73-08066 



NFLUENCE OF 'BOUND' WATER ON THE 
:alibration OF A NEUTRON MOISTURE 
MEIER, 

badan Univ., (Nigeria). Dept. of Agronomy. 
). Babalola. 

toil Science, Vol 114, No 4, p 323-324, October 
972. 1 fig, 1 tab, 3 ref. 

)escriptors: *Nuclear moisture meters, 'Calibra- 
ions, *Soil moisture meters, *Water of hydration, 
Sorption, Clays, Clay minerals, Water of crystal- 
ization, Adsorption, 
dentifiers: Bound water. 

["he calibration of a neutron moisture meter relates 
he count ratio to the volumetric content of water 
a soil dried at 105 deg C, the usual oven tempera- 
ure. The count ratio that corresponds to a particu- 
ar moisture content is influenced by the presence 
if hydrogen atoms as one of the components of 
Jay lattice and organic matter present in the soil, 
he soil bulk density and certain elements in the 
oi! which have a high capacity for capture of ther- 
nal neutrons. Heating Mashi soil to 600 deg C 
evealed appreciable quantities of bound water in 
luantities varying with depth. The neutron 
noisture meter was equally sensitive to these as to 
he water content as usually defined. The amount 
if bound water seems to correlate with the clay 
anient. Although the measurement of an absolute 
oil water content, which does not indicate the 
imount of plant available water, is not essential in 
rop water consumption studies, it may more ac- 
uiately define the calibration relationship when a 
irofile is nonuniform and generally high in clay 
ontent and make the calibration for individual soil 
lorzons unnecessary. (Knapp-USGS) 
V73-08087 



APPLICATION OF RHEOLOGICAL MEASURE- 
MENTS TO DETERMINE LIQUID LIMIT OF 
SOILS, 

Central Building Research Inst., Roorkee (India). 
1. B. Hajela, and J. M. Bhatnagar. 
Soil Science, Vol 114, No 2, p 122-130, August 
972. 7 fig, 2 tab, 9 ref. 

)escriptors: *Rheology, *Liquid limits, *Soil pro- 
•erties, *Soil tests, Hysteresis, Laboratory tests. 
Shear, Shear strength, Viscosity, Stress, Clays, 
Soils. 

[he flow properties of clay paste from red, black 
md alluvial soils containing different clay minerals 



at small shearing stresses were studied using a 
viscometer. The Bingham yield stress obtained by 
extrapolation of the hysteresis curve of clay water 
system when plotted against moisture content in 
the soil gives an inflection at a moisture content 
corresponding to liquid limit of the soil. The 
results obtained by this method are comparable 
within 1% of those obtained by the Cup method. 
The Bingham yield stress at liquid limit was also 
found to be in conformity with the reported 
values. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08089 



GLOSSARY OF TERMS IN SOU SCEENCE. 

Canada Department of Agriculture Publication 
1459, 1972.66p,l fig. 

Descriptors: *Data collections, *Soil science, 
Translations, Canada. 
Identifiers: *Glossaries. 

The present glossary of technical terms used in 
soil science in Canada updates a preliminary edi- 
tion of the glossary, based larely upon the glossary 
of the Soil Science Society of America (Soil Sci. 
Soc. Amer. Proc. 29:330-351, 1965) and printed in 
English as Part U of the Proceedings of the 
Canadian Society of Soil Science, 1967. The glos- 
sary is published by the Research Branch of the 
Canada Department of Agriculture in English and 
French. In the English edition the French 
equivalents follow the English terms. In the 
French edition the English equivalents follow the 
French terms. (Josefson-USGS) 
W73-08161 



EFFECT OF IRRIGATION TREATMENTS FOR 
APPLE TREES ON WATER UPTAKE FROM 
DD7FERENT SOU LAYERS, 

Volcani Inst, of Agricultural Research, Bet-Dagan 

(Israel). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03F. 

W73-08327 



AN IMPROVED VARIABLE-INTENSITY SPRIN- 
KLING INFUTROMETER, 

Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Soil 

Science. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 

W73-08340 



THEORY OF WATER MOVEMENT DM SODLS: 
8. ONE-DIMENSIONAL INFILTRATION WITH 
CONSTANT FLUX AT THE SURFACE, 

Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 
New Haven. 
J-Y. Parlange. 

Soil Sci, Vol 1 14, No 1 , p 1-4, 1972, Dlus. 
Identifiers: 'Soil water movement, Absorption, 
Constant, One-Dimensional, Equation, Flux, 'In- 
filtration, Integration, Soils, Surface, Theory. 

The 1 -dimensional movement of water in a porous 
medium, when the flux of water is imposed at the 
surface, is solved analytically. The result agrees 
with the direct numerical integration of the infiltra- 
tion equation and with results based on similarity 
arguments in the case of absorption. (See also 
W72-02728, W73-O4106, W73-04225, and W73- 
05097 thru-O5099)-Copyright 1972, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-08341 



ON TOTAL, MATRIC AND OSMOTIC SUC- 
TION, 

Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon. 

J. Krahn, and D. G. Fredlund. 

Soil Science, Vol 1 14, No 5, p 339-348, November 

1972. 10 fig, 1 tab, 19 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Moisture tension, 'Osmotic pres- 
sure, 'Soil moisture, 'Vapor pressure, Moisture 



stress, Osmosis, Water chemistry, Pore water, 
Laboratory tests, Moisture content, Pore pres- 
sure. 

Identifiers: 'Total suction (Soil moisture), 
'Osmotic suction (Soil moisture), 'Matric suction 
(Soil moisture). 

Independent measurements were made of matric, 
osmotic, and total suction where dry density and 
water content are used as the basis for comparison 
of all soil suction components. The values of 
osmotic suction determined on a saturation extract 
differ significantly from values obtained by using 
pore water obtained by squeezing. Applying a 
linear dilution factor to the saturation extract 
values also produces values that are substantially 
different from those obtained by the squeezer 
technique. The values obtained on the squeezed 
pore fluid were in much closer agreement with the 
difference between matric and total suction than 
were the values obtained using the saturation ex- 
tract techniques. The squeezer technique appears 
to be a satisfactory way of obtaining pore fluid for 
the determination of the osmotic suction. The sum 
of independent measurements of matric and 
osmotic suction is equal to the measured total suc- 
tion. Therefore, the generally accepted subdivi- 
sion of total suction is experimentally verified. For 
remolded, compacted soils, the matric and total 
suctions are dependent on the molding water con- 
tent but essentially independent of the dry density. 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08349 



SULFIDE DETERMINATION IN SUBMERGED 
SOILS WITH AN ION-SELECTIVE ELEC- 
TRODE, 

Ministry of Agriculture, Cairo (Egypt). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W73-08351 



SOIL STRUCTURE AND ITS EFFECTS ON 
HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY, 

Punjab Agricultural Univ., Ludhiana (India). Dept. 

of Civil Engineering. 

P. Basak. 

Soil Science, Vol 1 14, No 6, p 417-422, December 

1972. 6 fig, 1 tab, 9 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Hydraulic conductivity, 'Particle 
shape, 'Clay minerals, 'Anisotropy, 'Soil water 
movement, Permeameters, Permeability, Soil 
structure. Porosity. 

Soil structure influences coefficients of radial and 
vertical conductivity. The flaky shape of clay par- 
ticles and their orientation give more hydraulic 
conductivity in the horizontal than in the vertical 
direction. The hydraulic conductivity ratio in- 
creases as the void ratio or porosity decreases. (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W73-08352 



ESTIMATION OF THE SODL MOISTURE 
CHARACTERISTIC AND HYDRAULIC CON- 
DUCTIVITY: COMPARISON OF MODELS, 

Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Md 
A. S. Rogowski. 

Soil Science, Vol 1 14, No 6, p 423-429, December 
1972. 4 fig, 12 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Soil water movement, 'Mathemati- 
cal models, 'Hydraulic conductivity, Porosity, 
Soil moisture, Saturation, Unsaturated flow, Satu- 
rated flow, Reviews. 

Three ways of modeling the moisture charac- 
teristic and two ways of modeling hydraulic con- 
ductivity of soils are compared. A modified 
Brooks and Corey conductivity model and the 
moisture characteristic associated with it are quite 
similar in form to a modified (ASR) pore-size in- 
teraction model of Green and Corey. The results 
from both compare well with experimental values 






| 



11 






Field 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 2G — Water in Soils 



at higher moisture contents. However, the ASK 
model approximates the experimental results 
better at lower values of water content and over a 
wider moisture range. The moisture content and 
pressure at air entry are significant parameters of 
the soil water system. A linear model of the soil 
moisture characteristic underestimates experimen- 
tal results when used as input into the modified 
pore-size interaction model of hydraulic conduc- 
tivity. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08353 



PROCEDURE AND TEST OF AN INTERNAL 
DRAINAGE METHOD FOR MEASURING SOIL 
HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS IN SITU, 

Hebrew Univ., Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Agricul- 
ture. 

D. Hillel, V. D. Krentos, and Y. Stylianou. 
Soil Science, Vol 114, No 5, p 395-400, November 
1972. 5 fig, 2 tab, 17 ref. 

Descriptors: *Soil water movement, 'Soil 
moisture, *On-site tests, Hydraulic conductivity, 
Moisture tension, Percolation, Unsaturated flow, 
Moisture content. 

A simplified procedure is given for determining 
the intrinsic hydraulic properties of a complete soil 
profile in situ. The need for determining the 
hydraulic properties of soil profiles in the field and 
available methods are reviewed. The vertical 
transient-state internal drainage process of the soil 
is analyzed. An instantaneous profile method for 
determining soil hydraulic properties is based on 
simultaneously monitoring the changing wetness 
and matric suction profiles during internal 
drainage. The experimental procedure and a 
technique for handling the data are described and 
illustrated. The method is not applicable where 
lateral movement of soil moisture is appreciable, 
but it is otherwise not limited to homogeneous 
profiles and can serve for layered profiles. The 
method is simple and practical enough for routine 
use. The relation of hydraulic conductivity to wet- 
ness can be applied to the analysis of drainage and 
evapotranspiration in actual field management. 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08354 



WIND ERODmiLTTY AS INFLUENCED BY 
RAINFALL AND SOIL SALINITY, 

Agricultural Research Service, Manhattan, Kans. 
Soil and Water Conservation Research Div. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W73-08355 



EQUATION FOR DESCRIBING THE FREE- 
-SWELUNG OF MONTMORDLLONTTE IN 
WATER, 

Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Water Conservation Lab. 

D. H. Fink, and F. S. Nakayama. 

Soil Science, Vol 114, No 5, p 355-358, November 

1972. 1 fig, 1 tab, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: *Expansive clays, 'Hydration, 
•Mineralogy, *Montmorillonite, Osmosis, Ad- 
sorption, Expansive soils, Hysteresis, Soil 
physics. 

The hydration and swelling properties of a soil de- 
pend in large part on the type (as well as the total 
amount) of colloidal material present. A theoreti- 
cal equation was developed to describe the linear 
expansion of free-swelling Na- and Li-saturated 
montmorillonite clays in water. The equation per- 
mits a quantitative differentiation of the water of 
clay-swelling into three distinct parts: (1) water as- 
sociated with free-swelling internal surfaces; (2) 
water associated with limited-swelling internal sur- 
faces and with high-energy adsorption sites; and 
(3) external water associated with extrapacket sur- 
faces and voids. This technique also should be ap- 
plicable for studying the hydration properties of 



the component clay minerals in clay type mixture! 
which contain montmonllonile (Knapp I J' 
W7308356 



PLANT SUCCESSION ON TUNDRA MUD- 
KI.OWS: PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS, 
Carleton Univ., Ottawa (Ontario) Dept of Biolo- 
gy 

J. D. H. Lambert. 

Arct J Arct Inst North Am. Vol 25, No 2, p 99-106, 
1972. Illus 

Identifiers: Grasses, Herbs, •Mudflows, •Plant 
succession, Sedges, Soil, Succession, 'Tundra, 
Soil types, 'Canada. 

Tundra mudflows are one of the characteristic fea- 
tures of arctic slopes with unstable soils. They 
generally occur during the early part of the thaw 
period, but may occur after a heavy rainfall. Only 
2 relatively short-lived vegetation elements were 
evident and both are characteristic of disturbed 
sites. Islands of vegetation and soil of the type that 
dominate the slope before the mudflow are left 
scattered within the flow lines. Once a turf of 
grasses, sedges and herbs has formed the island 
vegetation is able to colonize the turf mat. Areas 
where previous mudflows have occurred are 
clearly recognizable both by a long depression 
parallel to the direction of the slope and terminal 
fan of debris. Detailed studies on such naturally- 
occurring phenomena would be of great value in 
view of increased use of heavy vehicular equip- 
ment by the oil and mining companies in the 
Canadian North.-Copyright 1973, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-08409 



ANNUAL CYCLES OF SOIL MOISTURE AND 
TEMPERATURE AS RELATED TO GRASS 
DEVELOPMENT IN THE STEPPE OF EAST- 
ERN WASHINGTON, 

Washington State Univ., Pullman. Dept. of 

Botany. 

R. Daubenmire. 

Ecology. Vol 53, No 3, p 419^*24. 1972. Illus 

Identifiers: Grass, 'Soil moisture, Phenologies, 

Soil profiles, Soils, 'Steppes, Soil temperature, 

'Washington. 

The annual cycle of soil moisture use and recharge 
was followed in 8 climax steppe communities by 
making gravimetric analyses to a depth of 1 m. Soil 
temperatures were measured at depths of 50 and 
100 cm. The data were related to the phenologies 
of the dominant grasses. Differences in soil 
moisture and temperature seem to contribute more 
toward explaining the distributions of these steppe 
communities than do chemical content of the soils 
or their profile characters.-Copyright 1973, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08436 



AVAILABLE SOIL MOISTURE AND PLANT 
COMMUNITY DIFFERENTIATION IN DAVIES 
ISLAND, MIDDLE TENNESSEE, 

Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville. 
S. M. Stubblefield, and S. K. Ballal. 
J Tenn Acad Sci. Vol 47, No 3, p 112-117. 1972. Il- 
lus. 

Identifiers: 'Soil moisture, Beech, Cedar, 'Davies 
Island (Tenn), Differentiation, Hickory, Islands, 
Maple, Oak, Plant communities, Soils, 'Tennes- 
see, Vegetation, Soil types. 

One of the dominating factors determining com- 
munity differentiation is available soil moisture, 
which is intimately coupled with soil types. The 
moisture contents of various soil types found at 
Davies Island located in the Center Hill Reservoir 
are determined and correlated with the vegeta- 
tional types supported by such soils. Species of 
plants found in 4 sites, namely a beech-maple com- 
plex, an oak-history complex, old fields, and cedar 
woods are listed, and their occurrence is discussed 



in relation to the available soil moisture I 'jpy 
rifcht 1973, Biological Abstracts, lot 
W7 3 -08440 



2H. I ...k« - 



ORGANIC WAS IKS A.S A MEANS OF AC- 
C'KLERA'IINC RECOVERY OF ACID STRIP- 
MINE I.AKKS, 

Missouri Univ , Columbia Dept of Civil En- 
gineering. 

l-or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G 
W73-07808 



WATER QUALITY CHANGES IN AN IM- 
POUNDMENT AS A CONHQI ENCE OF AR- 
TIFICIAL DESTRATIF1CATION, 

North Carolina Univ , Chapel Hill. School of 

Public Health 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W73-07818 



EXTRAPOLATION OF INDICATOR SCHEMES 
WITHIN SALT MARSHES, 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody 
(USSR). Geographic Div. 
M. A Monakhov. 

In: Lanscape Indicators-New Techniques in 
Geology and Geography: Consultants Bureau, Div 
of Plenum Press, London and New York, p 141- 
147, 1973. 52 ref. (Translated from Russian. 
Proceedings of Conference of Moscow Society of 
Naturalists, May 21-22, 1968, Moscow, Nauka 
Press). 

Descriptors: Terrain analysis, 'Vegetation ef- 
fects, 'Salt marshes, Salt tolerance, Vegetation, 
Aerial photography, Remote sensing, Wetlands, 
Salinity, Chlorides, Sulfates, Sodium, Calcium. 
Identifiers: 'USSR. 

Landscape indicator schemes may be used in some 
types of salt flats. Wet, incrusted or armored 
layers are barren of vegetation. In wet salt marsh 
with glasswort and annual species of Suaeda, the 
salt is chloride, mostly sodium chloride, and 
salinization is sometimes merely surficial, possibly 
diminishing appreciably with depth. In hummocky 
salt marsh with Halocnemum the salt is chloride; 
but with considerable sulfate content it is chiefly 
sodium chloride with appreciable calcium. In hilly 
or hummocky salt marshes, with hummocks about 
clumps of tamarisk, niter bush, and boxthorn, 
chlorides and sulfides are almost equally 
represented in the salts. This type of salt marsh is 
commonly combined with hummocky marshes 
with Halocnemum. In salt-marsh meadows with 
species of PuccineUia and Aeluropus, salt is 
chiefly sulfate. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07848 



TRANSIENT AND STEADY-STATE SALT 
TRANSPORT BETWEEN SEDIMENTS AND 
BRINE IN CLOSED LAKES, 

Northwestern Univ., Evanston, 111. Dept. of 

Geological Sciences. 

A. Lerman, and B. F. Jones. 

Limnology and Oceanography, Vol 18, No 1 , p 72- 

85, January 1973. 5 fig, 1 tab, 1 1 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Salinity, 'Saline lakes, 'Ion trans- 
port, 'Bottom sediments. Sedimentation, 
Leaching, Brines, Connate water, Ion exchange, 
Limnology, Diffusion, 'Oregon, Saline water, 
Lakes, Salts. 
Identifiers: 'Lake Abert (Oregon). 

A diffusional transport model predicts the rates of 
salt transport from pore fluids into lake waters. In 
a lake without outflow, dissolved salts may 
migrate across the sediment-water interface in 
response to a concentration difference between 



12 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Lakes— Group 2H 



ake and interstitial brine. Transport of salt upward 
s transient; its direction can be reversed by exter- 
lal input of salt or by depletion of salts stored in 
he sediments, and a steady-state concentration in 
ake water is not attainable. Downward transport 
an be a stationary process if the sedimentation 
ate is rapid compared with molecular diffusion of 
alt in interstitial brine, but characteristic rates are 
oo slow to lead to steady-state concentrations 
rithin the lifetime of a closed lake. In Lake Abert, 
)regon, diffusional flux upward was much more 
mportant than input of salt from other sources; 
5% of the salt of lake brine in 1963-1964 was 
dded from the sediment pore space during the 
receding 25 years, only 0.1% from external in- 
low. The sediment source will dominate input 
uring high water level. (Knapp-USGS) 
V73-07850 



HE ST. CLAIR RIVER DELTA: SEDIMENTA- 
LY CHARACTERISTICS AND DEPOSITIONAL 
NVIRONMENTS, 

Wisconsin Univ., Green Bay. Coll. of Environ- 

lental Sciences. 

'or primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

V73-07858 



AKES OF BELORUSSIA (BELORUSSKOYE 
OOZER'YE), 

lelorussian State Univ., Minsk (USSR). Labora- 

>riya Ozerovedeniya. 

). F. Yakushko. 

sdatel'stvo 'Vysheyshaya Shkola', Minsk, 1971. 

36 p. 

>es crip tors: *Limnology, *Paleolimnology, 
Lakes, *Lake morphometry, "Lake morphology, 
ake stages, Lake basins, Lake sediments, Sedi- 
lent distribution, Particle size, Thermal proper- 
es, Water levels, Water properties, Water 
hemistry, Biology, Aquatic life, Geomorphology, 
[ydraulics, Hydrology, Geologic time, 
lentifiers: *USSR, *Belorussia, Lake classifica- 
ons, Macrophytes, Isopleths. 

resent conditions of lakes in northern Belorussia 
re considered against the background of their 
rigin and history in the Upper Pleistocene and 
lolocene. Morphometric, geomorphologjcal, 
ydrological, hydrochemical, and biological in- 
ices are used to classify the lakes on the basis of 
utrient content. The regional classification of 
ikes, based on a complex of geographical and lim- 
ologkal indices, reflects the interrelations of 
ike-basin morphometry and dynamics of water 
lass to the hydrological, hydrochemical, and 
iological features of lakes, and to the character of 
sdiment accumulation. (Josefson-USGS) 
m-07907 



RODUCTTVITY OF FRESH WATERS, 

>. Marlier. 

lat Belg. Vol 52, No 6, p 281-295, 1971. Illus. 
lentifiers: * Daphnia, Insect, Larvae, 
hytoplankton, *Productivity, Rotifers, 

Zooplankton 

hytoplankton, Cladocera (Daphnia), zooplank- 
>n, rotifers, insect larvae and others were studied 
i Mirwart pond to understand the paths which 
uergy takes through the biocoenosis before 
ecoming dissipated as heat, and of the routes 
hicb materials follow through the pond life be- 
)re returning to their original state.-Copyright (c) 
)72, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
f73-07930 



1TERACTION OF YELLOW ORGANIC ACIDS 
ITTH CALCIUM CARBONATE IN FRESH- 
WATER, 

lichigan State Univ., Hickory Corners. W. K. 

ellogg Biological Station. 

or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-07931 



CHALK RIVER NUCLEAR LABORATORIES 
PROGRESS REPORT APRIL 1 TO JUNE 30, 
1972, BIOLOGY AND HEALTH PHYSICS DIVI- 
SION, ErrVTRONMENTAL RESEARCH 
BRANCH AND HEALTH PHYSICS BRANCH, 
Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River (On- 
tario). Chalk River Nuclear Labs. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-07955 



BACTERIAL AND ALGAL CHLOROPHYLL IN 
TWO SALT LAKES IN VICTORIA, AUS- 
TRALIA, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05 A. 
W73-08018 



REEDS CONTROL EUTROPHICATION OF 
BALATON LAKE, 

Research Inst, for Water Resources Development, 

Budapest (Hungary). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-08025 



THE LITTORAL MICROPHYTIC VEGETA- 
TION OF LAKE OHRTO (IN SERBO-CRO- 
ATIAN), 

Hidrobioloski Zavod, Ochrida (Yugoslavia). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08061 



REPRODUCTION OF LAKE SEVAN KHRAMU- 

LYA (IN RUSSIAN), 

E. M. Malkhin. 

Tr Molodykh Uch Vses Nauchno-Issled Inst 

Morsk Rybn Khoz Okeanogr. 3. p 147-157, 1970, 

English summary. 

Identifiers: Lakes, 'Reproduction, *USSR, "Lake 

Sevan Khramulya. 

Analysis of the structure of the spawning and fat- 
tening stages in the period preceding the start of 
spawning established the absence of spawning 
gaps in sexually mature khramulya. There were no 
strictly river spawning stages in khramulya, but 
another stage evidently exists, part of which in- 
volves spawning in rivers while another part in- 
volves spawning near the mouths of lakes.-Copy- 
right 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08104 



ECOLOGICAL NOTES ON A LAKE- 
DWELLING POPULATION OF LONGNOSE 
DACE (RHTNICHTHYS CATARACTAE), 

Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg. Dept. of Zoology. 

J. H. Gee, and K. Machniak. 

J Fish Res Board Can. Vol 29 No 3, p 330-332. 

1972. Dhis. 

Identifiers: *Dace, *Fish physiology, Ecology, 

Lakes, Fish population, Rhinichthys cataractae, 

Spawning. 

Longnose dace were found from early July to 
Sept. in onshore waters on the east side of Hecla 
island in the southern basin of Lake Winnipeg. 
They were most abundant on rocky substrates, 
where they spawned in early July. It is suggested 
that at other times of the year these fish occupy 
deep channels between islands where current is 
present. While in onshore waters fish less than 5 g 
adjusted their buoyancy by altering swimbladder 
volume in response to presence or adsence of 
wave action. Swimbladder volume was similar to 
that of river-dwelling populations of this species- 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-O8130 



THE FORMATION OF IRON AND MAN- 
GANESE-RICH LAYERS IN THE HOLOCENE 
SEDIMENTS OF THUNDER BAY, LAKE SU- 
PERIOR, 

Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay (Ontario). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W73-08135 



THE RESULTS OF INTRODUCING MONODAC- 
NA COLORATA EICHW. INTO THE 
ZAPOROZHVE RESERVOIR, (IN RUSSIAN), 

Dnepropetrovskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet 

(USSR). Ins ti tut Gidrobiologii. 

I. P. Lubyanov, V. L. Bulakhov, and V. I. 

Zolotareva. 

Gidrobiol Zh. Vol 8 No 1 , p 103-105. 1972. 

Identifiers: Fish food, *Monodacna-colorata, 

Reservoirs, USSR, *Zaporozhye Reservoir. 

One promising method of enriching the natural 
food base of fish is the acclimatization of estaurine 
Caspian invertebrates. Data on the location, living 
conditions, density, morphological characteristics, 
growth rate and age composition suggest that M. 
colors ta has not only survived in the reservoir, but 
is in one of the final stages of acclimatization and 
naturalization.-Copyright 1972, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-08136 



LAKE SURVEY CENTER 1972 RESEARCH 
PROGRAM. 

National Ocean Survey, Detroit, Mich. Lake Sur- 
vey Center. 

Available NTTS, Springfield, Va. 22151 as COM 
72-10677 Price $3.00 printed copy; $1.45 
microfiche. Technical Memorandum NOS LSCD 
2, January 1972. 59 p, 2 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Limnology, *Great Lakes, 
•Hydrology, *Data collections, Lake morphology, 
Currents (Water), Water supply, Water quality, 
Water pollution effects, Environmental effects, 
Ice-water interfaces, Snow, Streamflow, Inflow, 
Shores, Shore protection, Sediment transport, 
Sedimentology, Water level fluctuations, Waves 
(Water), Precipitation (Atmospheric), Evapora- 
tion, Mathematical models. 

The Great Lakes research program of the Lim- 
nology Division of NOAA consists of data collec- 
tion, investigations, and studies in five specific 
fields: water motion within the lakes and connect- 
ing rivers; lake water characteristics and their rela- 
tionships to natural and manmade processes; lim- 
nogeology, including interaction of water masses 
with shoreline and lake bottom; lake hydrology 
and factors affecting water supply to lakes includ- 
ing effects of ice cover and snow accumulation; 
and limnologic systems studies with the aim of 
establishing complex interrelationships that exist 
between individual processes within the Great 
Lakes and their immediate environment. All 
research investigations are closely coordinated 
with other agencies and educational institutions 
engaged in related work. For example, cooperative 
programs of data collection have been established 
with the Corps of Engineers, EPA, AEC, the 
University of Michigan, Canadian Department of 
Transport, the University of Toronto, and others. 
The techniques, facilities, and equipment used in 
the data collection investigations are described. 
(Woodard-USGS) 
W73-08160 



CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO DISCRETE 
POPULATIONS OF ARCTIC CHAR (SAL- 
VELINUS ALPINUS L.) IN A NORTH SWEDISH 
LAKE, 

N. A. Nilsson, and O. Filipsson. 

Ref Inst Freshwater Res Drottningholm. 51 p 90- 

108. 1971. Illus. 

Identifiers: Arctic, *Char, Daphnia, Discrete, 

Scandinavia fish diets, Gammarus, Fish growth, 

Lakes, *Fish populations, Salvelinus alpinus. 

Several subpopulations of arctic char have long 
been recognized in Scandinavia by both local 
fishermen and biologists. A description is given of 
2 populations in a lake in southern Swedish Lap- 
pland, referred to as 'ordinary char' and 'blattjen.' 
The 2 forms could be distinguished from the shape 
of their otoliths, 1 type being characterized as 'ar- 



13 



Field 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 2H — Lakes 



row-shaped' (ordinary char), the other as 'drop- 
shaped' (blattjen). A slight difference in gillraker 
counts of the 2 populations could be discerned, but 
none for pyloric caeca. Coloration of the 2 popula- 
tions at spawning time is different, as is flesh 
coloration in autumn. Most ordinary char were 
caught with floated gill nets in the pelagic, most 
blattjen with sinking nets in the littoral region of 
the lake. In autumn ordinary char fed on plank- 
tonic Crustacea, mainly Daphnia, while blattjen 
fed on bottom animals, mainly Gammarus. Even 
fish that were caught at the same stations in the lit- 
toral region displayed a similar food segregration. 
There was a highly significant difference in growth 
rate between the 2 forms, the ordinary char being 
more fast-growing than the blattjen. Ordinary char 
caught with sinking gill nets as well as blattjen dis- 
play a greater variability in growth rate than do 
char caught with floated nets. A greater fraction of 
the stomachs of the ordinary char had a high 
degree of filling as compared with blattjen. It is 
suggested that differences in stomach fullness as 
well as in growth rates result from a more severe 
competition between brown trout and blattjen. 
There was an evident difference in the average 
size of the spawning fish belonging to the different 
populations, the blattjen being smaller at maturity. 
They were on average older than the ordinary char 
at maturity. The 2 populations are regarded as 
separate species. Although there are many paral- 
lels with the char populations of other lakes in 
Scandinavia, further analysis is needed before 
detailed generalization as to the whole complex 
can be made.-Copyright 1972, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-08244 



EUTROPH1CATION AND LOUGH NEAGH, 

New Univ. of Ulster, Coleraine (Northern Ire- 
land). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08252 



STIMULATION OF PHYTOPLANKTON 
GROWTH BY MIXTURES OF PHOSPHATE, 
NITRATE, AND ORGANIC CHELATORS, 

Virginia Inst, of Marine Science, Gloucester Point. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08253 



ROLE OF PHOSPHORUS IN EUTROPHICA- 
TION AND DIFFUSE SOURCE CONTROL, 

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Water Chemistry Pro- 
gram. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08255 



ECOLOGICAL TOPOGRAPHY OF FISH POPU- 
LATIONS IN RESERVOIRS, (EN RUSSIAN), 

A. G. Poddubnyi. 

Nauka: Leningrad. 1971. 312p. DJus. 
Identifiers: 'Abramis-Brama, Book, *Ecological 
studies, *Fish populations, Reservoirs, Topog- 
raphy. 

The reservoirs in the Volga system and some other 
reservoirs, lakes and rivers were studied. Factural 
data were obtained by studying the Abramis brama 
population of the Rybinskii, Gorkii and Kuibyshev 
reservoirs-Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W73-08270 



SPAWNING AND SPAWNING GROUNDS OF 
THE BURBOT LOTA LOTA (L.), (IN RUSSIAN), 

V. N. Sorokin. 

Vopr Uchtiol. Vol 11, No 6, p 1032-1041, 1971. D- 

lus. 

Identifiers: 'Burbot, Lakes, Lota-Lota, 

'Spawning grounds, USSR, 'Lakes Baikal. 



Spawning of the burbot (Lola Iota) in the J-ake 
Baikal system was investigated. The spawning 
grounds of the burbot in the Bugul'deika and 
Kichera rivers are described and information is 
given on the density of the burbot eggs al the 
spawning grounds and the characteristics of their 
development. --Copyright 1972, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc 
W73-08277 



STRUCTURE OF SPAWNING SCHOOLS, 

GROWTH AND SEXUAL MATURATION OF 

THE BREAM ABRAMIS BRAMA (L.) OF THE 

KREMENCHUG RESERVOIR, (IN RUSSIAN). 

Akademiya Nauk URSR, Kiev. Instytut 

Hidrobiologii. 

V. P. Bruenko, and I. E. Dyachuk. 

Vopr Ikhtiol. Vol 1 1 , No 6, p 955-968, 1971 . EUus. 

Identifiers: Abramis-brama, 'Bream, Growth, 

'Kremenchug Reservoir (USSR), Reservoir. 

'Sexual maturation, Spawning, USSR. 

The dynamics of the sex, size-weight, and age 
composition of spawning schools of A. brama 
from the time of formation of the Kremenchug 
reservoir (1962) to the present was investigated. 
The average age of spawners has increased in 
recent years in comparison with the early years of 
existence of the reservoir, but the number of age 
groups in the spawning population has decreased. 
The growth rate of the bream has decreased regu- 
larly as the reservoir has formed and commercial 
fish fauna has become established in it. The rate of 
sexual development is slowing down.— Copyright 
1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08278 



A SURVEY ON CLONORCHIS SINENSIS AND 
SOME OTHER SPECIES OF METACERCARIAE 
EN FRESHWATER FISHES FROM LAKE IZU- 
NUMA, MIYAGI PREFECTURE, 
N. Suzuki. 

Res Bull Meguro Parasitol Mus. 5, p 19-20, 1971. 
Identifiers: 'Clonorchis-sinensis, Fishes, Lake 
Izu-Numa, 'Japan, Lake, 'Metacercariae, Miyagi, 
Prefecture, Species, Survey. 

Scales, fins, opercula and muscles of 5 species of 
fishes collected from the lake were examined for 
me Lace re ana under a dissecting microscope. Four 
were all found infected with the metacercariae. 
Clonorchiasis is still present around the lake.- 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08283 



GAMETOGENESIS OF SOCKEYE FRY EN 
LAKE DALNEM, (EN RUSSIAN), 

M. Ya. Ievleva. 

Izv Tikhookean Nauchno-Issled Inst Rybn Khoz 
Okeanogr. 78, p 81-104, 1970. English summary. 
Identifiers: Fecundity, Fishery, Forms, Fry, 
'Gametogenesis, Lakes, 'Sockeye fry, USSR, 
'Lake Dalem (USSR). 

According to spermato- and oogenesis of sockeye 
juveniles a stage of gonadal development was ex- 
posed for the differentiation of future dwarfs 
which mature in the lake and juveniles of the 
migrating portion of the school. The earliest signs 
indicating transition of a male juvenile to a dwarf 
is intensive reproduction of spermatogonia 
beginning less than a year before spawning of 
dwarfs. In the predownstream migrant period oo- 
cytes in the early phases of trophoplasmatic 
growth are found in both future dwarf females and 
3 and 4 yr old downstream migrants. During this 
period dwarf females are more clearly distin- 
guished from downstream juveniles by their low 
fecundity-Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W73-08285 



THE WOI/M.Y UY I.AMPRKVS, VOL I 

Academic Press lyondon, England; New York. N. 
Y , 1971 M W Hardisly I C Poller, hd p 423, 
lll.is Maps Pr J23 50 

Identifier-! Biology, M.>islribution. hcoiogy, 
•Embryology, 'lampreys, Phytogeny, Syste- 
matic s "Great I .akes, Aquatic life 

Information on the systematica, distribution life 
histories and ecology of lampreys A chapter on 
the distribution, phytogeny and taxonomy of the 
lampreys is followed by a discussion on lampreys, 
in the fossil record, including descriptions of fos- 
sils, calcifications in the head skeleton of modern 
lampreys and sy sterna tics Chapter 3 presents • 
detailed discussion on the behavior, ecology and 
growth of larval lampreys, followed by a chapter 
on the general biology of adult lampreys, including 
downstream migration and parasitic feeding, the 
spawning phase and the size and sex composition 
of adult populations. Next, a chapter is presented 
on sea lampreys in the Great Lakes of North 
America, including the following aspects; tea 
lamprey invasion of the Great I .akes. distribution 
of lampreys in the Great I .akes before effective 
control; lamprey control, effects of chemical con- 
trol; biological changes in the sea lamprey, and the 
future of sea lamprey control in the Great I-akes. 
Chapter 6, paired species, covers the distribution 
of species, the basis of brook lamprey evolution 
and speciation, followed by a discussion in chapter 
7 of lamprey chromosomes, including techniques, 
chromosome numbers, size and form of 
chromosomes, karyotype evolution and tax- 
onomic considerations. Chapter 8, gonadogenesis, 
sex differentiation and gametogenesis, coven 
gonadogenesis and sex differentiation, quantita- 
tive aspects of gonadogenesis, gonad development 
in the post-melamorphic period and the somatic 
tissues of the gonad. The final chapter, embryolo- 
gy, discusses stages in embryonic development, 
features of lamprey embryology and experimental 
investigations. -Copyright 1973, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-08326 



MACROFAUNA COMMUNTTTES OF THE LIT- 
TORAL OF MIKOLAJSKEE LAKE, 
Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland). 
Inst, of Experimental Biology. 
K. W. Opalinski. 

Pol Arch Hydrobiol. Vol 18, No 3, p 275-285. 1971. 
Ulus. 

Identifiers: Chironomidae, Communities, Lakes, 
'Littoral, 'Macro fauna, Mikolajskie Lake (Po- 
land), Habitats. 

Discussed are 4 types of macrofauna communities 
connected with various substrata accessible for 
colonization in the shallow lake littoral. The tips of 
last year's reeds, broken under the water surface, 
are newly discovered habitat. They are colonized 
by a rich and almost monospecific community of 
Chironomidae larvae. Only 3 Chironomidae spp. 
are common for all the 4 communities.— Copyright 
1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08336 



THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUB- 
STANCES THAT INDUCE THE REDDENING 
OF LAKE TOVEL: EQ. STUDY OF A RE- 
MARKABLE PHENOMENON OF PRE-REDDE- 
NING (EN ITALIAN), 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08344 



SEASONAL VARIATION OF A LEMN1C 
BEACH, 

Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, D.C. 

Dept. of Geography. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 021. 

W73-08371 



14 



SIMULATION MODEL FOR STORM CYCLES 
VND BEACH EROSION ON LAKE MICHIGAN, 

Williams Coll., Williamstown, Mass. 

-or primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

■V73-08375 



,TUDDSS ON THE PRODUCTIVE STRUCTURE 

N SOME LAKES IN KOREA, (IN KOREAN), 

Seoul National Univ. (Republic of Korea). Dept. 

>f Botany. 

-or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

.V73-08402 



SEASONAL CHANGES IN PHYTOPLANKTON 

VND WATER CHEMISTRY OF MOUNTAIN 

LAKE, VIRGINIA, 

1'hana Univ., Legon. Volta Basin Research Pro- 

ect. 

E. K. Obeng-Asamoa, and B. C. Parker. 

Trans Am Microsc Soc. Vol 91, No 3, p 363-380, 

1972. Dlus. 

Identifiers: Carbon-14, Chlorophyll, Cyclotella- 

Zomta, Lakes, Minerals, 'Mountain Lake (Va), 

Nutrients, Oxygen, *Phytoplankton, Plank- 

.osphaeria-Gelatinosa, Primary productivity, 

'Seasonal, Sphaerocystis-Schroeten, Trophic, 

'Virginia. 

Mountain Lake is situated at an altitude of about 
1180 m above sea level. It is the only natural lake 
ii Virginia and the largest (natural) in the entire 
inglaciated part of the Applachians. Its water was 
slightly acidic, pH ranging between 5.9 and 7.2. 
Ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates, dis- 
solved silica, chlorides, sulfates, and ferrous Fe 
occurred in very low concentrations in the water. 
Dissolved 02 curves for the summer were 
orthograde, and the hypolimnetic 02 never fall 
below 8.0 ppm. Areal 02 deficit calculated for 163 
Jays and 85 days were respectively 0.0019 and 
3.0029 mg/m2/day. These features all indicate 
oligotrophy. Phytoplankton populations were 
sparse and consisted of many species. Desmids 
dominated in summer, while the diatom Cyclotella 
comta dominated in winter and spring. Two 
chlorophycean algae, Sphaerocystis schroeteri 
and planktosphaeria gelatinosa, occurred 
throughout the year. The winter flora also included 
microalgae. Primary productivity studies, using 
chlorophyll, 02, and 14C methods, yielded low 
values, but showed highest productivity in the 
metalimnion which correlated with 02 supersatu- 
ration there. Cyclotella cell counts and size-range, 
and the microalgae under the ice in winter, suggest 
high winter productivity which may be 
heterotrophic.-Copyright 1973, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-08404 



LAKE SEDIMENTS IN NORTHERN SCOT- 
LAND, 

Leicester Univ. (England). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W73-08425 



STUDIES ON BIOLOGICAL METABOLISM IN 
\ MEROMICTIC LAKE SUIGETSU, 

Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Water Research Lab. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08429 



ECOLOGY OF ARBOVIRUSES IN A MARY- 
LAND FRESHWATER SWAMP: I. POPULA- 
TION DYNAMICS AND HABITAT DISTRIBU- 
TION OF POTENTIAL MOSQUITO VECTORS, 

Walter Reed Army Inst, of Research, Washington, 

D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W73-08446 



ECOLOGY OF ARBOVIRUSES IN A MARY- 
LAND FRESHWATER SWAMP: H. BLOOD 



FEEDING PATTERNS OF POTENTIAL 
MOSQUITO VECTORS, 

Walter Reed Army Inst, of Research, Washington, 

D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-08447 



21. Water in Plants 



CONDITION OF THE FOOD BASE OF PLANK- 
TOPHAGIC FISH IN ARAKUMSK BODIES OF 
WATER, (IN RUSSIAN), 

O. N. Nasukhov. 

Tr Vses Nauchno-Issled Inst Prudovogo Rybn 
Khoz. 18 p, 149-154. 1971. (English summary). 
Identifiers: *Algae, *Arakumsk, Blue-green algae, 
Cladocera, Copepoda, Diatoms, Fish, Food, 
♦Planktophagic, Fish, Rotifer, USSR, Deltas. 

The Arakumsk bodies of water are located in the 
Terek River delta and have an area equal to 16,700 
ha. Species diversity was pronounced in stations 
located in reed thickets. The maximum index of 
biomass during the period of observation was ob- 
served in the lower body of water. Juvenile fish in 
these waters fed mainly on Cladocera and 
Copepoda. Rotifers, blue-green and diatomous 
algae were also found in the stomachs of young 
fish.-Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-07832 



THE INFLUENCE OF WEATHER UPON THE 
ACTIVITY OF SLUGS, 

Birmingham Univ. (England). Dept. of Genetics. 
T. J. Crawford-Sidebotham. 
Oecologia (Berl). Vol 9, No 2, p 141-154. 1972. 
Identifiers: Arion hortensis, Arion subfuscus, 
Milax budapestensis, *Slugs, *Weather. 

The activity of slugs was measured by a catch per 
unit effort sampling system based upon night 
searching, and was related to the microclimatolog- 
ical conditions in the habitat by regression analy- 
sis. The activity of Arion hortensis Fer., A. sub- 
fuscus (Drap), A. lusitanicus Mab., Milax budap- 
stensis (Hazay), and of all slugs irrespective of 
species, was best related to temperature and vapor 
pressure deficit. The relevance of these results to 
the application of effective methods for the con- 
trol of slugs is discussed. -Copyright 1972, Biolog- 
ical Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08012 



COMPARATIVE BEHAVIOR AND HABITAT 

UTILIZATION OF BROOK TROUT (SAL- 

VELINUS FONTINALIS) AND CUTTHROAT 

TROUT (SALMO CLARKI) IN SMALL 

STREAMS IN NORTHERN IDAHO, 

J. S. Griffith, Jr. 

J Fish Res Board Can. Vol 29, No 3, p 265-273. 

1972. 

Identifiers: *Fish behavior, Brook trout, Cutthroat 

trout, Habitats, 'Idaho, Salmo clarki, Salvelinus 

fontinalis, Streams, *Trout. 

Individual S. fontinalis and S. clarki trout commu- 
nicated with similar behavioral signals, both in 
laboratory stream-channels and in northern Idaho 
streams. Underyearling brook trout were less ac- 
tive socially than equal-sized cutthroat trout in 
laboratory observations. In study streams, brook 
trout maintained a 20-mm size advantage over 
cutthroat of the same age-groups throughout their 
lives, as they emerged from the gravel before 
cutthroat. Because of this size advantage, un- 
deryearling brook trout of sizes found in study 
streams in Sept. consistently dominated in experi- 
ments the underyearling cutthroat with which they 
normally lived. But in study streams un- 
deryearlings of the 2 spp. utilized different 
microhabitats, particularly with respect to water 
depth, and so minimized chances for interaction. 
Yearlings and older brook trout initiated 40% 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Water in Plants — Group 21 



fewer aggressive encounters under laboratory con- 
ditions than did equal-sized cutthroat, and did not 
displace the cutthroat. In study streams with sym- 
patric populations, cutthroat trout of these age- 
groups occupied territories with focal points of 
higher water velocities (averaging 10.2-10.3 
cm/sec) than those occupied by brook trout 
(averaging 7.6-9.6 cm/sec). Considerable inter- 
specific overlap in other habitat characteristics oc- 
curred for trout of age-groups I and n. The oldest 
members of the 2 spp. segregated more distinctly, 
as the brook trout lived closer to overhead cover. 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08158 



THE VALUE OF SOME QUALITY INDEX NUM- 
BERS OF SOME MARSH PLANTS OF THE 
DANUBE DELTA, 

Societatea de Stiinte Biologice din R.S.R., 
Bucharest. 
G. Tarita. 

Commun Bot. 12: p 539-544. 1971. Dlus. English 
summary. 

Identifiers: 'Nutrients, Carex pseudocyperus M, 
•Danube Delta, *Marsh plants, Phragmites com- 
munis M, Plants, Protein, Romania, Scirpus lacus- 
tris M, Typha aungustifolia M, Index numbers. 

Nutritional components of Phragmites communis, 
Typha angustifolia, Scirpus lacustris and Carex 
pseudocyperus were studied. Young P. communis 
was richest in nutrients: Typha and Scirpus were 
medium and Carex was very low. The protein 
index number changes in accordance with the 
vegetation period-Copyright 1972, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-08242 



THE FISH FAUNA OF NERA RIVER AND ITS 

PROTECTION, (IN RUMANIAN) 

Academia R.S.R., Bucharest Institutul de 

Biologic 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-08269 



SEASONAL AND AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN 
THE DBET OF SILVER SALMON IN THE PLOT- 
NIKOV AND AVECHE RIVERS, (IN RUSSIAN), 

Z. K. Zorbidi. 

Izv Tikhookean Nauchno-Issled Inst Khoz Oke- 

anogr, Vol 78, p 129-150, 1970. English summary. 

Identifiers: *Age, Aveche River, Plotnikov River, 

Salmon, *Seasonal, *Silver salmon, USSR, *Fish 

diets. 

In the spring-summer period silver salmon feeding 
in the river is characterized by high indices of gas- 
tric accumulation. The species composition of the 
consumed organisms and dimensions of the same 
species change according to the season. The dif- 
ferences exist in the diet of silver salmon young of 
different age groups.-Copyright 1972, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08272 



BIOLOGY OF PACIFIC LAMPREY LARVAE, 
(IN RUSSIAN), 
V. G. Svirskii. 

Uch Zap Dal'nevost Univ., Vol 15, No 3, p 114- 
119,1971. 

Identifiers: Biology, 'Khabarovsk (USSR), 
*Lamprey larvae, 'Pacific lamprey, USSR, Win- 
tering. 

Wintering larvae of the Pacific lamprey were 
found in the area of Khabarovsk on a branch of 
the Taiga. In particular many ammocoetes were 
observed in the littoral area at ground water out- 
lets. Movement to these areas was associated with 
a decreased 02 content in the winter period of 0.7- 
0.2 mg/1, which was the main reason for the death 
of lampreys in water bodies associated with the 
Amur. Lamprey wintered in the ground; they 



Si 



15 



Field 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 21 — Water in Plants 

reached 2960 specimen/m2 in some areas. A small 
portion of the head protruded from the ground 
with the oral funnel. In contrast to larvae, young 
lamprey which had completed metamorphosis 
never buried themselves in the sand. Metamorpho- 
sis of Pacific lamprey larvae begain in the first 
days of Dec. The sexual ration in larvae was about 
1:1. Determination of sex began at a length of 80- 
90 mm.-Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08273 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OK 
THE GREEN FROG PARASITE-FAUNA (RANA 
RIDIBUNDA AND RANA ESCULENTA) FROM 
THE DANUBE FLOODED LAND AND DELTA, 

(IN K(IMAINIAN), 

Ion Radulescu, E. Cristea, A. Cristea, and B. 
Demetriuc. 

Bui Cercet Piscic. Vol 29, No 3, p 92-96, 1970. En- 
glish summary. 

Identifiers: Acanthocephala, 'Danube, Delta, 
Fauna, *Frogs (Green), Land, Nematodes, 
Parasites, Protozoa, 'Rana-Esculenta, 'Rana- 
Ridibunda, Trematodes. 

A study made in 1968 on 67 adult frogs (R. ridibun- 
da and R. esculenta) captured in 2 different 
biotopes showed infestation (86.16%) with 
protozoans, trematodes, nematodes and 
acanthocephala. The principal ways of infesting 
the frog with parasites are presented, as well as the 
possibilities of controlling them. The best frogs for 
eating and marketing are considered those cap- 
tured during cold seasons, when infestation is 
reduced.-Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W73-08280 



HELMINTH FAUNA OF BIRDS OF TWO POND 
SYSTEMS OF THE MILICZ PONDS RESERVE, 

Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, War- 
saw (Poland). 

T. Sulgostowska, and W. Korpaczewska. 
Acta Parasitol Pol. Vol 20, No 1-1 1, p 75-94, 1972. 
Illus. 

Identifiers: Acanthocephalan, Birds, Cestode, 
*Dubininolepis-podicipina, Fauna, 'Helminth 
bauna, Milicz, Nematodes, 'Poland, Ponds, Tre- 
matode. 

Examination of 281 birds of 8 families revealed 27 
trematode, 40 cestode, a nematode and an 
acanthocephalan species. A trematode and 2 
cestode species are new records for Poland. New 
hosts were recorded for 8 trematode and 7 cestode 
species in Poland, 5 trematode and 10 cestode spe- 
cies are reported from new hosts. Dubininolepis 
podicipina is regarded a valid species. The cestode 
fauna was much more numerous than that of tre- 
matodes, both as regards incidence and intensity 
of infection.-Copyright 1972, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-08281 



SCOLYTIDAE (COLEOPTERA) FROM THE 
SITE OF THE FUTURE DAM LAKE OF THE 
DION GATES OF THE DANUBE, (IN RUMANI- 
AN), 
S. Negru. 

Trav Mus Hist Nat Grigore Antipa. 11, p 175-189, 
1971. English summary. 

Identifiers: "Coleoptera, Dam, 'Danube, Host, 
Iron-Gates, Lake, Plant, 'Scolytidae, Site. 

Data are presented on 37 spp. (and 4 forms) of 
Scolytidae that were found for first time within the 
Iron Gates area and on 2 spp. already mentioned in 
the literature and now found again in the same 
zone. Some of these species are of great economic 
interest as harmful insects. Other data are given on 
the host-plants on which were found the men- 
tioned Scolytidae. A table of the host-plants with 
the respective species of Scolytidae is given.- 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08284 



RF.VIKW ()!• STUDIES ON FEEDING <>t 
aquatic invkrtk.braiks < ONDU< TED ai 

THE INSTITUTE Or BIOMM.V OK INLAND 

WATERS, ACADEMY OK SCIENCE, USSR, 

Akademiya Nauk SSSK, Moscow Institut Hiologn 

Vnutrennykh Vod. 

A. V. Monakov. 

J l-ish Res Board Can Vol 29, No 4, p 363-383 

1972. Illus 

Identifiers: 'Aquatic animals, 'Food habits, 

Biology, Chironomidae, Cladocera, Copepoda, 

Feeding, 'Invertebrates, Molluscs, Oligochaeta, 

Rotifera, 'Reviews. 

The main results obtained at the Borok Institute 
during the last decade are reviewed Food and 
methods of feeding by various aquatic inver- 
tebrates (Rotatoria, Oligochaeta, Mollusta, 
Cladocera, Copepoda, Chironomidae larvae), 
daily food consumption, and assimilation of food 
were investigated. Most invertebrates are om- 
nivores although some species live on only one 
type of food. Daily food consumption changes 
with food concentration, temperature, and size of 
consumer. At 15-22 C and a concentration of food 
close to optimum, mean daily rations of most in- 
vertebrates studied usually range from 25-100% of 
body weight. Only in pulmonale Gastropoda and 
silt-eating Tubif icidae does it greatly exceed body 
weight. In rare cases, at very high concentration of 
food unusual in nature, the so-called 'extra 
feeding' may take place under experimental condi- 
tions. For most invertebrates feeding on natural 
food at optimum concentrations, index of as- 
similation varies widely, but rarely exceeds 50%. 
The assimilability of plant food was 45-55% in the 
majority of investigated species and appears to be 
considerably higher when animal food is used.- 
Copyright 1973, Biological Abstract, Inc. 
W73-08325 



SILVER-FOIL PSYCHROMETER FOR MEA- 
SURING LEAF WATER POTENTIAL IN SITU, 

Agricultural Research Service, Riverside, Calif. 

Salinity Lab. 

G. J. Hoffman, and S. L. Rawlins. 

Science (Wash). Vol 177, No 4051 , p 802-804. 1972. 

Dlus. 

Identifiers: 'Hygrometry, 'Instrumentation, 

Leaves, Measurement, Water potential, 

Psychrometers (Silver-foil), Temperature. 

The water potential of leaves in situ was measured 
without temperature control with a miniature, sin- 
gle-junction psychrometer constructed from silver 
foil and attached to the leaf with a silver-im- 
pregnated, conductive coating. The temperature of 
the psychrometer stayed within 0.025C of the tem- 
perature of a simulated leaf when the latter tem- 
perature was changing at a rate of lC/min. Leaf 
water potentials were measured with a precision of 
plus or minus 1 bar.-Copyright 1973, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08332 



EFFECT OF DRY SEASON DROUGHT ON UP- 
TAKE OF RADIOACTIVE PHOSPHORUS BY 
SURFACE ROOTS OF THE OIL PALM (ELAEIS 
GUINEENSIS JACQ.), 

University of the West Indies, St. Augustine 
(Trinidad). 
S. C. M. Forde. 

Agron J. Vol 64, No 5, p 622-623. 1972. 
Identifiers: Dieback, 'Droughts, Elaeis guineen- 
sis, Moisture, 'Oil Palm, 'Phosphorus, Radioac- 
tive, Roots, Seasons, Soils, Surface, 'Nigeria. 

The hypothesis that the feeding roots of the oil 
palm die back because of the effects of 
pronounced dry season drought in Nigeria was 
tested using radioactive 32p as a tracer to study P 
uptake as influenced by different levels of soil 
moisture. Two trials were carried out in 1964 and 
1965, respectively, with 3 treatments: (A) no ir- 
rigation during the dry season and 32p applied in 
solution to the soil; (B) 1 irrigation of 50.8 mm of 



water shortly before application of 32F, iu. 
ligation al Ine rate of 50 8 nun of waler/p*lm/w 
throughout the dry season and 32F applied Uj ft 
soil I k&\ sample* were taken and the activity < 
i.'l' wan determined In both malt the uptake ( 
32P in treatment C was significantly higher tfaa 
cither treatment A or B and supported lb 
hypothesis that the lower activity was caused b 
the dieback of the absorbing roots durum the dr 
season drought -Copyright 1973, Biological At 
sir acts, Inc. 
W73-0K334 



STUDIES ON THE FISHERY AND HIOUX. 
OK A FRESHWATER TELEOST, RITA Rf'fA: < 
MATURITY AND SPAWNIM. 

K N Government Degree Coll , Gyanpur 'India 

Depl of /.oology 

Maya Shanker I.aJ 

Indian J Zootomy. Vol II. No I. p 41-52, 1970,1 

lus. 

Identifiers: Biology, Fishery, 'Maturity (Pkh 

Rita-Rita, 'Spawning, Teleort. 

Seven maturity stages were differentiated on tt 
basis of the macroscopic observations and \i 
range of the ova diameters. The seasonal progre 
sion of size frequency distribution of ova indicati 
that the fish spawns once a year only and ri 
spawning season is short and restricted, extendi! 
from June to Aug. The lengths of the testis as 
ovary were plotted against the total length, 
straight line relationship was found. -Cop yrigl 
1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08343 



POSSIBILITY OF UTILIZING ATMOSPHERI 
CONDENSATE IN THE HIGHER PLAN 
SYSTEM, 

N. T. Nilovskaya, S. V. Chizhov, Y. E. Sinyak, N 
N. Shekhovtsova, and M. I. Egorova. 
Kosm Biol Med, Vol 5, No 6, p 82-84, 1971 , Dlus. 
Identifiers: 'Water conservation, 'Atmospher 
condensate, 'Chinese cabbage, Plants. 

Regenerating the moisture from atmosphere in 
closed air system and utilization of this moisture I 
a higher plant (Chinese cabbage) system ai 
discussed. An absorption method was used, ar 
the study showed that the inhibiting effect of id 
purified atmosphere is thus removed. -Copyrigl 
1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08345 



AN ECOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE PROCEJ 
OF PLANT COMMUNITY FORMATION 1 
TIDAL LAND, (IN KOREAN), C. S. KIM. 

Mokpo Teachers' Coll. (South Korea). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 

W73-08403 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE ECOLOGY OF A 
TRAGALUS TENNESSEENIS, 

Kentucky Univ., Lexington. DepL of Botany. 
C. C. Baskin, J. M. Baskin, and E. Quarterman. 
Am Midland Nat Vol 88, No 1 , p 167-182, 1972. 
Identifiers: 'Astragalus-Tennesseensis, Ced 
glades, Ecology, Glades, Habitat, Morpholog 
'Legumes, Tennessee. 

A. tennesseensis Gray, a decumbent, perenni 
legume, is endemic to the cedar glades of north 
Alabama and central Tennessee. The prese 
center of distribution is in central Tennessee, ai 
only one population is known in northe 
Alabama. Its geographical range once extended 
north-central Illinois and west-central Indiana, b 
within the past few decades it apparently has di 
appeared from these area. Within the cedar glad 
of central Tennessee, the species grows mostly 
the transition zone between the open glades ai 
glade thickets or woods. Environmental conditio 
in this zone with respect to light, temperature, ai 



16 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Erosion and Sedimentation — Group 2J 



jil and atmospheric moisture are intermediate 
etween those of open glade and glade woods, 
eeds germinate in early spring, and the seedlings 
row slowly, taking several years to reach 
^productive maturity. Very few of the seedlings 
urvive to adulthood. Flowering occurs from mid- 
pril to mid-May, and cross-pollination is neces- 
iry for seed set. Fruits and seeds are mature by 
arly June, fruits fall from plants by mid- July, and 
;eds are shed throughout the next year. Plants 
main vegetative (nondormant) throughout the 
iimmer, shed their leaves in early autumn, after 
hich vegetative buds at the caudex produce an 
verwintering rosette of leaves. Flower buds are 
utiated the following April, and meiosis and pol- 
•g grain formation occur as the buds begin to 
well. Observations made over the past 6 yr in the 
uddle Tennessee cedar glades suggest that the 
oecies is declining due to habitat disturbance and 
estruction by man. As destruction of its cedar 
lade habitat continues, the species, no doubt, will 
ontinue to decline and may even become extinct. - 
Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
1/73-08405 



XM 



COMPOSITION OF FISH POPULATIONS ON 
"HE JARUGA RIVER, (M SERBO-CROATIAN), 

arajevo Univ. (Yugoslavia). Bioloski Institut. 

1 Aganovic. 

.hthyologia (Sarajevo). Vol 1, No 1, p 3-10, 1969. 

Ilus. English summary. 

dentifiers: Aulopyge-Hiigelii, Chondrostoma- 

hoxinus, *Fish population, *Jaruga River, Leu- 

iscus-Turskyi, Paraphoxinus-Alepidotus, Rivers, 

icardinius-Erythrophthalmus, 'Yugoslavia. 

lie fish population estimates in the Jaruga river, 
ugoslavia, arranged in decreasing abundance are 
s follows: Chondrostoma phoxinus (57.%%), Au- 
jpyge hiigelii (28.2%), Paraphoxinus alepidotus 
9.68%), Leuciscus turskyi (4.4%) and Scardinius 
rythrophthalmus (3.75%).~Copyright 1972, 
biological Abstracts, Inc. 
V73-08407 



iOME FACTORS AFFECTING GERMINATION 
)F SWAMP TUPELO SEEDS, 

■orest Service (USDA), Charleston, D.C. 

Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 

\.W.Naylor. 

icology, Vol 53, No 3, p 504-506, 1972. 

dentifiers: 'Germination, Nyssa-Sylvatica-Var- 

liflora, Regime, *Seeds, Soil *Swamp tupelo 

eeds, Water treatment. 

jfhe effects of 3 temperature levels (15 deg, 21 deg, 
md 33 deg C) in combination with 4 soil-water 
egimes (moist-drained, surface-saturated, 
looded-stagnant, and flooded-aerated) on the ger- 
oination of seeds of swamp tupelo (Nyssa syl- 
ratica var. biflora (Walt.) Sarg.) were investigated, 
termination was rapid in the moist-drained regime 
it temperatures of 21 deg and above. No germina- 
!ion occurred in potted soil where water levels 
vere at or above the soil surface, regardless of 
emperature or whether the water was aerated, 
lowever, seeds germinated under water in the 
ibsence of soil, and aeration and partial removal 
if the seedcoat enhanced germination and early 
irowth of the radicle. Seeds that had been sub- 
nerged in flooded soil for up to 5 wk germinated 
vhen placed in moist sand, but the germination 
esponse of such seeds was substantially reduced 
it 33 deg C.-Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, 
nc. 
V73-08417 



N SITU MEASUREMENT OF ROOT-WATER 
"OTENTIAL, 

)uke Univ., Durham, N.C. Dept. of Botany. 
p. L. Fiscus. 

lant Physiol. Vol 50, No 1, p 191-193, 1972. Dlus. 
Identifiers: *Root-water potential, Tests, *Zea- 
Hays, Roots, In-situ measurement. 



A psychrometric technique was developed for 
measuring the water potential of attached growing 
roots of Zea mays. A measure of the root-water 
potential as well as of the potential in the adjacent 
soil reflects the ability of the plants to extract 
water from soils of varying potentials and provides 
information regarding the limits of this ability. 
This should be useful in determining the ability of 
plants to extract water from soils of varying poten- 
tials, and the magnitude of the root resistance to 
water flow.-Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W73-08418 



EFFECTS OF ABSCISIC ACH) AND ITS 
ESTERS ON STOMATAL APERTURE AND THE 
TRANSPHtATION RATIO, 

King's Coll., London (England). Dept of Botany. 
R. J. Jones, and T. A. Mansfield. 
Physiol Plant. Vol 26, No 3, p 321-327, 1972. Dlus. 
Identifiers: *Abscisic-acid, Carbon, Esters, Ox- 
ides, 'Stomatal aperture, 'Transpiration ratio, 
Xanthium-strumarium. 

A single surface application of abscisic acid or its 
methyl and phenyl esters suppressed stomatal 
opening on leaves of Xanthium strumarium. The 
effect was restricted to the treated parts of the leaf 
blades, there being no detectable translocation to 
untreated parts. There were no increases in C02 
compensation to which stomatal closure could be 
attributed. Abscisic acid and its esters acted suc- 
cessfully as antitranspirants when applied one to 
leaf surfaces of young barley plants. Over a 9-day 
period there was a reduction of about 50% in the 
amount of H20 transpired without any detectable 
reduction in the rate of dry weight increase. The 
treatments reduced transpiration relatively more 
than dry matter accumulation, and hence there 
was an increase in the water use efficiency. The 
effect of the treatments became progressively less 
over 9 days, but even at the end of the experiment 
(day 9) both the esters reduced transpiration by 20- 
25%. The esters were slightly more effective than 
abscisic acid itself. Field trails of the anti-trans- 
pirant properties of these compounds were recom- 
mended.-Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W73-08420 



SOME WATER RELATIONS OF CERCO- 
SPORELLA HERPOTRICHOIDES, 

Washington State Univ., Pullman. Dept. of Plant 

Pathology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03F. 

W73-08421 



ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF VEGETA- 
TION TO NORTHERN PHCE, ESOX LUCIUS, 
SPAWNING, 

Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln. 

D. B. McCarraher, and R. E. Thomas. 

Trans Am Fish Soc. Vol 101, No 3, p 560-563. 

1972. 

Identifiers: Ecological studies, Esox-Lucius, 

*Pike, 'Spawning. Vegetation. 

The importance of aquatic vegetation on the 
growth, survival and reproduction of pike is 
discussed.— Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W73-08435 



THREATENED FRESHWATER FISHES OF THE 
UNITED STATES, 

Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Museum of Zoology. 

R. R. Miller. 

Trans Am Fish Soc. Vol 101, No 2, p 239-252. 

1972. 

Identifiers: *Fishes, Freshwater fish, Legislation, 

Protective regulations, Threatened fish species. 

Threatened, native freshwater fishes are listed for 
49 of the 50 states, the first such compilation. Over 



17 



300 kinds are included in a formal classification, 
cross-indexed to states, followed by state lists and 
the status of each fish, whether rare, endangered, 
depleted, or undetermined. The concern for native 
fishes and the important factors responsible for 
threats to their existence are briefly outlined. 
Although the lists vary from those based on exten- 
sive recent state surveys to others in which current 
information is sparse, publication is expected to 
enhance the chances for survival through protec- 
tive legislation (already enacted by a number of 
states) and stronger concern for such natural 
resources-Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W73-08439 



TISSUE WATER POTENTIAL, 

PHOTOSYNTHESIS, 14C-LABELED 

PHOTOSYNTHATE UTILIZATION, AND 
GROWTH IN THE DESERT SHRUB LARREA 
DIVARICATA CAV, 

McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). Dept. of Biolo- 
gy- 

W. C. Oechel, B. R. Strain, and W. R. Odening. 
Ecol Monogr. Vol 42, No 2, p 127-141 . 1972. Ulus. 
Identifiers: Adaptations, Carbon-14, Deserts, 
Growth, Larrea-Divaricata, *Photosynthate 
utilization, 'Photosynthesis, Shrubs, *Water 
potential. 

Tissue water potential is the most important factor 
throughout the seasons controlling phenological 
events, photosynthesis, and productivity of L. 
divaricata growing in Deep Canyon near Palm 
Desert, California. Growth of reproduction struc- 
tures was initiated at the time of highest tissue 
water potential and ceased as water potential 
decreased. Percentage foliation correlated 
strongly with drawn water potential (r ± 0.89). The 
elongation rate of stems and the rate of node 
production were both dependent on tissue water 
potential. Leaf growth and node growth proceeded 
at varying rates throughout the year, providing a 
continuous sink for photosynthates. Photosynthe- 
sis rates ranged from 9.02 mg C02 incor- 
porated/day/g dry weight of leaf tissue in Sept to 
an estimated 74.7 mg C02 in early Feb. Net 
photosynthesis and relative productivity corre- 
lated very strongly with dawn water potential (r ± 
0.93 and r ± 0.97, respectively). Larrea plants 
were labeled at 1-to 2-mo intervals with 
photosynthetically incorporated 14C02 to deter- 
mine the utilization in growth and storage of 
photosynthate fractions produced at various times 
throughout the year. Tissue was subsampled at 
similar intervals, and the activity in various 
metabolic compounds (sugar, starch, lipid, organic 
acid, amino acid, protein, cellulose, and cell-water 
materials) was analyzed. The utilization of 
photosynthates in the various fractions was similar 
in all seasons. No appreciable mobilization into 
and out of storage materials was apparent. Never 
dormant, Larrea remains metabolically active and 
forms new tissue throughout the year. This growth 
pattern may be an important adaptation allowing 
Larrea to exist in a wide range of geographical and 
climatic areas, and perhaps owing to the species' 
tropical affinities, it might have been a preadapta- 
tion to the desert environment.— Copyright 1973, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08444 

2J. Erosion and Sedimentation 



INDICATION OF ROCKS BY DRAINAGE PAT- 
TERNS, 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody 

(USSR). Geographic Div. 

N. A. Gvozdetskii, and I. P. Chalaya. 

In: Landscape Indicators— New Techniques in 

Geology and Geography: Consultants Bureau, Div 

of Plenum Press, London and New York, p 106- 

112, 1973. 5 fig, 1 ref. (Translated from Russian, 

Proceedings of Conference of Moscow Society of 






Field 02— WATER CYCLE 

Group 2J — Erosion and Sedimentation 



Naturalists, May 21-22, 1968, Moscow, Nauka 
Press). 

Descriptors: ♦Terrain analysis, 'Geomorphology, 
'Drainage patterns (Otologic), Erosion, Topof 
raphy, Valleys, Karst, Aerial photography, 
Remote sensing. 
Identifiers: "USSR 

Peculiarities of a valley network in limestones and 
dolomites, together with general character of dis 
section, nature of steep slopes, and karst forms 
may represent a reliable interpretive feature even 
where exposures are poor and forests are common 
(as on the Nakeral'skii karst-modified plateau in 
the western transcaucasian region of the USSR) 
Interpretation of air photos of many parts of the 
Tien Shan shows that different rock complexes, 
differing in origin and in physicochemical and 
petrographic properties, exhibit correspondence 
to specific drainage patterns and valley networks. 
The following groups of rocks may be distin- 
guished: (1) Proterozoic and Paleozoic magmatic 
rocks, (2) Proterozoic and Paleozoic noncarbonate 
sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, with some 
inclusion of volcanic sequences, (3) Proterozoic 
and Paleozoic carbonate sedimentary and 
metamorphic rocks, (4) Mesozoic-Cenozoic non- 
carbonate sedimentary rocks, (5) Mesozoic- 
Cenozoic carbonate sedimentary rocks. Usually, 
regions composed of rocks belonging to any one of 
these groups exhibit distinctive relief with specific 
forms of erosional dissection. From the drainage 
pattern and structural features of the relief, it is 
possible to determine the distribution of particular 
rock complexes. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07846 



THE USE OF DRAINAGE PATTERNS FOR IN- 
TERPRETING THE MORPHOSTRUCTURES OF 
THE MOSCOW DISTRICT, 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody 
(USSR). Geographic Div. 
N. P. Matveev. 

In: Landscape Indicators-New Techniques in 
Geology and Geography: Consultants Bureau, Div 
of Plenum Press, London and New York, p 113- 
117, 1973. 5 ref. (Translated from Russian. 
Proceedings of Conference of Moscow Society of 
Naturalists, May 21-22, 1968, Moscow, Nauka 
Press). 

Descriptors: 'Terrain analysis, 'Structural geolo- 
gy, 'Geomorphology, 'Profiles, 'Degradation 
(Stream), Stream erosion, Erosion, Sedimenta- 
tion, Geologic control, Mapping, Hydrogeology, 
Drainage patterns (Geologic). 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Moscow. 

The drainage pattern is very sensitive to different 
physicogeographic factors, especially to tectonic 
deformation and to lithology of a region. Tectonics 
and lithology affect not only the drainage pattern 
but also the longitudinal profile of the streams. 
The relations in the Moscow region are used to 
show the relationship between longitudinal 
profiles of streams and structure and to consider 
the possible interpretation of morphostructures 
from such longitudinal profiles. Recent tectonic 
deformation embracing a small area apparently 
does not substantially affect the stream profile. 
When the profile is near equilibrium downcutting 
is absent, and tectonic deformation may change 
the profile. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07847 



TRANSIENT AND STEADY-STATE SALT 
TRANSPORT BETWEEN SEDIMENTS AND 
BRINE IN CLOSED LAKES, 

Northwestern Univ., Evanston, m. Dept. of 

Geological Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02H. 

W73-O7850 



PH BUFFERING OF POHF WAIFK 01 
RECENT ANOXN MAKINK SEU1MENIS. 
California Univ., l.os Angeles l>cp> of Geology 
For primary bibliographic entry see Jicld 05B 

WM 07851 



EXAMINATION OE TEXTURES ANI> SI Hi < 
TURKS MUI» IN LAYERED SEDIMENTS A I 
THE ENTRANCE OF A GEORGIA TIDAL IN- 

IK I, 

Skidaway Inst of Oceanography. Savannah dn 
Q I <>«trtel 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43, No I , p 
33^1 , March 1973 9 fig, 19 ref 

Descriptors: 'Deltas, •Sedimentary structure*, 
•Beds (Stratigraphic), 'Deposition (Sediments;. 
Sedimentation, Ripple marks. Stratigraphy, Clays, 
Silts, Sands, Bed load, Suspended load, 'Georgia 
Identifiers: Doboy Sound (Ga) 

Mud layers at the entrance of a Georgia tidal inlet 
are of three texturally and structurally different 
types. Type I mud layers are composed of lamina- 
tions of clay-size detritus that occur as flaser, 
wavy and lenticular bedding. Type II mud layers 
are composed of foresets and sand-size fecal and 
organic detritus that also occur as flaser, wavy and 
lenticular bedding. Type III mud layers are com- 
posed of foresets of mud pebbles and occur was 
wavy lenticular bedding. The types of layers form 
in response to hydraulically different depositional 
processes combined with local variation of availa- 
bility of mud-grain sizes. Grains which constitute 
mud layers are transported and deposited from the 
bed load as well as the suspension load. In some 
areas, deposition from the bedload is considerably 
more pronounced than deposition from suspension 
load. Type II and III mud layers result from 
bedload deposition which does not necessitate a 
period of slack-water in the tidal cycle or a specific 
set of conditions of wave activity, suspended- 
matter concentration, and current velocity. (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W73-07855 



ASPECTS OF SEDIMENTATION AND 
DEVELOPMENT OF A CARBONATE BANK IN 
THE BARRACUDA KEYS, SOUTH FLORIDA, 

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Geology. 

P. B. Basan. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43, No 1 , p 

42-53, March 1973. 5 fig, 30 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentation, 'Carbonate rocks, 
'Florida, 'Tidal waters, Geologic control, Reefs, 
Sediment transport. Deposition (Sediments), Cur- 
rents (Water), Tides, Tidal streams, Tidal 
marshes, Intertidal areas, Waves (Water). 
Identifiers: 'Carbonate banks, 'Barracuda Keys 
(Fla). 

A carbonate bank in the Barracuda Keys, Florida, 
was studied to find the factors influencing its 
growth and configuration. Hydrodynamically or 
biologically controlled sedimentary subenviron- 
ments were distinguished: tidal channels, unstable 
banks, stable banks (including bare-sand, Thalas- 
sia, and mangrove island) and silty lagoons. The 
bank is a closed system wherein local biological 
production of sediment is in equilibrium with 
physical dispersal of sediment. Sediment is 
generally of uniform size, and responds to current 
flow more as unit 'sheets' than as individual parti- 
cles, thereby permitting a maximum amount of 
sediment transport. The major constructional 
process is the flood tide current, which transports 
sediment by traction, saltation, and to a lesser ex- 
tent, suspension and flotation. Development of 
this bank may be summarized as follows: 
preferential accumulation of fine sediment in sink 
holes, forming coalescing silty banks; contem- 
poraneous colonization of these banks by calcare- 
ous algae and marine grasses; entrapment and ac- 
cumulation of coarse sediment by these marine 



plants, forming a single, contiguous sand 
and continued growth by accreuoo of 
over avalanche slopes The bank is probably e» 
lending itself ml" the ad)ouung lagoon by . 
- of diffcicoual growth This process it 4c 
pendent upon slabtli/auoo of one part of (he baafc 

. owlri continues in another 'Knapi 
W73-07856 



( ARBON IMrrOPE < OMrf/SIIION 01 

DtAGENETM (ARBONAI* NOM IKS FRO* I 

ERESH WATER SWAMP SFIilMFMS 

I Louisiana Stale l.'iuv . Baton Rouge < oastal Stv 

dies Inst 

I WheUn.IlI . andH H Roberts 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43 

54-58, March 1973 3 fig, II ref NR 388 002. ONI 

( onliaci NOO0I4-G9-A-02I 1-0003 

Descriptor*. * Diageneus , 'Carbonates, 'Stabi 

isotopes, 'Swamps. Water chemistry, CarboML 

rocks. Limestones, Carbon, Sedimentation, Bstai 

bonales. Water circulation, Geochemistry, Sedi 

mentation rates, Louisiana, Mississippi Rive 

basin 

Identifiers: Carbon isotopes. 

The carbon isotope composition of freshwate 
diagenetic carbonate nodules ranges from -0 95? 
(vs. NBS 20) in well-drained environments to 
191% in poorly-drained environments of a fresh 
water swamp. The C-13 values of carbonat 
nodules are not a function of depth of buna. 
Depositional environment determines the isotop 
composition. Data from two cores taken in dif 
ferent sedimentary sequences suggest that i 
poorly drained sections transformations of isotopi 
tally light organic matter yield carbon, which is is 
corporated into the diagenetic carbonate. In weD 
drained sections, renewal of freshwater, in whic 
carbon species are dissolved, provides the sourc 
of carbon for diagenetic carbonate nodules (K 
napp-USGS) 
W73-07857 



THE ST. CLAIR RIVER DELTA: SEDIMENTA 
RY CHARACTERISTICS AND DEPOSITIONAI 
ENVIRONMENTS, 

Wisconsin Univ., Green Bay. Coll. of Environ 

mental Sciences. 

J. M. Pezzetta. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43, No 1, | 

168-187, March 1973. 8 fig, 3 tab, 61 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentation, 'Lakes, 'Deltas 
Deposition (Sediments), 'Michigan, Stratigraphy 
Statistics, Particle size. Sediment transport, Dis 
tribution patterns, Waves (Water), Current 
(Water), Silts, Sands, Clays. 
Identifiers: 'Lake St. Clair (Mich). 

Progradation of the northeastern shoreline of Lak 
St. Clair by the St. Clair River has created 
modern, freshwater delta with a birdfoot configu 
ration. The recent sediments are moderate! 
sorted very fine sand to very coarse silt with 
mean grain size of 3.35 phi. Grain-size f requeue 
distributions are slightly asymmetric an 
moderately leptokurtic. Coarser textured an 
somewhat poorly sorted sediments are associate 
with the occurrence of higher current and wu> 
speeds. Winnowing action by currents may not b 
as dominant as the introduction of coarser frac 
tions into finer grained sedimentary environment; 
Primary distributive processes are wind-drive 
currents and wave action along the delta frot 
where the finer components are dispersed to th 
west and south. The depositional environments c 
the lake are: the open lake and interdistributar 
troughs where high energy processes are donx 
nant; the interdistributary bay margins includin 
the levees, backs wamps and marshes; shallc 
areas of sparse aquatic vegetation and mediui 
energy sedimentary processes; low energy er 
vironments with thick overgrowths of aquati 



18 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Erosion and Sedimentation — Group 2J 



/egetation, particularly near the headward parts of 
he in terdis tributary bays; and the deep lake basin 
xyond the delta front. (Knapp-USGS) 
\V73-07858 



JURF ZONE SHAPE CHANGES IN QUARTZ 
iRAINS ON POCKET BEACHES, CAPE 
\RAGO, OREGON, 

Dregon Univ., Eugene. Dept. of Geology. 

2. J. F. Rottmann. 

lournal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43, No 1, p 

188-199, March 1973. 6 fig, 8 tab, 23 ref. 

Descriptors: *Sands, *Beaches, *Particle shape, 
'Erosion, Provenance, Quartz, Particle size, Surf, 
Waves (Water), Statistics, *Oregon, Mineralogy. 
Identifiers: *Cape Arago (Ore). 

luxtaposition of modern pocket beach sands, 
Pleistocene terrace sands, and Eocene sandstones 
it Cape Arago, Oregon, provides a natural setting 
For studying changes in grain shape as produced by 
>urf action. Differences between shape parame- 
ters of quartz grains from the older sandstones and 
those from the more recently deposited sediments 
nay be attributed to the effects of surf action. 
Mean roundness and mean sphericity were mea- 
sured on a total of 13,153 quartz grains collected 
from three separate pocket beaches, the 
Pleistocene sands, and the Eocene sandstones. 
Principal components analysis was applied to 
shape data and supplementary size and heavy 
ninerai data. Trends revealed by this analysis 
show that the sands of one pocket beach are suffi- 
:iently similar to those of the bedrock to indicate a 
iefinite genetic relationship. Statistical com- 
parison tests of average mean roundness values 
or quartz grains from the Coaledo bedrock and 
hose from Beach One indicate that the beach 
grains have undergone a statistically significant in- 
:rease in roundness. However, there is no signifi- 
ant change in mean sphericity. (Knapp-USGS) 
A73-07859 



V WAVE TANK ANALYSIS OF THE BEACH 
FORESHORE GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION, 

rulsa Univ., Okla. Dept. of Earth Sciences. 

F. R. Kolmer. 

lournal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43, No 1 , p 

!00-204, March 1973. 8 fig, 5 ref. 

Descriptors: *Beaches, *Surf, *Sediment sorting, 
Particle size, *Saltation, Sediment transport, 
Sands, Hydraulic models, Waves (Water), Dis- 
ribution patterns, Sampling, Bed load. 

laboratory and field studies were conducted to 
evaluate metal adsorptive capacities of six soils. 
Fhese and stability constants of soil-metal corn- 
ilexes were used to understand the ability of the 
oils to complex trace metals, and to explain the 
eachability or retention of toxic metals by certain 
oils. Maximum adsorption capacities, relative 
imounts of metal complexed with one mole of 
oil, and stability constants (log K values) were 
alculated from adsorption data of cations 
etained by soils. The soil-metal adsorption pat- 
ems obtained were similar to the Langmuir- 
Tuendlich adsorption isotherms. Adsorption stu- 
lies indicated that soil complexes metals and 
enders them insoluble regardless of genesis, or- 
tanic matter content, and their physicochemical 
properties. Readiness to complex, however, de- 
lends on these properties and the nature of the 
netal rendered insoluble. Multivalent and divalent 
nd the more electronegative cations make rela- 
ively more stable complexes, particularly with 
oils high in organic matter. Mechanisms mainly 
esponsible for rendering the metals insoluble 
t-ere considered to be chelation, surface adsorp- 
ion, precipitation, and diffusion and physical en- 
rapment. Spectral studies were used to investigate 
lie structure of metal ligands and whether com- 
lex formation had occurred nondestructively. 
he laboratory models indicated that the soil has 



maximum capacity to adsorb metals. However, 
under field conditions, there was no indication that 
the maximum capacity was reached. (Warman- 
Alabama) 
W73-07860 



A NOTE ON ASYM METRICAL STRUCTURES 
CAUSED BY DIFFERENTIAL WIND EROSION 
OF A DAMP, SANDY FOREBEACH, 

California State Univ., San Diego. Dept. of Geolo- 
gy- 

R.W. Berry. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43, No 1 , p 
205-206, March 1973. 1 fig, 2 ref. 

Descriptors: *Sedimentary structures, 'Beaches, 
*Wind erosion, Sands, Beach erosion, Winds, 
* Mexico. 
Identifiers: Differential erosion, *Baja California. 

Asymmetrical structures 5 to 10 mm high, 10 to 20 
mm long, and 5 to 10 mm wide on a damp, sandy 
beach at Bahia de los Frailes, Territory of Baja 
California, Mexico were formed as a result of dif- 
ferential erosion by wind. They were elongated 
parallel to the wind with the steep slopes of each 
structure facing into the wind. Nonuniform com- 
paction of sand grains along the beach is suggested 
as a fundamental reason for the development of 
the structures. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07861 



ZONE OF INFLUENCE - INNER CONTINEN- 
TAL SHELF OF GEORGIA, 
Georgia Inst, of Tech., Atlanta. 
G. N. Bigham. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43, No 1 , p 
207-214, March 1973, 5 fig, 16 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sediment transport, 'Clays, 'Con- 
tinental shelf, 'Ocean currents, 'Clay minerals, 
'Georgia, Littoral drift, Bottom sediments, Set- 
tling velocity, Distribution patterns, Mineralogy, 
Suspended load, Sedimentation, Coastal plains, 
Atlantic Coastal Plain. 

Sediment transport was studied on the inner con- 
tinental shelf of Georgia. Ninety-three suspended- 
matter samples were collected from 52 stations 
during the summer of 1970. Bottom sediment, 
near-surface samples, and near-bottom 
suspended-matter samples were taken. Salinity, 
temperature, and current direction and velocity 
measurements were also made to determine the 
nature of shelf-sediment transport processes. 
Sediments and suspended matter were analyzed 
by x-ray diffraction. Georgia rivers contribute 
kaolinite, smectite, and illite to the coastal region, 
while a kaolinite-ilhte clay mineral suite is trans- 
ported southward by longshore drift so that net 
transport direction may be inferred by suspended- 
matter clay mineralogy patterns. The shelf-water 
circulation pattern during the summer months is a 
complex system of tidal-current and wind- 
generated eddies superimposed on a predomi- 
nantly southward drift. Differential settling 
characteristics explain the suspended clay mineral 
distribution and establish a zone of influence 
which extends 3 to 10 miles offshore. This zone is 
the maximum seaward extent of present-day river- 
derived suspended detritus. Particulate and dis- 
solved pollutants are probably restricted to the 
zone of influence, and are not contributed to the 
Florida current. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07862 



SURFACE SEDIMENTS OF THE GULF OF 
PANAMA, 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Mass. 
J. C. MacDvaine, and D. A. Ross. 
Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43, No 1, p 
215-223, March 1973. 8 fig, 2 tab, 12 ref. ONR 
Contract CO-N-000 14-66-0241 . 



Descriptors: 'Bottom sediments, 'Continental 
shelf, 'Pacific Ocean, 'Provenance, 'Distribution 
patterns, Sediment transport, Sedimentation, 
Ocean currents, Ocean circulation. Clays, 
Mineralogy, Silts, Sands, Sedimentology. 
Identifiers: 'Gulf of Panama. 

The surface sediments of the Gulf of Panama con- 
sist of a relict sand covering the central and outer 
portion of the shelf, and nearshore recent fine- 
grained sediments with local accumulations of 
coarser sediments. Clays, with occasional patches 
of rocks and pebbles, are typical of the continental 
slope. Deposition of sand in the central portion of 
the Gulf was controlled primarily by the topog- 
raphy of the exposed shelf during the last low 
stand of sea level. During this time streams dis- 
tributed sediment from the east and west towards 
the center of the Gulf. During part of the 
Pleistocene, the main drainage entering the Gulf 
through San Miguel Bay passed north of the 
Archipelago de Las Perlas and across the shelf in 
the prominent central submarine valley. Presently 
fine-grained sediments are being transported and 
deposited in a counter-clockwise direction around 
the inner part of the Gulf, producing a deposit 
which is nearly homogeneous in mineralogy. Fine- 
grained sediment is forming a prism moving out 
from the shore towards the center of the Gulf; 
some has bypassed the shelf and is being deposited 
on the slope. Heavy mineral determinations were 
made by conventional optical and x-ray 
techniques. Distribution patterns derived using x- 
ray peak heights and a Q-mode factor analysis on 
data from both techniques were compared and 
showed very good similarity. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07863 



CONTINENTAL-SHELF SEDIMENTS OFF NEW 
JERSEY, 

Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, N.Y. Dept. of 

Geology. 

G. M. Friedman. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43, No 1 , p 

224-237, March 1973. 9 fig, 1 tab, 59 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Atlantic Coastal Plain, 'Continental 
shelf, 'New Jersey, 'Bottom sediments, 
'Mineralogy, Provenance, Sedimentation, Sedi- 
mentology, Sediment transport, Quaternary 
period. Stratigraphy. 

Surface sediment samples from a study area 20 
miles wide across the New Jersey continental shelf 
north of Atlantic City were studied. The sediment 
consists mostly of moderately well-sorted, medi- 
um-grained sand with a remarkable absence of 
particles finer than 125 microns in size. This 
absence of fine particles is related to the rework- 
ing during the Holocene transgression. Mapping of 
statistical parameters suggests that during the 
Holocene submergence stillstands occurred at 
about 40 and 20 fathoms. Morphologic terraces at 
about 80 and 68 fathoms may be distinguished. The 
abundance of hornblende and garnet and the 
presence of magnetite in the shelf samples con- 
trasts with the absence of these minerals in 
Cretaceous, Miocene or Quaternary rocks on the 
adjacent coastal plain. It is suggested that the con- 
tinental-shelf sediments may have been derived 
from an ancestral Hudson River. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07864 



TEXTURAL CHANGES AS AN INDICATOR OF 
SEDIMENT DISPERSION IN THE NORTHERN 
CHANNEL ISLAND PASSAGES, CALIFORNIA, 

University of Southern California, Los Angeles. 

Dept. of Geological Sciences. 

J. S. Booth. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43, No 1 , p 

238-250, March 1973. 16 fig, 3 tab, 17 ref. ONR 

Contract N00014-67-A-0269-0009C. 

Descriptors: 'Sediment transport, 'Dispersion, 
'Distribution patterns, 'California, Tidal waters. 



r 



;< 



19 



Field 02— WATER CYCLE 

Group 2J — Erosion and Sedimentation 



Currents (walcr), Statistics, Bottom sediments. 
Winds, Littoral drift, Tracers, Tracking 
techniques. Continental shelf 
Identifiers: 'Channel Island (Calif). 

A technique for determining sediment dispersion 
in shallow, high energy marine environments is 
based on changes in textural properties wiih 
changes in energy. In order to test this technique, 
samples were collected from the Northern Chan 
nel Island Passages off the southern California 
coast. The four textural moments were calculated 
for each sample and polynomial trend surface con- 
tour maps were constructed for mean and sorting 
for each passage. San Miguel Passage is charac- 
terized by sediment dispersion to the southeast. 
The energy level is highest in the center of the 
passage and there is a gradual decrease in energy 
toward the perimeter. Santa Cruz Channel is more 
complex. A lobe of coarse sediment, part of which 
appears to be relict, in the northern section of the 
channel shows dispersion to the east. However, 
finer sediment is moving into the southern part of 
the area from the east, where it is intercepted by 
the head of Santa Cruz Canyon. Because there is 
movement to the east and west, this channel may 
represent a shear zone between two currents. 
Anacapa Passage shows dominant westward 
dispersion along both the southern and northern 
margins, with the southern one being the most sig- 
nificant. Relict sediment appears to exist in this 
passage as well. Wind-driven currents are more 
important than either tidal currents or wave action 
in acefnting for sediment distribution. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W73-07865 



ARGENTINE BASIN SEDIMENT SOURCES AS 
INDICATED BY QUARTZ SURFACE TEX- 
TURES, 

Queens Coll., Flushing, N.Y. Dept. of Geology. 
D. Krinsley, P. E. Biscaye, and K. K. Turekian. 
Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43, No 1, p 
251-257, March 1973. 4 fig, 1 tab, 16ref. 

Descriptors: *Provenance, 'Bottom sediments, 
•Particle shape, 'Sands, *Quartz, Stratigraphy, 
Sedimentation, Sedimentology, Mineralogy, Abra- 
sion, Atlantic Ocean, Antarctic Ocean. 
Identifiers: *Argentine Basin (Pacific Ocean). 

Distinctive quartz surface textures, as determined 
by scanning electron microscopy, can be sued to 
identify sources of sediment in the Argentine 
Basin. Glacial quartz from the south, fluvial-lit- 
toral quartz from the continental margin, and 
windblown hot-dune sand can be identified and 
their distributions tentatively assessed. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W73-07866 



ALKALINITY DETERMINATION IN IN- 
TERESTmAL WATERS OF MARINE SEDI- 
MENTS, 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, 

Calif. 

J. M. Gieskes, and W. C. Rogers. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43, No 1, p 

272-277, March 1973. 1 fig, 2 tab, 16 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Alkalinity, *Pore water, "Connate 
water, 'Bottom sediments, Carbonates, Sulfides, 
Ammonia, Ion exchange, Calcium, Magnesium, 
Sulfates, Phosphates, Water chemistry, Hydrogen 
ion concentration, Diagenesis. 

The titration alkalinity of interstitial water is 
defined in terms of the ionic species that con- 
tribute to the alkalinity. The significance and the 
magnitude of these contributions may be esti- 
mated from available analytical data. A method for 
the potentionmetric titration of the alkalinity is 
described with special reference to the various 
techniques available for the evaluation of the 
equivalence point. The possible effect of the 



sulfate < onimi of the >..iin|,lr-. on the mathematical 
evaluation of the end point r <liv u-.r.\ I 1j< accu 
racy of the method M • -inn.iir.! | (K 

napp IJSGS) 
W7 1 07H67 



CHANGES IN CLAY MINERAL ASSEM- 
BLAGES BY SAMPLER TYPE, 

George Washington Uruv , Washington. IX 

Dept of Geology 

T R Siegcl.and 1 W Pierce 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 43, No 1 . p 

287-290, March 1973 3 tab, 9 ref NSI Giant GA 

16499 

Descriptors: •Sampling, 'Bottom sediments, 
•Clay minerals, 'Bottom sampling, Core*, 
Dredging, Heterogeneity, Reliability, Variability 

Clay mineral contents of samples of Recent 
marine sediments from the Golfo San Matias, Ar- 
gentina, taken as piston cores, gravity cores, and 
grab samples, show values which differ according 
to the type of sampler used. Averages for the com- 
ponents of the clay mineral assemblages are 
similar for the piston core and grab sample groups, 
whereas those for the Phleger samples are sigruf i 
cantly different. Comparisons of clay mineral dis 
tiihutions in Recent marine environments can be 
made with confidence only if the same type sam- 
pling device is used to extract all the bottom sedi- 
ments. The data from grab and piston core samples 
may, however, be treated together. (Knapp 
USGS) 
W73-07868 



QUANTITATIVE GEOMORPHOLOGY-SOME 
ASPECTS AND APPLICATIONS. 

Proceedings of 2nd Annual Geomorphology Sym- 
posia Series held at Binghamton, NY., Oct 15-16, 
1971: Binghamton, State Univ of New York Publi- 
cations in Geomorphology, M., Morisawa, editor, 
1972. 315 p, 17 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Geomorphology, 'Mathematical 
studies, 'Statistical methods, 'Statistics, Topog- 
raphy, Terrain analysis. Land forming. Erosion, 
Sedimentation, Hydrology, Sediment transport, 
Reviews. 
Identifiers: 'Quantitative geomorphology. 

One of the most important trends in geomorpholo- 
gy in the past 25 years has been the orientation of 
the field toward more objective, mathematical 
methods of studying landforms and the processes 
which create them. This second Annual 
Geomorphology Symposium volume presents 
papers exemplifying the history, use and some 
problems of quantitative techniques in 
geomorphology. Papers in Part I deal with abstract 
concerns in geomorphic quantification. Part U il- 
lustrates the wide variety of geomorphic fields into 
which quantitative investigations have been car- 
ried since their inception. Geomorphic phenomena 
such as mass movements, glaciation, and shoreline 
changes have become areas for mathematical and 
statistical methodology. Part HI includes four 
papers illustrating the practical applications of 
quantitative description and analysis of fluvial 
systems. Cumulative frequency curves of slope 
and relief were used in evaluating an area for suita- 
bility as a site for testing military trafficability, 
mobility and visibility. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07869 



THREADS OF INQWRY IN QUANTITATIVE 
GEOMORPHOLOGY, 

Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Dept. of Geography. 
N. E. Salisbury. 

In: Quantitative Geomorphology-Some Aspects 
and Applications, Proc of 2nd Annual 
Geomorphology Symposia Series, p 9-60, 1972. 3 
tab, 398 ref. 



Descriptor! *' 
studies, 'Statistical methods, 'Statistics, 
rapby, 'terrain analysis, XmuA forming. I 
• l,drology. S r du nel In 
Reviews 
Identifiers 'Quantitative gcomorpboiogy 






OS* 

Ml 



Quantitative gcomorpboiogy involves dcscnpU 
of land surface form, including empirical cxplin 
lions ol interrelationships between form eleaMB | 
These descriptions include geometry of cbaaa* 
and valleys, stream profiles, deveiopmeat i 
drainage nets, topology, explanations of sire* 
flow and systems of landscape explanation, 
eluding slope development Much of the effort 
geology can be traced to the impetus provided 
Horton's 1945 paper oo hrononaJ dcvelopmeaL < 
streams and their drainage basins ' Through Ufl 
geographers became more involved with fluv 
processes, and by the late I960 s there was utile 
distinguish their work from that of geologists , n 
somewhat greater attention to spatial variables 
gcnerauzaUons Quantitative techniques that •» 
originally introduced largely in flgdj 
geomorphology with some opposition, are ar| 
widely accepted in all phases of i 
(See also W73-07869) (Knapp-USGS 
W73-O7870 



PROBLEMS OE INTERPRETATION OE SIM 

LATUM MODEIJi OF GEOLOC 

PROCESSES, 

Virginia Univ., Charlottesville Dept of fcnvin 

mental Sciences. 

A. D Howard. 

In: Quantitative Geomorphology-Some Atpe- 

and Applications, Proc of 2nd Anoi 

Geomorphology Symposia Series, p 62-82, 1973 

fig, 1 tab, 40 ref . 

Descriptors: 'Mathematical mode 

•Geomorphology, 'Simulation analysis, M©i 
studies, Numerical analysis. Stochastic process 
Variability, Reviews. 
Identifiers: 'Quantitative geomorphology. 

Mathematical models of geologic systems co 
monly can only give numerical predictions 
using the technique of simulation. Simulation 
troduces additional assumptions, whose effe 
are minimized in the case of solution of c 
ferential equations by small spatio-temporal inc 
ments and in the case of probabilistic models 
sufficient repetitions of the simulation to give 
curate values of statistical parameters. In so 
cases models with very different assumptk 
about the nature of the processes involved g 
similar predictions due to the dominance in det 
mining results by a seemingly less important 
sumption common to all the models. Relative i 
portance of the various theoretical constructs 
the model can generally be determined only 
noting effects of modification of the hypothe 
upon the outcome. Nearly identical predictions 
sometimes made by competing models which hi 
no apparent common theoretical construt 
Models differ in degree of generality of the varii 
assumptions incorporated in the model; mod 
give more satisfactory explanations of nature 
the degree that they incorporate general laws si 
as those of mechanics instead of experimen 
empirical, or ad hoc assumptions. Inherent r 
domness can never be proven or disproven; h< 
ever, the scientist may show by constructing tn 
accurate deterministic models the maximum lin 
of any proposed inherent randomness. (See a < 
W73-07869) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07871 



THE TWO DIMENSIONAL SPATIAL ( 

GANIZATION OF CLEAR CREEK AND O' 

MAN CREEK, IOWA, 

Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. Lab. f or D 

puter Graphics and Spatial Analysis. 

M. Woldenberg. 



20 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Erosion and Sedimentation — Group 2J 



i: Quantitative Geomorphology-Some Aspects 
id Applications, Proc of 2nd Annual 
eomorphology Symposia Series, p 83-106, 1972. 
fig, 6 tab, 22 ref . 

escriptors: *Geomorphology, *River basins, 
drainage patterns (geologic), Iowa, River 
stems, Drainage density, Topography, Terrain 
lalysis, Hortons law. 
(entifiers: *Quantitativegeomorphology. 

he spatial organization of Clear Creek and Old 
[an Creek, adjacent 6th and 7th order eastward 
owing tributaries of the Iowa River, was in- 
stigated at the 7th, 6th and 5th order levels. 
Tien the number of basins per order was com- 
ired to a model based on mixed hexagonal 
erarchies of drainage basin areas, evidence was 
>und for spatial complementarity, incomplete 
isms, and over-complete basins. It was possible 
i combine contiguous basins and interbasin areas 
I create equilibrium hierarchies. Both major 
•sins are long and narrow. The mainstreams flow 
symmetrically near the southern sides of each 
liiey. The asymmetry allows the formation of 
ore higher order streams than would be the case 
a symmetrical basin. This, in tum, may allow 
ie system to transport water and detritus with 
ss frictional loss. (See also W73-07869) (Knapp- 
SGS) 
'73-07872 



QUANTTTATTVE GEOMORPHOLOGY FIELD 
OURSE, 

rizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Geosciences. 
I. B. Bull. 

i: Quantitative Geomorphology-Some Aspects 
id Applications, Proc of 2nd Annual 
eomorphology Symposia Series, p 107-1 17, 1972. 
fig, 1 tab, 9 ref. 

escriptors: *Geomorphology, 'Education, On- 

te data collections, Universities, Terrain analy- 

s, Topography, Mapping, On-site INVESTIGA- 

IONS. 

lentifiers: 'Quantitative geomorphology. 

graduate-level field-oriented course in 
eomorphology can stimulate students' curiosity 
x>ut geomorphic processes and suggest ways in 
•hich geomorphology may be applied to practical 
roblems. It is to the advantage of the class to 
ave students with diverse interests, such as civil 
lgineering, geography, geology, geological en- 
neenng, geophysics, hydrology, and watershed 
lanagement, work together on common field 
roblems. The quantitative geomorphology course 
I the University of Arizona consists chiefly of af- 
moon field trips, seminars, and literature discus- 
on sessions. The field work is done by two-man 
» four-man teams that either study the morpholo- 
/ or devise simple instrumentation to measure 
lagnitudes and rates of processes at a trip site, 
earns exchange results of their work at a seminar 
iring the next week, and the field trips are 
eceded by discussion of pertinent literature . Dif- 
rent types of field work can be rotated to each 
am for some trips. The infrequent periods of 
>or field weather are spent on topographic map 
lalysis. Appropriate geomorphic field-study sites 
southern Arizona include ephemeral stream 
lannels, pediments, alluvial fans, stream ter- 
ices, playas, debris-flow channels, hillslopes, 
id Quaternary volcanic craters. Similar courses 
humid regions might include perennial streams, 
ndslides and earthflows, seacoasts, karst topog- 
phy, estuaries and tidal flats, lakes and ponds, 
id periglacial areas. (See also W73-07869) (K- 
ipp-USGS) 
73-07873 



[ASS-MOVEMENT STUDD2S NEAR MADIS- 
N, WISCONSIN, 
onnecticut Univ., Storrs. 
F. Black, and T. D. Hamilton. 



In: Quantitative Geomorphology-Some Aspects 
and Applications, Proc of 2nd Annual 
Geomorphology Symposia Series, p 121-179, 1972 
29 fig, 4 tab, 17 ref. 

Descriptors: *Mass wasting, 'Wisconsin, 
'Geomorphology, 'Degradation (slope), 'Instru- 
mentation, 'On-site data collections, On-site in- 
vestigations, Measurement, Creep, Loess, Slopes. 
Identifiers: 'Quantitative geomorphology. 

Techniques and equipment for study of mass- 
movement processes were evaluated on slopes 
near Madison, Wisconsin. Special bench marks 
consisted of solid iron rods cemented vertically 
into bedrock and separated from the soil mantle by 
much larger diameter capped casings. Within 
fenced enclosures, point-gage measurements of 
small stones proved best for determining both 
horizontal and vertical movements. The point 
gages were used from permanently mounted steel 
and aluminum platforms cemented to bedrock. 
Dial indicators on special mounts on the same plat- 
forms measured displacements of small stones, 
and linear-motion transducers recorded move- 
ments continuously even under this snow. How- 
ever, difficulties with the mounts from wind ef- 
fects and friction from various causes in the 
mechanical linkages made those two systems unre- 
liable without frequent attention. Strain gages in 
the soil failed before a year cycle was completed. 
Eighty blocks of dolomite 20 cm to 5 m across in a 
pasture with cattle were drilled and plugged with 
rods on which fine crosses were scratched. One 
75-m line of 21 blocks on a slope of 4 deg to 25 deg 
lengthened 97.2 mm, with lengthening mostly con- 
fined to the steeper slope. At one fenced site, ver- 
tical displacement of five small stones on and in 
loessial soil on nearly level ground was up to 18 
mm. Wetting and drying often were more impor- 
tant than freezing and thawing. Downslope motion 
of surface soil and small stones on steeper non- 
wooded slopes in the study area averages perhaps 
5 mm each year. This equivalent to a vertical 
lowering of the surface of about 2mm per year, or 
200 cm per 1000 years. Gentle or wooded slopes 
and larger blocks of rock move much less. (See 
also W73-07869) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07874 



THE SURF1CIAL FABRIC OF ROCKFALL TA- 
LUS, 

Ohio State Univ. Research Foundation, Colum- 
bus. Inst, of Polar Studies. 
E. R. McSaveney. 

In: Quantitative Geomorphology-Some Aspects 
and Applications, Proc of 2nd Annual 
Geomorphology Symposia Series, p 181-197, 1972. 
7 fig, 4 tab, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Talus, 'Geomorphology, 'Sedimen- 
tary structures, 'Petrofabrics, Degradation 
(slope), Mass wasting. Particle shape, Particle 
size, Numerical analysis, Mathematical models. 
Identifiers: 'Quantitative geomorphology, 
'Rockfall talus. 

Rockfall talus in the Front Range, Colorado, has a 
distinct fabric. Three-dimensional analysis shows 
a subhorizontal girdle on which are superimposed 
several modes. The principal mode parallels slope 
direction but plunges less than the surface slope, 
indicating imbrication in an upslope direction. 
Transverse modes are at angles of 90 deg or less to 
the downslope mode. The girdle reflects the 
overall geometry of the talus surface, while the 
modes are produced by the motion of particles 
over the surface, with rolling and sliding playing 
equal roles. Fabric strength is a function of surface 
roughness, and decreases with increasing particle 
size downslope. Treatment of talus orientation 
data only by purely numerical methods, including 
two- and three-dimensional vector analyses and 
their associated tests of significance, obscures 
more than it clarifies. Use of these methods as the 
sole determinant of the presence or absence of 



fabric should be avoided. (See also W73-07869) 

(Knapp-USGS) 

W73-07875 



COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR ANALYSIS 
OF BEACH AND WAVE DYNAMICS, 

Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 

J. M. Colonel], and V. Goldsmith. 
In: Quantitative Geomorphology-Some Aspects 
and Applications, Proc of 2nd Annual 
Geomorphology Symposia Series, p 198-222, 1972. 
15 fig, 15 ref. USCE Contract DACW 72-67-C- 
0004. 

Descriptors: 'Geomorphology, 'Data processing, 
'Beaches, 'Beach erosion, 'Massachusetts, 
•Surf, Littoral drift, Waves (water), Computer 
programs, Sedimentation, Sediment transport. 
Refraction (water waves), Profiles, Dunes, Sands, 
Numerical analysis. 
Identifiers: 'Quantitative geomorphology. 

Computer programs (including graphic desplays of 
results) are available for storm wave forecasting, 
wave refraction, volumetric changes of beach 
profiles, and statistical analyses of grain size and 
internal dune geometry. The primary goal in these 
analyses is to relate observed changes in the inter- 
tidal portions of the beaches to processes active in 
the adjacent offshore areas. At twelve permanent 
beach profile locations on Monomoy Island and 
four on Nauset Spit, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 
there are large variations in the amount of erosion 
and accretion occurring along the length of this 16- 
mile barrier island coastline. Analysis of the wave 
behavior in the adjacent offshore area with the aid 
of storm wave forecasting techniques and over 200 
wave refraction diagrams yields a correlation 
between zones of wave energy concentration and 
zones of increased erosion. Beach sediments are 
essentially in equilibrium with the wave energy 
conditions as there is no decrease in grain size 
'downdrift'. Instead, zones of wave energy con- 
centrations are suggested by small areas of 
coarser-grained sediment observed at several loca- 
tions along the beach. The coastal sand dunes have 
a distinctive internal geometry characterized by 
low dip angles and azimuths that correlate with 
prevailing wind directions rather than with storm 
winds. These conclusions are statistically valid at 
any dune elevation. (See also W73-07869) (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W73-07876 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS 
CONTROLLING THE DISTRIBUTION OF COR- 
RD2 GLACIERS IN OKOA BAY, EAST BAFFIN 
ISLAND: (WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE 
TO GLOBAL RADIATION), 
Colorado Univ., Boulder. Inst, of Arctic and Al- 
pine Research. 
J. T. Andrews. 

In: Quantitative Geomorphology-Some Aspects 
and Applications, Proc of 2nd Annual 
Geomorphology Symposia Series, p 223-241 , 1972. 
8 fig, 2 tab, 19 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Glaciers, 'Arctic, 'Cirques, 
'Geomorphology, 'Glaciation, Canada, Climates, 
Statistical methods, Correlation analysis. Solar 
radiation, Pleistocene epoch, Weather. 
Identifiers: 'Quantitative geomorphology. 

Come glaciers near Okoa Bay, east Baffin Island, 
N.W.T., Canada were studied using quantitative 
methods. Indirect glaciological climatological mea- 
sures (such as elevation, geometry and size) were 
studied using multiple stepwise discriminant anal- 
ysis. Of five variables selected the most important 
are residuals from two trend surfaces on come lip 
and mountain summit elevations. Ice-filled and 
ice-free comes differ on the average by only 200 m 
elevation. The importance of global radiation on 
present glacier distribution was analyzed. Dis- 



21 



Field 02— WATER CYCLE 

Group 2J — Erosion and Sedimentation 



criminant analysis shows the degree of difference 
in terms of global radiation receipts between 
presently glacieri/.cd valleys (north and cast fac 
ing) and two empty (south-facing) vail 
Average daily totals for August 21st were (II and 
398 cal per sq cm, respectively. The disc rimiflUl 
equation was used to find the effects of changes in 
global radiation due to variations in the obliquity 
of the ecliptic and elevation on the state of 
glacierization. These factors can account for up to 
a 25% shift in the state of glacieri/.ation Other fa<. 
tors, included in any Quaternary climatic model. 
(See also W73-07869) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07877 



HYDROGRAPH ANALYSIS AND SOME RE- 
LATED GEOMORPHIC VARIABLES, 

Nebraska Univ., Omaha. Dept. of Civil Engineer- 
ing. 

W. F. Rogers. 

In: Quantitative Geomorphology - Some Aspects 
and Applications, Proc of 2nd Annual 
Geomorphology Symposia Series, p 245-257, 1972. 
9 fig, 6 ref . 

Descriptors: 'Hydrograph analysis, 

•Geomorphology, 'Drainage patterns (geologic), 
Mortons law, Runoff, Rainfall-runoff relation- 
ships, Hydrographs, Infiltration, Drainage densi- 
ty- 
Identifiers: 'Quantitative geomorphology. 

A comparison of the frequency histogram of first 
order channel distances for drainage basins in 
Pennsylvania and their hydrographs of runoff 
from general storms show marked similarity. This 
close correspondence indicates the shape of the 
surface runoff hydrograph and is largely con- 
trolled by the distribution of first order channel 
distances. First order drainage channels originate 
when the tractive force exerted by flowing water is 
sufficient to move surface sediment. The amount 
of runoff available to move sediment is a function 
of the geology and climate. Soils derived from fine 
grained rocks have lower infiltration rates and 
higher runoff volume than soils derived from 
coarser grained rocks in a semiarid climate. Root 
density and penetration increases in a more humid 
climate and increases infiltration rates. The 
number of first order channels is inversely propor- 
tional to the infiltration capacity of the soil. Each 
first order channel acts as a source area for sur- 
face runoff. The distribution of first order channel 
distances from the gage determines the timing of 
the delivery of water to the gage. (See also W73- 
07869) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07878 



PREDICTING TIME-OF-TRAVEL IN STREAM 

SYSTEMS, 

Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 

J. B. Stall. 

In: Quantitative Geomorphology - Some Aspects 

and Applications, Proc of 2nd Annual 

Geomorphology Symposia Series, p 259-271, 1972. 

7 fig, 1 tab, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Travel time, 'Streamflow, 'Dye 
releases, 'Illinois, Path of pollutants, Hydraulics, 
Channel morphology, Geomorphology. 
Identifiers: 'Quantitative geomorphology. 

Stream discharge, cross-sectional area, velocity, 
width and depth are consistently related to 
drainage area and flow frequency in the 5250- 
square-mile basin of the Kaskaskia River basin in 
Illinois. A set of five hydraulic geometry equations 
represent quantitatively these interrelationships. 
Mean velocities at various locations in this stream 
system are averaged for various stream reaches to 
provide average time-of -travel. Computed time-of- 
travel for a 65-mile reach of the Kaskaskia River 
was compared to actual time-of-travel of an injec- 
tion of dye. Computed values were good at high 
flows, and fair at medium flows. At low flow the 



i 'imputed value is a minimum expected Un 
travel Actual time of travel may \r much longer 
due to iiappniK of the dye in pools in the 
imbed iipitrearn Ifom nfflr-i ( orriputrd Ijme 

ul ii.ivri curvet irt presented foi ti 

reach of the Kaskaskia River (Sec also I 
07869) (Knapp US(.S) 
W7 ( 07879 



HYDROGEOMORPHOLOt.Y Or SI S«\M KH AN- 
NA AND DELAWARE HAST 
State Univ , of New York. HiriKJiamton l>cp( of 
(ieology. 
I) K < oates. 

In Quantitative GeomoipholoKy Some Aspects 
and Applications, Proc of 2nd Annual 
Geomorphology Symposia Scries, p 273-306, 1972. 
1 2 fig, 8 tab, 18 ref 

Descriptors: 'Geomorphology, 'River basins, 
•Streamflow, 'l>elawarc River, Hydrogeology, 
Water yield, Hydrology. Surface waters. River 
systems, Valleys, Topography, Alluvial channels, 
Alluvium, I>ow flow, Rainfall-runoff relation- 
ships. 

Identifiers: 'Quantitative geomorphology, 
'Susquehanna River Basin. 

A unified study of hydrology, geology, and 
geomorphology of river basins in the glaciated Ap- 
palachian Plateau of New York and Pennsylvania 
was made to evaluate the U.S. Geological Survey 
stream gaging network and to develop parameters 
of low flow in ungaged streams. New indices 
developed include a sandstone index, a rock mas- 
siveness index, a stream relief number, a valley fill 
ratio, and a morphologic classification system 
The 13 Delaware basins in the rugged Catskill 
Mountains with terrigenous sandstones are con- 
trasted with 12 Susquehanna basins of more sub- 
dued topograph with marine shales. The Catskill 
region has greater relief, smaller drainage density, 
steeper topographic slopes and stream gradients, 
higher sandstone and massiveness numbers, less 
valley fill, and more precipitation and streamflow. 
Delaware basins have more uniform charac- 
teristics than Susquehanna basins. More than 90 
percent of the low streamflow variance in 
Delaware basins is explained by precipitation and 
discharge parameters, whereas hydrologic indica- 
tors are unimportant predictors of low streamflow 
in Susquehanna basins. Susquehanna low stream- 
flow characteristics are related to valley fill 
materials. Glaciation has greatly influenced both 
the physical nature of Susquehanna basins and 
their hydrology response system, but is less impor- 
tant in Delaware basins. (See also W73-07869) (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W73-07880 



QUANTITATIVE GEOMORPHOLOGY FOR 
TEST FACILITY EVALUATION AT YUMA 
PROVING GROUND, 

Army Topographic Command, Washington, D.C. 
J. A. Millett. 

In: Quantitative Geomorphology-Some Aspects 
and Applications, Proc of 2nd Annual 
Geomorphology Symposia Series, p 307-313, 1972. 
2 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Geomorphology, 'Mapping, 
'Deserts, 'Topography, 'Military aspects, 
'Arizona, Terrain analysis, On-site investigations, 
Slopes, Surveys. 

Identifiers: 'Quantitative geomorphology, 'Milita- 
ry geomorphology, 'Yuma (Ariz). 

A simplified method for quantifying desert terrain 
at Yuma Proving Ground uses field measurements 
of slope and relief, and mapping of unconsolidated 
materials. The field data, presented primarily as 
cumulative frequency curves, are useful in en- 
gineering evaluation of test-area suitability for 
traffic mobility and visibility. The data are further 
applicable to an overall description of terrain, to 



22 



an estimate of the aceuracy of - 

seven identified mapping umu. and to esLabiug* 

base areas few environmental letting 'See al 

:/H/j9)IKTu| ; 

:/88l 



SPI ASH EROSION RE.I A I ED lOVJll EROt 
Ml lis INDEXES AND OfHER EOREtfl V» 
PROPER I IE.S IN HAMAD 

resty. < alif Pactl 
Southwest |-orcsl and Range Experiment Suitor. 

.imoUj, and H W Anderson 
Water Resources Research. Vol 9. No 2. p 33 
345, April IV73. 2 fig. 6 tab. 18 ref 

iJcscnplors 'Sod erosion 'Impact 'KainfaJ 
•Hawau 'l-orest soils, Erosion. Simulated raj 
fall. Regression analysis. Moisture content, C 
game mallei, Infiltration 
Identifiers • Splash erosion 



Ixisses of Hawaiian forest soils under 
rainfall were used to test indexes of erodJbii 
based on soil aggregate size and M srlnVtrM, 
suspension percent Soil samples were collect 
on the Koolau and Waianae ranges on Oat 
Hawaii Soil losses were related by regression 
principal components to eight factors soil cn> 
hility index, bulk density, saturation soil moHtu 
content, precipitation excess, organic matter cc 
tent, geologic type, vegetation type and dim* 
/.one at the sampling site Equations that lndud 
the percent of water stable aggregates 25-0. 
mm in size produced the highest explained var 
Lion 81% in gross splash erosion and 66% in nu 
i mum splash rate. Gross splash was related tc 
sod erodibihiy index, bulk density, and lnfiltrali 
and saturation moisture content, in contrast, nu 
imum splash erosion variation was related to • 
game matter content as well as to an erodML 
index and the bulk density of the soil. Ash a 
basalt coUuvium soils required more care 
management than basalt soils because of nV 
higher maximum splash rates. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07888 



SEEPAGE STEPS IN THE NEW EORES 
HAMPSHIRE, ENGLAND, 

C. G. Tuckfield. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 3t 

377, April 1973. 9 fig, 1 tab, 4 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Geomorphology, 'Erosion, Topt 
raphy, 'Seepage, 'Springs, Valleys, Grow 
water, Soil water, Slopes, Degradation (Slope). 
Identifiers: 'New Forest (England), 'Seeps 
steps. 

Seepage steps are erosional scarps produced 
hillslopes by the removal of material on I 
downslope side by concentrated seepage. In pfc 
the scarps form accurate lines approximately f 
lowing the contour. In profile, four elements c 
be distinguished: a convex slope above the sti 
an almost vertical face, a convex debris sic 
below the face, and often a concave slope beyo 
the debris slope. In the New Forest, Hampshi 
England, the seepage is caused by concentrati 
of water above the junction between a perineal 
sandstone and an underlying impermeable cL 
The seepage face is composed partly of superfk 
material and partly of the permeable rock, the a 
tact between the two strata being obscured by i 
debris and found in one case to be 8 meters bei 
the level of the base of the step. The water la 
was always less than 1 m below the level of ' 
base of the step. The position of the step is det 
mined directly by the level of the water table i 
indirecdy by the clay-sandstone junction. 1 
height of the step varies considerably: the mc 
maximum height for 54 valley sides is 2.16 m; 
absolute maximum height recorded is 6 m. Eros 
of the face is active at some points; at other poi 
the feature appears to be relict. It is usually m 
active near the heads of valleys. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07891 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Erosion and Sedimentation — Group 2J 



BOTTOM CURRENTS IN THE HUDSON 
CANYON, 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Miami, Fla. Atlantic Oceanographic and 
Meteorological Labs. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02E. 
W73-07903 



STUDIES ON THE FLUVIAL ENVIRONMENT, 
ARCTIC COASTAL PLAIN PROVINCE, 
NORTHERN ALASKA, VOLUMES I AND H, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 
W73-07906 



BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF LANDSLIDE 
PROCESSES (OSNOVNYYE ZAKONOMER- 
NOSTI OPOLZNEVYKH PROTSESSOV), 

Ye. P. Yemel'yanova. 

Izdatel'stvo 'Nedra', Moscow, 1972. 31 1 p. 

Descriptors: *Mass wasting, "Landslides, 
•Slopes, 'Slope stability, Erosion control, Creep, 
Solifluction, Mudflows, Earthquakes, Soils, 
Rockslides, Rocks, Rock properties, Rock 
mechanics, Structural geology, Groundwater, Cli- 
mates, Vegetation, Analytical techniques, 
Forecasting. 
Identifiers: *USSR, Tectonics. 

Investigations of theoretical and practical aspects 
of landslide processes on natural slopes were 
based on observations made by the author and on 
extensive data in Soviet and foreign literature. The 
origin of landslides is examined in terms of the 
geological conditions of the area and the effects of 
groundwater, rock -slope stability, undercutting of 
slopes, climate, vegetation, neotectonics, and 
seismic phenomena on slide movements. 
Techniques for prediction of landslides are accom- 
panied by remedial measures for their prevention 
and control. (Josef son-USGS) 
W73-07908 



SHELF SEDIMENTS IN THE BAY OF BISCAY, 

Akademiya Nauk SSR, Kaliningrad. Institut Oke- 

anologii. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 

W73-07912 



SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF TURBH)ITY 
CURRENTS, 

Sakhalin Kompleksnyi Nauchno-Issledovatelskii 

Institut, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (USSR). 

'For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 

W73-07913 



COLUMBIA RIVER EFFECTS IN THE 
NORTHEAST PACD7IC: PHYSICAL STUDIES. 
REPORT OF PROGRESS, JUNE 1971 
THROUGH JUNE 1972. 

Washington Univ., Seattle. Dept. of Oceanog- 
raphy. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as RLO- 
2225-T25-6; $3.00 paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. 
Report No. RLO-2225-T25-6, July 1972. 12 p, ap- 
pend. 

Descriptors: 'Columbia River, 'Pacific Ocean, 
'Hydrology, 'Data collections, 'Surveys, Move- 
ment, Dispersion, Diffusion, Ocean circulation, 
Sedimentology, Sediment transport, Equipment, 
Instrumentation. 

Reports an analysis of coastal circulation and sedi- 
ment transport on the Washington Shelf on a rela- 
itively fine scale in both space and time. The study 
attempts to relate the variations to the forcing 
unctions and establish such local anaomalies as 
nay occur from the Columbia River Mouth north 
o the Strait of Juan de Fuca. (Houser-ORNL) 
#73-07956 



VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF MARINE 
SEDIMENTS, 

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of 
Civil Engineering. 

S. H. Carpenter, L. J. Thompson, and W. R. 
Bryant. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., 22151 as 
AD-748 647, Price $3.00 printed copy; $1.45 
microfiche. Texas A and M University Depart- 
ment of Oceanography Technical Report 72-8-T, 
September 1972. 56 p, 16 fig, 2 tab, 18 ref, 2 ap- 
pend. ONR Contract N00014-68-0308 (0002). 

Descriptors: 'Sediments, 'Oceans, 'Bottom sedi- 
ments, 'Viscosity, 'Viscometers, Stability, Shear 
strength, Moisture content, Specific gravity, Test- 
ing procedures, Curves, Soil types, Soil proper- 
ties. 

Identifiers: Anchor resistance, Submarine bearing 
capacity. 

Because of their high moisture content, marine 
sediments have characteristics of both solids and 
liquids. Being neither liquid nor solid it is difficult 
to evaluate material constants using conventional 
soil testing equipment or conventional liquid 
viscometers. However, these properties must be 
evaluated if problems such as anchor resistance to 
motion, submarine bearing capacity, and slope in- 
stability problems are to be solved. Before proper- 
ties can be evaluated a theory must exist. Non- 
linear viscoelastic theory was used and a simple 
shear device called the shear viscometer was 
developed. From cores taken in the Gulf of Mex- 
ico the shear resistance of marine sediment was 
the sum of an exponential function of shear defor- 
mation and a function of the one-third power of 
the rate of shear deformation. The shear resistance 
can also be empirically related to more conven- 
tional tests such as vane shear, moisture content, 
liquid limit, specific gravity, and the depth from 
which the sample was taken. (Woodard-USGS) 
W73-08070 



THE WEAR OF SANDSTONE BY COLD, SLID- 
ING ICE, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Univ. (England). Dept. of 

Geography. 

R. Whitehouse. 

In: Polar Geomorphology; Institute of British 

Geographers Special Publication No 4, p 21-31, 

June 1972. 6 fig, 1 1 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Erosion, 'Glaciation, 'Scour, 
'Sandstones, 'Ice, Glaciers, Friction, Laboratory 
tests, Abrasion, Glaciology, Geomorphology, 
Mechanical properties. 

Erosion of rock by sliding ice is a function of fric- 
tion. Friction increases with load and with 
decrease in temperature, but decreases with speed 
of sliding and duration of sliding in laboratory 
tests. This is caused by the formation, at the ice 
sliding surface, of a thin layer of slightly deformed 
ice crystals with their c axes normal to the surface; 
ice so oriented has a very low coefficient of fric- 
tion. Increase in load or in speed of sliding causes 
a jerky motion. This stick slip motion frequently 
leaves ice adhering to the rock, producing an ice- 
to-ice sliding surface. The sliding ice shows layers 
of rock particles analogous to dirt bands in 
glaciers. Production of rock debris by sliding ice is 
small, but pebbles in the rock shatter after only 
seven cycles of f reeze-thaw. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08074 



TORS, ROCK WEATHERING AND CLIMATE 
IN SOUTHERN VICTORIA LAND, ANTARC- 
TICA, 

Keele Univ. (England). Dept. of Geography. 
E. Derbyshire. 

In: Polar Geomorphology; Institute of British 
Geographers Special Publication No 4, p 93-95, 
June 1972. 8 fig, 35 ref. 



23 



Descriptors: 'Weathering, 'Antarctic, 'Erosion, 
•Recent epoch, Glaciation, Paleoclimatology, Cli- 
matology, Clays, Pleistocene epoch, Snow cover, 
Deserts, Geomorphology. 
Identifiers: 'Wright Valley (Antarctica), Tors. 

Morphological and weathering characteristics of a 
group of tors are described at Sandy Glacier 
(Wright Valley) in the McMurdo oasis of southern 
Victoria Land, Antarctica. Clay minerals at and 
beneath the surface of the rounded corestones in- 
dicate chemical weathering of the dolerite. The 
juxtaposition of rounded and angular tors on the 
summit of the arete is caused by local variations in 
microclimate, especially as it affects snow cover. 
Both types of tors are the product of the prevailing 
polar desert conditions. Such conditions have 
probably prevailed throughout the Pleistocene 
with only brief episodes of slightly more maritime 
climate. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08075 



VALLEY ASYMMETRY AND SLOPE FORMS 
OF A PERMAFROST AREA IN THE 
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES, CANADA, 

Cambridge Univ. (England). Dept. of Geography. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 
W73 -08076 



MODIFICATION OF LEVEE MORPHOLOGY 
BY EROSION IN THE MACKENZIE RIVER 
DELTA, NORTHWEST TERRITORIES, 

CANADA, 

Alberta Univ., Edmonton. Dept. of Geography. 

D.Gill. 

In: Polar Geomorphology; Institute of British 

Geographers Special Publication No 4, p 123-138, 

June 1972. 13 fig, 19 ref. Alberta Univ. Grant (55- 

32254). 

Descriptors: 'Geomorphology, 'Deltas, 'Arctic, 
•Permafrost, 'Erosion, Sedimentation, Levees, 
Alluvial channels. Degradation (Stream), Waves 
(Water), Surf, Beach erosion, Ice cover. Sea ice, 
Channel morphology, Stream erosion. 
Identifiers: 'Levees (Natural). 

Both erosion and unequal deposition of sediments 
control the gross morphology of arctic deltas. In 
addition to normal fluvial erosion, levee 
morphology in an arctic delta may be significantly 
modified by wave action, ice abrasion, slumping, 
solifluction, and thermal degradation of perenially 
frozen sediment. These processes are analyzed 
and their effect on levee retreat and rates of ag- 
gradation and progradation of slip-off and point 
bars along shifting channels in the Mackenzie 
River delta is described. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08077 



RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PROCESS AND 
GEOMETRICAL FORM ON HIGH ARCTIC 
DEBRIS SLOPES, SOUTH-WEST DEVON 
ISLAND, CANADA, 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept. of 

Geography. 

P. J. Howarth, and J. G. Bones. 

In: Polar Geomorphology; Institute of British 

Geographers Special Publication No 4, p 139-153, 

June 1972. 4 fig, 2 tab, 16 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Degradation (Slope), 

'Geomorphology, 'Arctic, Canada, Mass wasting. 
Topography, Stream erosion, Erosion, Slopes, 
Surf, Beach erosion, Bank erosion. 
Identifiers: 'Devon Island (Canada). 

Debris slope profiles were measured at four dif- 
ferent locations on southwest Devon Island, 
N.W.T., Canada. The nature and effects of basal 
erosion, rockfall and of processes dominated by 
melt water are described. There are significant dif- 
ferences in angle between slopes affected by dif- 
ferent processes. The steepest slopes, tending to 



Field 02— WATER CYCLE 

Group 2J — Erosion and Sedimentation 

be convex in form, are produced by bas;.l MO 
which results from both ice push and storm waves. 
In noncoastal locations, slopes dominated by 
rockfall are significantly steeper than those af- 
fected by processes involving water, although 
both types of slope tend to be concave in form. 
The effects of these tow processes are also seen in 
the significant differences between talus sheets 
(rockfall dominant) and talus cones (melt-water 
dominant). In coastal areas, however, rockfall 
slopes and avalanche slopes are both steep 
because debris is rafted away by sea ice to prevent 
basal accumulation. There appears to be little dif- 
ference in geometrical form between High Arctic 
and mid-latitude slopes if angles and profiles are 
compared on slopes where similar processes 
operate in the two environments. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08078 



PROCESSES OF SOIL MOVEMENT IN TURF- 
-BANKED SOLHLUCTION LOBES, OKSTIN- 
DAN, NORTHERN NORWAY, 

University Coll. of Swansea (Wales) Dept. of 

Geography. 

C. Hams. 

In: Polar Geomorphology; Institute of British 

Geographers Special Publication No 4, p 155-174, 

June 1972. 9 fig, 7 tab, 13 ref. 

Descriptors: *Creep, *Solifluction, •Arctic, 
•Degradation (Slope), *Mass wasting, 
•Geomorphology, Permafrost, Soil erosion. 
Freezing, Thawing, Frost action, Snow cover. 

The total annual rates of soil movement on an east- 
facing arctic slope in Norway were measured, 
together with soil-moisture conditions, winter 
frost heave, soil temperatures, the vertical profile 
of soil movement with depth, and the mechanical 
properties of the soils. Frost heave is greatest 
when penetration of the freezing plane through the 
soil is slow. Soil creep results from both frost 
heave and expansion and contraction of the soil 
owing to varying moisture content. Saturated con- 
ditions occur for a short period during the spring 
thaw as a result of drainage being impeded by a 
frozen subsoil layer. Maximum annual soil move- 
ment occurs where saturated conditions persist 
longest, not where the slope is greatest. Movement 
takes place by a combined process of creep and 
flow. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08079 



THE NATURE OF THE ICE-FOOT ON THE 
BEACHES OF RADSTOCK BAY, SOUTH-WEST 
DEVON ISLAND, N.W.T., CANADA IN THE 
SPRING AND SUMMER OF 1970, 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept. of 

Geography. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W73-08080 



THE SOLUTION OF LIMESTONE IN AN ARC- 
TIC ENVIRONMENT, 

Bristol Univ. (England). Dept. of Geography. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 
W73-O8081 



riorm and sediment si/.k akkam.> 

MENT ON HIGH AH< IH IAIIS 

SOllHWr.SI DEVON ISIA.NI>, N \A I 

CANADA. 

Alberta Univ , I <lii..»mori I >epl of Geography 
J d Hone* 

Arctic and Alpine Research. Vol 5, No I , p 29-40. 
1973 4 fig, 3 tab, 19 ref 

Descriptors: 'Talus, •Sediment sorting, •Arctic, 
•Mass wailing, Rockslidcs. Variability, Statistics, 
Correlation analysis, Degradation (Slope) 
Identifiers: 'Devon Island (Canada) 

The three dominant processes operating on Ulus 
of southwest I>evon Island, Canada, produce 
characteristic arrangements in si/e of surface frag- 
ments On 25 of the 27 surfaces measured, zonal 
(upslopc-downslopc) variance accounts for a 
much higher proportion of size variation than does 
lateral (cross-slope) variation This characteristic 
supports the hypothesis of fall-sorting and reverse 
fall-sorting of rock fragments as the fundamental 
mode of talus formation. At present, 66% of the 
rockfall taluses have statistically significant zonal 
size arrangements, compared to 50% on talus with 
basal erosion and only 40% on alluvial talus Basal 
erosion and meltwater activity may either rein- 
force or obscure the original downslope arrange- 
ment, depending upon the form of the process, iU 
magnitude and frequency Comparison of similar 
studies by way of statistical power analysis reveals 
considerable support for these findings (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W73-08O90 



NATURE AND RATE OF BASAL TILL DEPOSI- 
TION IN A STAGNATING ICE MASS, BUR- 
ROUGHS GLACIER, ALASKA, 

Ohio State Univ. Research Foundation, Colum- 
bus. Inst, of Polar Studies. 
D. M. Mickelson. 

Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol 5, No 1 , p 17-27, 
1973. 5 fig, 2 tab, 17 ref. NSF Grant GA-12300. 

Descriptors: •Till, *Glaciers, •Alaska, •Sedimen- 
tation rates, Glaciation, Glacial sediments, Glacial 
drift, Arctic. 
Identifiers: •Burroughs Glacier (Alaska). 

Rates of basal till deposition ranging from 0.5 to 
2.5 cm per year were observed in the Burroughs 
Glacier in southeast Alaska. Because of the emer- 
gence of hills during deglaciation, a change in ice 
flow direction of up to 90 deg has occurred near 
the southeast terminus. Because this change is 
recorded by maps and photographs dating to 1892, 
a rate of change of ice flow direction could be esti- 
mated. Till fabric measurements and till composi- 
tion at two or three depths in the till at seven lo- 
calities reflect this change. Estimates of the rate of 
till deposition were obtained by assuming that the 
fabric azimuth represents the ice flow direction at 
the time the till was deposited. Most till deposition 
took place during late stages of deglaciation. At 
two locations fabric of till just above bedrock or a 
paleosol records a post-1892 flow direction. (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W73-08091 



PROCESSES OF SOLUTION IN AN ARCTIC 
LIMESTONE TERRAIN, 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept. of 

Geography. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W73-08082 



APPLICATION OF RHEOLOGICAL MEASURE- 
MENTS TO DETERMINE LIQUID LIMIT OF 
SOILS, 

Central Building Research Inst., Roorkee (India). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02G. 
W73-O8089 



CHARACTERISTICS AND GEOMORPHIC EF- 
FECTS OF EARTHQUAKE-INITIATED LAND- 
SLIDES IN THE ADELBERT RANGE, PAPUA 
NEW GUINEA, 

Australian National Univ., Canberra. Dept. of 

Biogeography and Geomorphology. 

C. F. Pain. 

Engineering Geology, Vol 6, No 4, p 261-274, 

December 1972. 8 fig, 1 tab, 13 ref. 

Descriptors: *Landslides, *Earthquakes, 'Mud- 
flows, 'Tropical regions, 'Debris avalanches, 
Mass wasting, Vegetation effects, Geomorpholo- 
gy, Slopes, Forests. 
Identifiers: 'Papua New Guinea. 



On November I 1970 an earthquake of mag- 
nitude 7 occurred i'l km north ol M*<l*iuj uo Ike 
,a'J gj P«pu« Nr» Outnea, and on the 
fringes of the Adelbert Range Dens* LaadhbdtBg 
occurred over an area of 240 aq km iJebna 
avalanches removed shallow autl and foreet 
vegetation from slopes of 45 deg harttaflows oc- 
curred on deeper sods and lower angled slope* 
Hie nature of the Landslides and disposition of the 
vegetation debris suggest thai falling trees trig- 
gered the landslides during the earthquake Ixigam 
the deposits were an important influence on the 
movement of Landslide debris in the eta 
systems (Krianp < 
W73 -0*092 



POSSIBLE At ( I Ml I AIIOS O* 

MlMU.KMt, EXPANDAHX-TYPI < IAY 
minerals is ihk si KSTRLCTLKE Ol- TLT- 
1 1 r ( REEK DAM, KANSAS, U.SA., 
New Mexico Univ , Albuquerque Dept of Geolo- 
gy 

For primary bibliographic entry ace Field 02K 
W73-OJ093 



THE FORMATION Of IRON AND MAN- 
OANKSE-RICH LAYERS IN THE HOUX ENS 
HMMBNTC Off THUNDER BAY, LAKE SU- 
PERIOR. 

I^akehead Univ, Thunder Bay (Ontario) 

J S MolhersUl, and R J ShegeUki 

Canadian Journal of Larch Sciences, Vol 10, No4, 

p 571-576, April 1973 3 fig, 1 tab, 19ref 

Descriptors: 'Bottom sediments, 'I>ake Superior 
•Iron, 'Manganese, Connate water, Chemsca. 
precipitation, Ion transport, Mass transfer 

Thin iron- and manganese-rich Layers occur withjr 
or just below the Holocene sediments of Thunder 
Bay, Lake Superior. Most of the iron and man- 
ganese was solubilized by connate waters undei 
the reducing conditions of the early bunal stage 
subsequently migrated upward with the connate 
waters along vertical fractures during compaction 
and then eventually deposited as oxides aloof 
favorable Eh horizons. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08135 



ATLANTIC CONTINENTAL SHELF ANI 
SLOPE OF THE UNITED STATES-SAND-SIZI 
FRACTION OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS, NEW 
JERSEY TO NOVA SCOTIA, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 

W73-08137 



QUALITY OF SURFACE WATERS OF TBI 

UNITED STATES, 1968: PART I. NORTH AT 

LANTIC SLOPE BASINS. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08155 



SURFICIAL SEDDVIENTS OF BARKLE' 
SOUND AND THE ADJACENT CONTTNENTAl 
SHELF, WEST COAST VANCOUVER ISLAND, 

British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Dept. c 

Geology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 

W73-08156 



MAP OF DEPOSITS ESPECIALLY SUSCEPT 
BLE TO COMPACTION OR SUBSJDENCI 
PARKER QUADRANGLE, ARAPAHOE AN! 
DOUGLAS COUNTIES, COLORADO, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08174 



24 



WIND ERODHHLITY AS INFLUENCED BY 
RAINFALL AND SOIL SALINITY, 

Agricultural Research Service, Manhattan, Kans. 

Soil and Water Conservation Research Div. 

L. Lyles, and R. L. Schrandt. 

Soil Science, Vol 1 14, No 5, p 367-372, November 

1972. 8 fig, 3 tab, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: *Wind erosion, *Rainfall intensity, 
•Salinity, Soil moisture, Saline soils, Soil erosion, 
Wind velocity, Particle size. 

The combined effects of added sodium, calcium 
and magnesium chloride salts, rainfall intensity 
and rainfall duration on wind erodibility and 
mechanical strength of a sandy soil were evaluated 
in a laboratory study. Loss by wind from sodium 
chloride-treated soil was significantly less than 
from nonsaline soil or from soil treated with the 
other salts. Soil loss following low-intensity rain 
was less than that following high-intensity rain for 
the salt-duration combinations studied. Except for 
short-duration rains at low intensity, rainfall dura- 
tion did not significantly affect soil loss. The sodi- 
um chloride-treated soil increased in mechanical 
strength following rainfall and drying much more 
than did nonsaline soil or soils treated with other 
salt combinations, regardless of rainfall intensity 
or duration. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08355 



EQUATION FOR DESCRIBING THE FREE- 
-SWELLING OF MONTMORILLONITE IN 
WATER, 

Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Water Conservation Lab. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02G. 

W73-08356 



RIVERBED FORMATION, 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept. of Civil 

Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 

W73-08365 



SEASONAL VARIATION OF A LIMNIC 
BEACH, 

Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, D.C. 

Dept. of Geography. 

R. N. Dubois. 

Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol 84, 

No 5, p 1817-1824, May 1973. 3 fig, 3 tab, 24 ref. 

Descriptors: *Lalces, *Beaches, *Lake Michigan, 
'Water levels, *Beach erosion, Geomorphology, 
Limnology, Sand bars, Water level fluctuations, 
Winds, Waves (Water). 
Identifiers: Limnic beaches. 

Limnic beaches respond to seasonal variations in 
lake water levels. Along the beach of Lake 
Michigan at Terry Andrae State Park, Wisconsin, 
with rising lake level from April through July, the 
foreshore migrates inland on an upward inclined 
plane, decreasing both beach and hack shore 
width, and decreasing the elevational difference 
between an overhead fixed plane and the 
foreshore crest and beach step. These processes 
are reversed when lake level subsides from August 
through November. The net result is that the 
beaches of Lake Michigan, and presumably those 
of the remaining Great Lakes, retrograde from 
spring to summer, and prograde from summer to 
wnter. In general, foreshore slope and width are 
independent to lake level. Foreshore slope is 
directly linked to the density of the foreshore sedi- 
ments, while foreshore width is directly propor- 
tional to wave dimensions and is independent of 
the foreshore slope. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08371 



FROSTED BEACH-SAND GRAINS ON THE 
NEWFOUNDLAND CONTINENTAL SHELF, 

Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's. 

Dept. of Geology. 

R. M. Slatt. 

Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol 84 

No 5, p 1807-1812, May 1973. 4 fig, 24 ref. Canada 

Grants 29-71, A-8395, and E-2164. 

Descriptors: *Sands, *Beaches, *Continental 
shelf, *Particle shape, *Particle size, Distribution 
patterns, Sedimentology, Electron microscopy, 
Frequency analysis, Sediments, Stratigraphy. 
Identifiers: Newfoundland. 

Frosted, relict beach sands are found in 90 m of 
water on part of the Newfoundland continental 
sheif . In this case, the common interpretation that 
frosted sands on the Atlantic continental shelf are 
indicative of aeolian deposition during periods of 
Pleistocene eustatic lowering of sea level would be 
incorrect. Combined grain-size frequency distribu- 
tion analysis and grain-surface texture analysis 
with a scanning electron microscope are probably 
necessary to properly evaluate the depositional en- 
vironment of frosted grains. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08372 



REVERSING BARCHAN DUNES IN LOWER 
VICTORIA VALLEY, ANTARCTICA, 

Lunar Science Inst., Houston, Tex. 

J. F. Lindsay. 

Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol 84 

No 5, p 1799-1806, May 1973. 5 fig, 13 ref. NSR 09- 

051-001. 

Descriptors: 'Dunes, •Antarctic, Sediment trans- 
port, Dune sands. Sands, Particle size. 
Identifiers: 'Victoria Valley (Antarctica). 

Approximately 30 reversing barchan dunes occur 
along the northern side of lower Victoria Valley, 
Antarctica. Laminae which dip steeply upwind 
suggest that much of the internal structure of the 
dunes develops during periods when the wind 
reverses itself-possibly during winter. Although 
the dune cores are frozen and the migration of the 
dunes are similar in texture to some barchans of 
more temperate climates. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08373 



VENTTFACT EVOLUTION IN WRIGHT VAL- 
LEY, ANTARCTICA, 

Lunar Science Inst., Houston, Tex. 

J. F. Lindsay. 

Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol 84, 

No 5, p 1791-1798, May 1973. 10 fig, 12 ref. NSR 

09-051-001. 

Descriptors: 'Erosion, 'Antarctic, 'Wind erosion, 
'Particle shape, Sampling, Weathering, Particle 
size. 

Identifiers: 'Ventifacts, 'Wright Valley (Antarc- 
tica). 

Ventifacts occurring on extensive wind-deflated 
surfaces throughout ice-free Wright Valley, An- 
tarctica, are the product of complex evolutionary 
processes. Initially, the wind removes the -2.0 to 
1.5 phi fraction of valley soils to produce a lag 
gravel. The lag gravel then continues to evolve at a 
reduced rate as coarser granule and gravel frac- 
tions are removed. The distribution of wind- 
polished faces is determined largely by the shape 
of the original unpolished rock fragments. Once 
ventif action is initiated, the number of faces per 
clast declines rapidly as minor faces are removed 
by the polishing. As ventifaction proceeds, the 
trend is reversed as the ventifacts are reoriented 
by the wind and new faces form. Salt weathering is 
also a major factor in determining the morphology 
of the Wright Valley ventifacts, proceeding more 
slowly than ventifaction. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08374 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Erosion and Sedimentation — Group 2J 

SIMULATION MODEL FOR STORM CYCLES 
AND BEACH EROSION ON LAKE MICHIGAN, 

Williams Coll., Williamstown, Mass. 

W. T. Fox, and R. A. Davis, Jr. 

Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol 84, 

No 5, p 1769-1790, May 1973. 15 fig, 1 tab, 38 ref. 

ONR Contract NR 388-092. 

Descriptors: 'Beach erosion, 'Lake Michigan, 
'Simulation analysis, 'Mathematical models, 
Sand bars, Surf, Waves (Water), Profiles, Littoral 
drift, Currents (Water), Storms, Mapping, 
Geomorphology. 

A mathematical simulation model relates storm cy- 
cles, beach erosion, and nearshore bar migration 
in Lake Michigan. The model is based on Fourier 
analysis of weather and wave data collected during 
the summers of 1969 and 1970. Barometric pres- 
sure is used as the independent variable with 
longshore current velocity computed as the first 
derivative and breaker height as a filtered version 
of the second derivative of barometric pressure. 
The simulated curves are used to compute wave 
and longshore current energy for each storm cycle 
and poststorm recovery. A gently sloping linear 
plus quadratic surface is used to represent the bar- 
less topography, with bars and troughs generated 
by normal curves. Bar distance is computed as a 
function of wave energy and bottom slope. Posi- 
tion of the bar and trough along the shore is deter- 
mined by wave and longshore current energy. 
Simulated maps are produced for each storm cycle 
and recovery. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08375 



EFFECTS OF HURRICANE GINGER ON THE 
BARRIER ISLANDS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

Virginia Univ., Charlottesville. Dept. of Environ- 
mental Sciences. 
R. Dolan, and P. Godfrey. 

Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol 84, 
No 4, p 1329-1333, April 1973. 4 fig, 8 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sediment transport, 'Beach ero- 
sion, 'Barrier islands, 'Surf, 'Geomorphology, 
Beaches, North Carolina, Hurricanes, Waves 
(Water), Sand bars, Seashores. 
Identifiers: 'Cape Hatteras (NC). 

The two barrier-island systems of North Carolina 
responded to the storm waves and surges of Hur- 
ricane Ginger in strikingly different manners. In 
the northern sector, which has been stabilized by 
artificial barrier dunes, erosion and dune recession 
were extensive. In the southern sector, as yet rela- 
tively unmodified, overwash and associated 
deposition were the dominant processes. Over- 
wash is the major means by which the low barrier 
islands of the mid- Atlantic retreat before the rising 
sea, and it is the manner in which coarse sand and 
shell are transported inland from the beach. The 
barrier-island systems are constructed mostly of 
overwash-type sediments from the littoral zone. If 
sea level continues to rise, the resources required 
to maintain artif ical barrier dunes may exceed the 
economic and psychologic value attached to their 
existence. The barrier islands, in their natural con- 
dition, are able to survive severe perturbations of 
hurricanes and extratropical storms by the wide 
runup and overwash profile they present to surges. 
These unmodified islands are not being washed 
away, as some engineers and developers have sug- 
gested in the past, but rather they are moving back 
by natural processes fundamental to their origin. 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08378 



BEACH PROTECTION SYSTEM, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W73-08393 



LAKE SEDIMENTS IN NORTHERN SCOT- 
LAND, 

Leicester Univ. (England). 



25 



Field 02-WATER CYCLE 

Group 2J— Erosion and Sedimentation 

W . Penninglon,F Y llaworth.A 1' Bonny, and 

I I* I i.l. n 1. 1 1, 

I'lwlos TtMU K Soc l.ond Ser H Hiol Sci Vol 2M, 

No 861, p 191-294. 1972. IDui 

Identifiers: Diatom*, *Lakc sediments, Pollm. 

•Scotland, •Sediments, /ones. 

A survey of deep-water sediments in 1 1 lake-, in 
northern Scotland showed that only under certain 
conditions does a complete and conformable se- 
ries of deposits accumulate. In lochs exposed lo 
strong winds there may be no permanent settling 
of organic sediments in water depths of up lo 50 m 
Three lake cores (representative of 3 regions .,1 
northern Scotland), which proved to be complete 
and conformable profiles, were analyzed in detail 
for pollen and certain chemical elements, one was 
also analyzed for diatoms. A series of 14C dates 
was obtained for 2 of these profiles. Changes in 
pollen content were found to be very consistently 
related to changes in sediment composition. Pollen 
zones were defined in terms of characteristic taxa, 
and variance in sediment composition was ex- 
pressed as the first component of a Principal Com- 
ponents Analysis; changes in this first component 
invariably coincided with pollen zone boundaries 
based on changes in pollen spectra. This close rela- 
tionship is explained as the consequence of the 
derivation of these lake sediments from soils on 
the catchments. Significance of the pollen spectra 
and analysis of the core samples are discussed - 
Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08425 

2K. Chemical Processes 



THERMOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF 
DIMETHYLMERCURY IN AQUEOUS AND 
NONAQUEOUS SOLUTIONS, 

Missouri Univ., Rolla. Dept. of Chemistry. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W73-07806 



PH BUFFERING OF PORE WATER OF 
RECENT ANOXIC MARINE SEDIMENTS, 

California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Geology. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W73-07851 

MORE ON NOBLE GASES IN YELLOWSTONE 
NATIONAL PARK HOT WATERS, 

Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Rehovoth; and 
Weizmann Inst, of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). 
E. Mazor, and R. O. Foumier. 
Geochiniica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol 37, No 3, 
p 515-525, March 1973. 5 fig, 2 tab, 14 ref. 

Descriptors: *Gases, *Thermal water, •Arson, 
•Helium, Hydrothennal studies, Krypton 
radioisotopes, Water circulation, Groundwater 
movement, Water sources, Geysers. 
Identifiers: • Yellowstone National Park, *Noble 
gases. 

Water and gas samples from research wells in 
hydrothennal areas of Yellowstone National Park 
were analyzed for their rare gas contents and 
isotopic composition. The rare gases originate 
from infiltrating runoff water, saturated with air at 
10 to 20 deg C. The atmospheric rare gas retention 
values found for the water varied between 3% and 
87%. The fine structure of the Ar, Kr and Xe 
abundance pattern in the water reveals fractiona- 
tional enrichment of the heavier gases due to par- 
tial outgassing of the waters. Radiogenic He and 
At were also detected. No positive evidence was 
found for magmatic water contribution. If present, 
the proportion of magmatic water is significantly 
less than 13% to 36%. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07853 



AI.KAI.INI IV DKIKKMINAIION IN IN 
IKKKMIIIAI WATER* OF MART 
MKNIS, 

Scrippi liiMiiuiioii ol ')• . .,i,., W aphy, l^« J""V 
( .,1,1 

I ,„ primary l,il,li<igraphic entry see l-ield02J 
WM 07167 



MOVF.MKNI OK < IIKMM AI.S IN SOILS BY 
WATI* k 

Illinois (iniv , Urbana Dept ol Agronomy 
I oi pi unary bibliographic entry sec I irl.i 
W73-079O4 



MOMOJNC TBI MOVBONI 01 OBM 

(AI.S IN SOILS BY WATER, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana Dept of Agronomy 
I oi primary bibliographic entry see I icl.l <):•<• 
W73-07905 



SR IN WATF.R Of TB < ASPIAN AND A/0\ 

SEAS, 

I oi primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B 

W73-O7970 



WATER QUALITY MONITORING IN Hi 
TRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A PROGRESS RE- 
PORT, 

National Sanitation I-oundaUon, Ann Arbor, 

Mich . 

Par primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W73-08027 



SEPARATION AND QUANTITATIVE DETER 
MINATION OF THE YTTRIUM GROI H 
LANTHANIDES BY GAS-LIQUID CHRO- 
MATOGRAPHY, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames Inst for Atomic 

Research; and Iowa State Univ., Ames. Dept of 

Chemistry. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05 A. 

W73-08033 



SUPPORT-BONDED POLYAROMATIC 

COPOLYMER STATIONARY PHASES FOR 
USE DM GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, 

Applied Automation, Inc., Bartlesville, Okla. 

Systems Research Dept. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 

W73-08034 



ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL AS A GAS CHRO- 
MATOGRAPH-MASS SPECTROMETER INTER- 
FACE, 

Northgate Lab., Hamden, Conn. 

W. D. Dencker, D. R. Rushneck, and G. R. 

Shoe make. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 11, p 1753-1758, 

September, 1972. 8 fig, 12 ref. 

Descriptors: *Gas chromatography, 'Mass spec- 
trometry, •Instrumentation, Design, Performance, 
Methodology, Construction, Operations, Labora- 
tory equipment. 

Identifiers: *Palladium diffusion electrodes, 
•Electrochemical cell, *Mechanical interface, De- 
tection limits. 

An electrochemical cell employing palladium alloy 
diffusion electrodes has been developed to remove 
the hydrogen carrier gas exiting a gas chromato- 
graph. Electrochemical pumping removes greater 
than 99.9996 percent of the hydrogen, resulting in 
mass spectrometer inlet pressures less than .01 
micro Torr. Construction details, electrode activa- 
tion procedures, and performance characteristics 
of the cell are described. (Long-Battelle) 
W73-08035 



< HI OHM! IKK !>► IHIMINAIION tH 

( II M I MM, KMI.lM^ Ol IH» '.I lOHAI 

BIS 12 inilMOXi AN|| < I AS* 

Clem* ' l*f* of <1*a*»uy me 

'(•-"logy 

unary btbliucraptltc eotry vec I idd 

,«040 



MM IHO< HKMM Al < HAllAI fhUYTKlOt 
[HI GOI l» MK KOMMI UK IKihl- 

~ pt of ( bcmistry 
W J Ulaedel. and S I Boyer 
Analytical fheiruslry. Vol 45, No 2, p2i*-W. 
lebruary 1973 9 fig. 2 Ub. 1 2 ref 

Descriptor* *l>e»ign. •< onslruction hlec 
if<K.lienuslr> IVm ralev Aela potential. Ptiyncal 
properties , hieclnc currents 

Identifiers MiectrochenucaJ properUei ''jotd 
micromesh electrode. Ion selective electrode*. 

The design and conslrucuon uf a flowthroafh 
gold micromesh elect/ode are described < urreal- 
voluge curve* axe reported for various floss rata 
Measured limiting currents are shown lo be 
directly proportional to the number of screens (N) 
in the electrode, to the concentration of eicctroat- 
tive material <('). and to the cube root of the 
volume How rate (Vf) of the solution through Ike 
<ie Various mesh si/es are examined Ap- 
plicauon is made lo the measurement of mb- 
micromolar concentrations (Hoioman BatteUe) 
W73-0H044 



(>S( II I .OMETRIC TITRATION OF INOt- 

<.\NI( HAIIDKS WITH MKR< I KY (B 

\( t I ATE 

Orszagos GyogyszereszeU Inlezet. Budapest 

(Hungaryl. 

For primary bibliographic entry see 1-ield 05 A. 

W73-08050 

THE SOLUTION OF LIMESTONE IN AN ARC 
TIC ENVIRONMENT, 

Bristol Univ (England). Dept. of Geography. 
D. I. Smith 

In Polar Geomorphology; Institute of Brital 
Geographers Special Publication No 4, p 187-200 
June 1972. 3 fig, 2 lab, 33 ref 

Descriptors: •Weathering, •limestones, 'Arctic 
•Snow cover. Carbon dioxide. Vegetation effects 
Solubility, Water chemistry, Melt water. Tern 
perature. Weather, Canada, Geomorphology. 

The weathering of limestone was studied in a high 
latitude Arctic environment The study area is in : 
limestone region of northwestern Somerset Islam 
at latitude 74 deg N in arctic Canada. Some 20J 
water samples were analyzed in the field for Iha 
calcium and magnesium content and pH; addi 
tional analyses were made of bedrock samples 
The total hardness values were generally less thai 
95 ppm; taking precipitation and evapotranspira 
tion figures into account, this suggests a weather 
ing rate equivalent to about 2 mm/1000 years. Botl 
the concentration of solutes and the weatherin 
rate are considerably less than those found i 
lower latitudes. The lack of soil cover is thought t 
be the significant factor. There is evidence to suf 
gest that solution of limestone is concentrated a 
the snow-rock interface. The concentration of cai 
bon dioxide is no greater than that found in th 
free atmosphere. The area has been ice free fo 
about the last 10,000 years and the rates of soli 
tion indicate that no major development of sal 
nival hollows by solutional erosion could have » 
curred during this period. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08081 

PROCESSES OF SOLUTION IN AN ARCTH 
LIMESTONE TERRAIN, 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept- < 
Geography. 



26 



G. Cogley. 
n: Polar Geomorphology; Institute of British 
jeographers Special Publication No 4, p 201-211, 
une 1972. 5 fig, 1 tab,7ref. 

descriptors: 'Erosion, *Weathering, 

Limestones, *Arctic, Canada, Snow cover, Solu- 
lility. Stream erosion, Sediment yield, Water 
hemistry, Melt water, Temperature, 
}eomorphology, Stream erosion. 

•faterial is removed from the landscape in arctic 
egions by the same fluvial agents as in mid- 
atitude regions. The snowmelt runoff season is 
hort; it is characterized by a major spring flood 
ind a longer period of low flow, interrupted by oc- 
asional rainstorm floods. Up to 90% of annual ru- 
loff occurs during the spring flood. On Devon 
sland, Canada, bedload movement is confined to 
his period and to the rainstorm floods, and 
uspended sediment discharge is small except at 
hese times. Solute concentrations vary inversely 
rith discharge but are less variable than those of 
uspended sediment. In a small drainage basin in 
me stone terrain on Devon Island, running water 
lissolves some limestone. The stream draining the 
asin flowed between June 26 and August 16 in 
970, reaching a maximum discharge of 1 .42 cu m 
«r sec on July 2. Concentration of dissolved calci- 
m and magnesium reached a maximum of 102 
ig/liter at a discharge of 0.067 cu m per sec on 
uly 22. Solute load (Ca and Mg) was greater than 
uspended load. Solute concentration varies with 
lie duration or distance over which solution oc- 
urs, as well as with discharge. Rainwater is a 
lore effective solvent than old, melting snow. (K- 
app-USGS) 
V73-08082 



OSSIBLE ACCUMULATION OF 

UTHIGENIC, EXPANDABLE-TYPE CLAY 
UNERALS IN THE SUBSTRUCTURE OF TUT- 
LE CREEK DAM, KANSAS, U.S.A., 
Jew Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. Dept. of Geolo- 

y- 

). G. Brookins. 

engineering Geology, Vol 6, No 4, p 251-259 

tecember 1972. 2 fig, 4 tab, 7 ref. NSF Grant GA- 

0839. 

tescriptors: *Water chemistry, *Clay minerals, 
Dams, 'Kansas, *Mineralogy, Expansive clays, 
)am failure, Dam foundations, Montmorillonite, 
ation adsorption, Ion exchange, 
lentil iers: Authigenic clay formation. 

he chemistry of the water from relief wells south 
f Turtle Creek Dam, Kansas, is favorable for the 
innation of authigenic montmorillonitic and 
lixed-layer clays. The montmorillonitic and 
lixed-layer clays are very undesirable in a dam's 
-ructure because of their ion exchange capacity, 
reliability, and compressibility; these factors can 
lorten the life of an earthfill dam. The water 
Iiemistry of the relief wells is similar to that of 
(any of the wells in the Blue River Valley and 
ansas River Valley below the dam. Clay 
uneralogic study coupled with a Rb-Sr 
jochronologic study indicates that an allogenic 
ngin for the clays is probable. Therefore the dam 
not being weakened by authigenic clay deposi- 
on. (Knapp-USGS) 

m-mm 



UALITY OF SURFACE WATERS OF THE 
NITED STATES, 1968: PART I. NORTH AT- 
ANTIC SLOPE BASINS. 

eological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

or primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C 

^3-081 55 



KSOLVED HELIUM IN GROUNDWATER: A 
OSSIBLE METHOD FOR URANIUM AND 
HORIUM PROSPECTING, 

IcMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept of 
lysics. 



W. B. Clarke, and G. Kugler. 

Economic Geology, Vol 68, No 2, p 243-251 

March-April 1973. 6 fig, 1 tab, 15 ref. 

Descriptors: *Helium, 'Uranium radioisotopes, 
•Tritium, *Groundwater, *Isotopes studies, 
Radioactive dating, Radiochemical analysis, 
Water chemistry, 'Canada. 
Identifiers: *Thorium. 

Measurement of dissolved helium in groundwater 
should indicate the presence of uranium (or thori- 
um) mineralization; such measurements were 
made near two known deposits, near Elliot Lake, 
Ontario, and near Inda Lake, Labrador. Helium 
contents of up to 600 times normal solubility were 
found, while neon contents were all within 20% of 
solubility equilibrium with the atmosphere. The 
ratio of He^l to He-3 is highly correlated with HeA 
content, although He-3 is enriched above solubili- 
ty (up to a factor of 6) in some cases. Tritium con- 
tent of the Labrador samples indicates that the 
water residence time is less than 20 years. This 
rules out the possibility that the high helium values 
are due to rocks of 'normal' uranium and thorium 
content. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08157 



RECORDS OF WELLS AND TEST BORINGS IN 
THE SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN, NEW 
YORK, 

Geological Survey, Albany, N.Y. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08159 



MAP SHOWING GENERAL CHEMICAL 
QUALITY OF GROUNDWATER IN THE 
SALINAQUADRANGLE, UTAH, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08172 



AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE STRUC- 
TURE, THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETIC 
BEHAVIOR OF WATER, 

Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, Mo. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 01 A. 
W73-08188 



AUTOMATED DATA HANDLDMG USING A 
DIGITAL LOGGER, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst, and State Univ., 

Blacksburg. Dept. of Chemistry. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08257 



DEMOUNTABLE RING-DISK ELECTRODE, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. School of Chemical 

Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 

W73-08260 



LINEAR AND NONLINEAR SYSTEM CHARAC- 
TERISTICS OF CONTROLLED-POTENTIAL 
ELECTROLYSIS CELLS, 

California Univ., Livermore. Lawrence Liver- 
more Lab. 

J. E. Harrar, and C. L. Pomernacki. 
Analytical Chemistry, Vol 45, No 1, p 57-78, 
January 1973. 24 fig, 2 tab, 98 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Electrochemistry, Instrumentation, 
Control systems, 'Electrolysis, Design, Model 
studies. 

Identifiers: 'Ion selective electrodes, 'Transfer 
functions, Mercury electrodes. Platinum elec- 
trodes, Electrolytes. 

A detailed study was made of the characteristics 
of three-electrode controlled-potential electrolysis 
cells as components of control systems. In the 
absence of significant faradaic current, these cells 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Chemical Processes — Group 2K 

can be represented as linear, bridge-T type net- 
works. Important parameters that determine cell 
response are the reference electrode resistance 
and a parasitic capacitance that couples the cell 
input to the output. Cells whose electrodes are ar- 
ranged for optimum dc potential distribution were 
also found to have the minimum phase shift for a 
given attenuation, and on the basis of the circuit 
model the phase shift will not exceed 90 degrees. 
Cells with poor geometry exhibit excessive phase 
shift in their transfer functions. In the presence of 
significant faradaic current, the fundamental 
frequency transfer function is altered considerably 
and at applied potentials near the current-potential 
waves the cells are nonlinear. Negative-ad- 
mittance reactions can cause the cell phase shift to 
be more negatice than -90 degrees, but most 
faradaic reactions cause the cell to exhibit less 
phase shift than the background solution value. 
Sufficient conditions for system stability, taking 
into account the time-varying, nonlinear, and 
other complicating characteristics of the cells, can 
be rigorously obtained using the circle criterion. 
Several aspects of electrochemical system design 
and measurement are discussed. (Little-Battelle) 
W73-08261 



THE EFFECT OF SODHJM ALKYLBENZENE- 
-SULPHONATE ON THE DRAINAGE OF 
WATER THROUGH SAND, 

Westfield Coll., London (England). Dept. of 

Zoology. 

J. E. Webb, and C. M. Earie. 

Environ Pollut, Vol 3, No 2, p 157-169, 1972, DJus. 

Identifiers: 'Alkylbenzenesulfonate, Cations, 

•Drainage, Pores, Rates, 'Sand, Size, Sodium, 

Surfactant, Soil-water movement. 

Sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate at 125-700 ppm 
caused an 80% reduction in the drainage rate of 
water through Leighton Buzzard sand in which the 
size of the pores formed by 3 grains in contact did 
not exceed 0.10 mm. This effect was not due to 
high viscosity and disappeared in coarser sands. It 
also disappeared in sand with the 02 atoms at the 
quartz surface replaced by trimethylsiloxy groups, 
suggesting an interaction between the sodium al- 
kylbenzene sulfonate ion-pairs and the quartz sur- 
face at 02 sites. Molar equivalents of K and Mg 
cations, introduced as the sulfate to compete for 
the 02 sites, eliminated the reduction in drainage 
rate within 15 min. But, at 5% of the molar 
equivalent, the full effect was delayed for 4 hr, in- 
dicating that the ion's progress in water was im- 
peded. Al cations at 1% molar equivalent 
eliminated the effect in 1 5 min, possibly due to the 
production of H ions. It appeared that the low rate 
of drainage of the solution could have been due to 
an 02-Na-sulfonate linkage at the quartz/water in- 
terface and the formation of a Na alkylbenzene 
sulfonate- water lattice in the bulk of the solution. 
At the concentration used Na alkylbenzene sul- 
fonate ion-pairs were present in the ratio of 1 :38 
molecules of water in a linear series, so that the 
formation of a lattice would seem to imply struc- 
turing of the water. Such a lattice might be 
destroyed by H ions. Evidence of this came first 
from the addition of low concentrations of H ions 
(2 ppm H2S04) which eliminated the drainage ef- 
fect. No effect was found in the absence of the 
alkyl chain, when sodium benzene sulfonate was 
tested. The alkyl chain is thought to act either as 
an intenneshing fiber or as a template to align the 
water molecules and facilitate the formation of 
bonds between them. The disappearance of the 
drainage rate reduction at 700 ppm Na alkyl- 
benzene sulfonate seems to coincide with the for- 
mation of micelles.-Copyright 1972, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08342 



SALT TOLERANCE OF ORNAMENTAL 
SHRUBS AND GROUND COVERS, 

Agricultural Research Service, Riverside, Calif. 

Salinity Lab. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03C. 






r 



27 



Field 02-WATER CYCLE 
Group 2K— Chemical Proce**e* 

W73-08347 

SUI KII>K DETERMINATION IN KIWUBU 
SOUS Willi AN ION. SELECTIVE KIM 
TRODE, 

Minislry of Agriculture, (into (Egypt) 

A. 1. Allam.c; I'il1s,;.n«l J I' lloliis 

Soil Science, Vol 114, No 6. p 456-467, December 

1972. 3 fig, 6 lab, 27 ref NSFOlBflf < IB 8653. 

Descriptors: 'Aquatic soils, •Hydrogen sulfide, 
♦Electrodes, 'Instrumentation, 'Chemical potea 
tial. Oxidation-reduction potential, Calibrations, 
On-site tests, Hydrogen ion concentration, Sul 
(ides, Klectrochemistry, 'Rice, 'Louisiana. 
Identifiers: 'Submerged soils. 

The specific silver-sulfide membrane electrode 
(sulfide electrode) was evaluated for measurement 
of the soluble sulfide levels in submerged soils in 
situ' for measuring sorption of sulfide by clay in 
response to sulfide concentrations, and for the 
testing of these observed sulfide levels against 
theoretical predictions. A silver sulfide electrode 
was used for measurement of soil sulfide levels in 
Louisiana rice fields. The observed potential (K) 
obeyed the Nernst equation as a function of sul- 
fide ion activity or concentration. Sulfide ion con- 
centrations could be determined by direct poten- 
tiometry or potentiometric titration. The response 
rate of such electrodes suggests that continuous 
monitoring of some changing systems is feasible 
Hydrogen sulfide levels ranged from 00005 to 
0.64128 ppm in Louisiana rice fields during the til- 
lering and ripening stages of rice plant develop- 
ment. A peak of H2S accumulation coincided with 
the highly reduced conditions occurring at the 
heading-flowering stage of the rice plant. H2S 
levels prevalent in rice fields during the heading 
flowering stage were toxic to rice plants in vitro 
and significantly higher than those predicted from 
chemical equilibrium theory. The two most impor 
tant factors regulating H2S accumulation in I-oui- 
siana rice fields were soil pH and oxidizable car- 
bon. H2S is removed from the soil solution by the 
soil clay fraction. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08351 

Hi MA ROLF WITH PERIODIC WATER FOUN- 
TAINING, VOLCAN ALCEDO, GALAPAGOS 
ISLANDS, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Geosciences. 
B. E. Nordlie, and W. E. Colony. 
Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol 84, 
No 5, p 1709-1719, May 1973. 8 fig, 1 tab, 1 1 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Springs, 'Volcanoes, 'Sedimenta- 
tion, 'Geysers, Gases, Sands, Hydrogeology, 
Water chemistry. 
Identifiers: 'Galapagos Islands, 'Fumaroles. 

A water fountain and three associated pools are 
perched on the wall of the Volcan Alcedo caldera, 
in the Galapagos Islands, at the end of a line of ac- 
tive fumaroles. In July 1970, the lower basin was 
dry and the overflow pool was partially filled; the 
fountain pool was nearly full and was boiling. 
Gases forcefully expelled from a vent caused con- 
tinuous fountaining. Opal shoreline deposits mark 
former maximum water levels, during which the 
overflow pool level is controlled by a spillway to 
the lower basin. The pools, full in August 1968, 
became completely dry by October 1970 and par- 
tially refilled in 1971. Throughout the cycle, sul- 
furous steam flowed from the vent. The water of 
the overflow pool is not in equilibrium with its 
deposits but is equilibrated with the atmosphere. 
The fountain pool shows the opposite conditions. 
Silica content and the location of geyserite 
deposits indicate that opal saturation occurs as the 
water cools and circulates through the overflow 
pool. Strata in the levee show cycles of mud, opal, 
and sand deposition. A sand cone is associated 
with the high-pressure fumarole. A turbulent gas 
flow velocity of about 6 m per sec would transport 
the sand grains. The source of water in the pools is 
largely meteoric. (Knapp-USGS) 



W/ 108377 

< I1EMH AL ANALYSES Of SKEW I ED 
PUBLIC DRINKINC WA'IH SUPPLIES I •- 
CLUDING TRACE METALS), 

Wisconsin Dept of Natural I Maui*on 

I ... primary InMiograptttC miry we IteldO'A 
W73 08424 

ACEIONE CONlAMINAJION <» VS A 1 f k 
SAMPLES Dl RIM. 01 '< tO KM /i 

Maryland Univ Solomon* Natural Rev>urce» 

l-oi pninary bibliographic entry sec Held 05A 
W7 I 08442 

21,. Estuaries 



SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Off OYSIrK 

PRODI (HON, 

Delaware Univ , Newark Dept of Mechanical 

and Aerospace Engineering 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06C. 

W73-07824 

AN ECONOMIC APPROACH TO LAND AND 
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: A RE- 
PORT ON THE PUGET SOUND STUDY, 

Washington Univ , Seattle Dept of Economics. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B 

W73-07826 

EXAMINATION Off TEXT! KKS AND STRUC- 
TURES MUD IN LAYERED SEDIMENTS AT 
THE ENTRANCE Off A GEORGIA TIDAL IN- 
LET 

Skidaway Inst, of Oceanography, Savannah, Ga. 
For primary bibliographic entry sec Field 02J 

W73-07855 



W73-07W7 

Mil I 1 v» DIM* M-. l> MO HO '»» BIV A». 
AkaUciiuy* Nauk MsT Kaliningrad Intlitut 'Jkx 
anoiogu 

A I Huj/JKhikhin 

Oceanolo»-y. V.J 12. No 2. p 235 24*. 1V72 4 Uf, 2 
lab 20 ref IranUalcd from < JtcMOuiugnt 
.1 I2.No2. 1972 

Descriptor* '(Xxaoofraphy, 'Mann* neology 
•( ontincntal shelf • Sedunenlauon , 'Sediment* 
.in teduncnu. Provenance . Sn di mcl da> 
UibuUon. Sediment transport. Particle size 
■morphology. Mineralogy Petrography 

Bedrock. Ijtloral, Analyst* 

Identifier* 'USSR. 'Bay of Biscay Rehtl tetV 
es, Ikobalht 

InvoUgauont of specific uthoiopcaJ difference* 
between recent and rebel depouU on ibe c o nlin ea 
lal »hell of the B*y of Bi*cay were based on parti 
cle we, miiicralo(ocaJ. pelrograptuc. and chean 
ca) analyse* of sample* of bottom sediment* and 
bedrock collecled by the 1964-68 expedition of Ike 
Atlantic I>ivi*ion of the Scientific Research la 
Mitiiie of Sea Eishersc* and Oceanography The 
bottom deposit* identified include urrrsjeaoas 
I, and bsogeinc-calcareou* (^30* 
mixed temgeoous-bsogemc sediment* 
Relict deposits occupy about 709fc of the shelf aSH 
and are buned in different way* over wale 
narrow shelve* by recent sediment* The *»«« 
lion that all depression* in the *helf have already 
been filled with sediment* and that buna) of ad- 
jacent relict sand* i* underway is confirmed by 
particle -size and mineral analyse* Given the losv 
volume of incoming clastic material and the 
prohibitive conditions for it* deposition in Dae 
northern part of the shelf, the role of biogenic cal- 
careous sedimentation increases (Josefsoa- 
USf.Si 
W73-07912 



INTERFACE REFRACTION AT THE BOUNDA- 
RY BETWEEN TWO POROUS MEDIA, 

Technion - Israel Inst, of Tech., Haifa. Dept of 

Civil Engineering. 

Y. Mualem. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 409- 

414, April 1973. 5 fig, 2 tab, 4 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Interfaces, 'Saturated flow, 

•Hydraulic conductivity, Oil- water interfaces, 

Saline water-freshwater interfaces. Boundary 

processes, Hydrogeology, Saline water intrusion. 

Permeability. 

Identifiers: 'Refraction (Interfaces). 

In steady flow, refraction of the interface between 
fluids takes place at the boundary between porous 
layers of different hydraulic conductivities. An 
analytical and graphical solution of this problem is 
presented. The steady interface, which is a stream- 
line, is refracted so that the ratio between the tan- 
gents of the angles that the interface makes with 
the normal to the surface separating the two layers 
equals the ratio between the corresponding 
hydraulic conductivities. In addition to the condi- 
tion of refraction of a streamline, the angles of 
refraction of the interface can take only definite 
values depending on the slope of the boundary 
between the layers and the ratio of their permea- 
bilities. Laboratory experiments, carried out on a 
Hele-Shaw analog, verified the analytical solution. 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07896 



STEADY SEEPAGE FLOW TO SINK PAIRS 
SYMMETRICALLY SITUATED ABOVE AND 
BELOW A HORIZONTAL DIFFUSING INTER- 
FACE: 1. PARALLEL LINE SINKS, 

Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. Dept. of En- 
vironmental Engineering. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 



SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF TURBfDrTY 

(TRREMV M. 

Sakhalin Kompleksnyi Nauchno-IssledovalelikB 

Institut. Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (USSR). 

N. I. Leonidova. 

Oceanology, Vol 12, No 2, p 223-226, 1972. 1 tab, 

25 ref Translated from Okeanologiya (USSR). Vol 

12, No 2, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Marine geology, 'Sedimentation 
•Sediments, Turbidity currents, 'Flow charac- 
teristics. Submarine canyons, Continental slope 
Waves (Water), Tsunamis, Earthquakes, Energy 
Kinetics, Density, Velocity, Equations 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Marine sediments, 'Sham 
(Mass movement). 

Downslope flowage of unconsolidated marim 
sediments at the head of submarine canyo ns wm 
investigated for development of turbidity currents 
An estimate of the energy of these currents show 
that it is comparable to that of tsunami waves ob 
served during earthquakes. The comparable value' 
may be further proof of the existence of dense 
high-velocity turbidity flow. (Josefson-USGS) 
W73-07913 



THE ECOLOGY OF THE PLANKTON OF Tffl 

CHESAPEAKE BAY ESTUARY, PROGRES 

REPORT DEC 1970-AUG 1972, 

Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W73-07932 



A WATER-QUALITY SIMULATION MODE 
FOR WELL MIXED ESTUARIES AM 
COASTAL SEAS: VOL. H, COMPUTATKM 
PROCEDURES, 

New York City-Rand Inst, NY. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-07935 



28 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Estuaries — Group 2L 



DETERMINATION OF TRACE METALS AND 
FLUORIDE IN MINERALOGICAL AND 
BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES FROM THE MARINE 
ENVIRONMENT, 

Vaval Research Lab., Washington, D.C. 

Por primary bibliographic entry see Field 05 A. 

.V73-07959 



DISTRIBUTION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN OR- 
GANISMS OF MARINE FAUNA. APPLICATION 
DF CRITICAL CONCENTRATION FACTORS, 

-or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
A73-07966 



ACCUMULATION OF RADIONUCLIDES BY 
*OE AND LARVAE OF BLACK SEA FISH, 

-or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

V73-07967 



OTECT OF INCORPORATED 

UDIONUCLDDES ON CHROMOSOME AP- 
'ARATUS OF OCENA FISH, 

•or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
V73-07968 



tADIOECOLOGICAL STUDD2S ON THE 

)ANUBE RIVER AND ADJOINING PART OF 

"HE BLACK SEA, 

; or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

V73-07969 



R IN WATER OF THE CASPIAN AND AZOV 
■AS, 

■or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
V73-07970 



R90 IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS OF THE 
•LACK SEA, 

or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05 B 
V73-07971 



IN, CU AND ZN IN WATER AND ORGANISMS 
>F THE SEA OF AZOV, 

or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

V73-07972 



- 



EFFECTS OF FLUORIDE ON ESTUARINE 
'RGANISMS, 

fational Inst, for Water Research, Pretoria (South 

fries). 

or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

/73-O8019 



ROCEEDING 1971 TECHNICAL CON- 
ERENCE ON ESTUARD2S OF THE PACIFIC 
ORTHWEST. 

regon State Univ., Corvallis. 

or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

73-08051 



ISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF MARINE 
EDIMENTS, 

sxas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of 

ivil Engineering. 

ar primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J 

73-08070 



JEDICTED EFFECTS OF PROPOSED 

AV1GATION IMPROVEMENTS ON RE- 

DENCE TIME AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN OF 

HE SALT WEDGE IN THE DUWAMISH 

IVER ESTUARY, KING COUNTY, WASHING- 

JN, 

eological Survey, Tacoma, Wash. 

>r pnmary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

73-08084 



ATLANTIC CONTINENTAL SHELF AND 
SLOPE OF THE UNITED STATES-SAND-SIZE 
FRACTION OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS, NEW 
JERSEY TO NOVA SCOTIA, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D C 

J. V. A. Trumbull. 

Available from GPO, Washington, D.C. 20402 - 

Price 55 cents (paper cover). Geological Survey 

Professional Paper 529-K, 1972. 45 p, 16 fig 116 

ref. 

Descriptors: *Sedimentology, "Continental shelf 
•Atlantic Ocean, 'Northeast U.S., 'Bottom sedi- 
ments, Sediment distribution, Particle size. Sands 
Physical properties, Geology, Sediment transport! 
Erosion, Data collections, Mapping, Coasts. 
Identifiers: Sand-size fraction. 

The sand-size fraction of surface sediments di- 
vides the continental shelf off the Northeastern 
United States into three distinctive areas: the 
glaciated Gulf of Maine and Nova Scotia shelf, the 
shallow high-energy Georges Bank-Nantucket 
Shoals area, and the more normal continental shelf 
south of New England and Long Island and east of 
New Jersey. The area of continental shelf under 
consideration is about 230,000 sq km, or about 
two-thirds of the area of the entire continental 
shelf along the east coast of the United States. 
Over all the continental shelf the pnmary com- 
ponents of the sand-size fraction are quartz and 
feldspar, with a strong admixture of rock frag- 
ments and dark minerals in the gakiated Gulf of 
Maine and Nova Scotian shelf, and with a variable 
admixture of foraminiferan tests and shell frag- 
ments. Locally, very high concentrations of glau- 
conite are found in the bight between New Jersey 
and Long Island and South of Long Island 
(Woodard-USGS) 
W73-08137 



W73-08199 



SURFICTAL SEDIMENTS OF BARKLEY 
SOUND AND THE ADJACENT CONTINENTAL 
SHELF, WEST COAST VANCOUVER ISLAND, 

British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Dept. of 

Geology. 

L. Carter. 

Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol 10 No 4 

P44M59, April 1973. 13 fig. 5 tab, 36 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Bottom sediments, 'Coastal plains, 
'Estuaries, 'Canada, Sediment transport. Sedi- 
mentation, Pacific Ocean, Provenance, Particle 
size, Distribution patterns, Sands, Gravels, Muds 
Identifiers: 'Barkley Sound (Canada). 

The bathymetry and sediment distribution of 
Barkley Sound and the adjacent continental shelf 
off the west coast of Vancouver Island have been 
markedly affected by the late Pleistocene glacia- 
tion and modern sedimentary processes. Several 
fjords widen and coalesce to form the sound, 
which is continuous with glacially eroded basins 
on the inner continental shelf. These basins are 
flanked by flat-topped banks, the larger of which 
merge with the outer shelf. Modem sediments are 
restricted mainly to Barkley Sound where the 
glaciated basin and sill topography and an 
estuarine circulatory system prevent the detrictus 
from reaching the continental shelf. Relict sands 
and gravels cover most of the shelf except within 
basins and drowned river valleys where muds 
prevail. This relict cover was initially dispersed by 
glaciers and melt water streams, then later inun- 
dated during the Holocene Transgression, and is 
now being partly reworked by the present hydrau- 
lic regime. Near the shelf-break relict sediments 
are sparse; authigenic sands (glaucontized mud- 
stone pellets) predominate together with residual 
sediments derived from submarine exposures of 
Tertiary mudstone. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08156 



OCEANOGRAPHIC COMMISSION. 

Washington Natural Resources and Recreation 

Agencies, Olympia. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 



TIDELANDS-URGENT QUESTIONS IN SOUTH 
CAROLINA WATER RESOURCES LAWS, 

South Carolina Univ., Columbia. School of Law. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E 
W73-08201 



MARINE WASTE DISPOSAL - A COMPREHEN- 
SIVE ENVIRONMENTAL APPROACH TO 
PLANNING, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B 

W73-08247 



MIREX AND DDT RESIDUES IN WILDLIFE 
AND MISCELLANEOUS SAMPLES IN MISSIS- 
SIPPI - 1970, 

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Dept. of 
Biochemistry. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A 
W73-08267 



EFFECTS OF HURRICANE GINGER ON THE 
BARRIER ISLANDS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

Virginia Univ., Charlottesville. Dept. of Environ- 
mental Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J 
W73-08378 



AN ECOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE PROCESS 
OF PLANT COMMUNITY FORMATION IN 
TIDAL LAND, (IN KOREAN), C. S. KIM. 

Mokpo Teachers' Coll. (South Korea). 

Korean J Bot. Vol 14, No 4, p 27-33, 1971. Illus. 
English summary. 

Identifiers: Aster-Subulata, Aster-Tripolium, 
Atriplex-Gmelini, Chloride, Community, Cyperus- 
Iria, Diplachne-Fusca, Echinochloa-Hispidula, 
Ecological studies, Formation, Limonium- 
Tetragonium, 'Plant communities, Salicomia-Her- 
bacea. Salt, Scirpus-Maritimus, Setaria-Lu- 
tescens. Soils, Suaeda-Maritima, Succession 
•Tidal land. 'Korea. 

An attempt was made to investigate the plant com- 
munity structure and the process of its formation 
in the tidal area surrounding Makpo City (Korea); 
the examined area included a stand in Sam-Hak 
Do where sands had infiltrated the community, 
and a stand in Kat-Ba-Woo which had been left as 
tidal soil land. Two hundred stands were sampled. 
Frequency, cover, density, standing (g/m2), con- 
tained CI in the soil, and pH were obtained. The 
rank of dominant species is Salicornia herbacea 
L., Suaeda maritima Dum., Diplachne fusca L., 
Echinochloa hispidula Nak., Cyperus iria L., 
Setaria lutescens Hubb. in Sam-Hak Do, and 
Suaeda maritima, E. hispidula. Aster tripolium I... 
Scirpus maritimus L., Salicornia herbacea, d! 
fusca, in Kat-Ba-Woo. Among them are 5 kinds of 
halophytes Salicornia herbacea, Suaeda maritima, 
Atriplex Gmelini C. A. Mey., Aster tripolium and 
Limonium tetragonum Bull., and 2 kinds of natu- 
ralized plants D. fusca and Aster subulata M. In 
the stands from Sam-Hak Do there was evidence 
of secondary succession in the presence of 
Cyperaceae such as C. liria, Juncus decipiens 
Nak., and Fimbristylis Iongispica Steu., which 
could not be found in the stands from Kat-Ba- 
Woo. The further inland from the floodgate, the 
higher the number of species; that is, the lower the 
content of CI, the higher the number of species. 
On the distribution of the vegetation; comparing 
DFD (Density-Frequency-Dominance) index and 
CI content, the main plants are Salicornia herbacea 
L., Suaeda maritima Dumorties, Atriplex Gmelini. 
D. fusca, E. hispidula where the CI content of soii 
is more than 13.2%. Salicornia herbacea which has 
high resistance of salt, was half the total standing 
crop, with production of 1090/m2 while Suaeda 
maritima was 1/4, D. fusca L. 1/8, and Echin- 
ochloa the less than 1/8. The mam factor in plant 






Pi 

P 

r 



29 



Field 02-WATER CYCLE 
Group 2L — E*tuciriei 



community formation in tidal land ii lob ' -•"« I l '" 

(I a plan for utilizing the halophytes which art 
abundant in tidal land should be devised < »[>y 
nght 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc 
W7308403 



1DENTIFK ATION OK AMAZON RIVER 
WATER AT BAKBARIK)S, WEST INIHKS, BY 
SALINITY AND SILICATE MKASUREMKN Is 

McCJill Univ., Montreal (Quebec) Marine 
Sciences Centre. ,,„.„ 

For primary bibliographic entry see Held 05B 
W73-O8430 

COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OK THE BENTBOf 
IN SCOTTISH SEALOCHS: I. INTRODUCTION 
AND SPECIKS DIVERSITY, 

Dunstaffnage Marine Research Lab., Oban (Scot- 
land). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08431 

INFECTION OF BROWN SHRIMP, PKNAKUS 

AZTECUS IVES BY PROCHRISTIANEI.I.A 

PENAEI KRUSE (CRESTODA: TRYPANOR- 

HYNCHA) IN SOUTHEASTERN LOUISIANA 

BAYS, 

Nicholls State Univ., Thibodaux, La. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W73-08433 



DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW ENGLAND SALT 
MARSH, 

A. C. Redfield. 

Ecol Monogr. Vol 42, No 2, p 201-237. 1972. Ulus. 
Identifiers: Carbon, Geomorphology , Halophytes, 
•Marshes, Peat, Regime, 'Salt marshes. Tidal 
marshes, 'Massachusetts. 

The salt marsh at Barnstable, Massachusetts, oc- 
cupies an embayment into which it has spread dur- 
ing the past 4000 yr. It exhibits all stages of 
development from the seedling of bare sand flats 
through the development of intertidal marsh, to 
the formation of mature high marsh underlain by 
peat deposits more than 20 ft deep. Observations 
and measurements of the stages of its formation 
are presented. The geomorphology of the marsh is 
considered in relation to the factors which have in- 
fluenced its development, that is, the ability of 
halophytes to grow at limited tide levels, the tidal 
regime, the processes of sedimentation, and the 
contemporary rise in sea level. The rates at which 
the early stage of development takes place have 
been determined by observations during a period 
of 12 yr and the time sequence of earlier stages by 
radiocarbon analyses.-Copyright 1973, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08443 

SPECIES DIVERSITY OF MARINE 

MACROBENTHOS IN THE VDxGINIA AREA, 

Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of 

Zoology. 
t\ c Rocsch 

Chesapeake Sci. Vol 13, No 3, p 206-211. 1972. II- 
lus. 

Identifiers: *Benthos, Diversity, Estuanes, 
Marine macrobenthos, Pollution, Salinity, Spe- 
cies, 'Virginia. 

Species diversity of benthic macro-organisms as 
measured byShannon's fonnular was highest on 
the outer continental shelf. Benthic diversity was 
higher in polyhaline zones of estuaries than on the 
shallow shelf and decreased sharply into the 
mesohaline zone, declining to the lowest in 
oligohaline zones. In addition to environmental 
stability and salinity regime, sediment grain size 
and pollution also affect species diversity. Analy- 
sis of the components of informational diversity, 
species richness and equitability, indicates that the 



richness BMpMMl I 

serve.l p. .ii. m, illhough boil. I o w p onrnl i Bit 

portant li. within habitat dilfeienoes < op y light 

1973 Hiological Abstracts, l' 

W730H445 

03. WATKR SUPPLY 
AUGMENTATION 
AND CONSERVATION 

3A. Saline Water Conversion 



BRACKISH WATER DESALINATED BY THE 

•SIROTHERM' PROCESS, 

H a J Battaerd.N V Hlcsing, B A liolto, A K 

G Cope, andG K Stephens 

Australian Chemical Processing and Engineering, 

Vol 25, Noli, p 19-21, August, 1972 4 fig. 1 tab. 4 

ref. 

Descriptors 'Desalination, 'Resins, 'Ion 

exchange, 'Pilot plants, Economics. Ircaunenl 

facilities, Separation techniques, Water treatment. 

Saline water. Salinity, Water quality. Water quali 

ty control, Water supply. 'Australia 

Identifiers 'Sirotherm process. Resin regenera 

tion. 

The •sirotherm' process is an Australian invention 
designed for the reduction of salinity of brackish 
waters containing up to 3000 parts per million total 
dissolved solids. It utilizes a mixed bed of ion 
exchange resins which is simply regenerated with 
hot water rather than with cosUy acid and alkali 
used in conventional ion exchange. A flow sheet 
for the operation of the process in a fixed bed is in- 
cluded Although pilot plant trials of the ion 
exchange process have been in progress since 
lanuary 1970, it will not be possible to assess the 
economics of the process in its various forms 
other than on an individual case study basis until 
more information becomes available on resin life 
pretreatment needs, and the cost of manufacturing 
and marketing the 'sirotherm' resin. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-07840 



u, 



DESALINIZATION PLANTS, VIRGIN ISLANDS 
(FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATE- 
MENT). 

Department of Housing and Urban Development, 
San Juan, Puerto Rico. Region II. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as EIS- VI -72-507 IF, $6.00 in paper 
copy, $0.95 in microfiche. August 1 1 , 1972. 71 p, 4 
fig, 3 map. 

Descriptors: 'Virgin Islands, 'Environmental ef- 
fects, 'Desalination, 'Desalination plants, Water 
treatment, Water quality, Treatment facilities. 
Water supply, Water demand, Municipal water. 
Potable water. Industrial water, Desalination ap- 
paratus, Social aspects, Area redevelopment, 
Desalination wastes. 

Identifiers: 'Environmental Impact Statements, 
'St. Thomas and St. Croix (Virgin Islands). 

This action consists of the proposed construction 
of deslainization plants in St. Thomas and St. 
Croix, Virgin Islands. Two 2,250,000 gallon per 
day sea water desalinization plants are proposed: 
one on St. Thomas, adjacent to the existing 
generating facilities at Krum Bay and another on 
St. Croix, adjacent to that island's existing facili- 
ties. Neither plant will have any impact on wildlife 
habitat, nor influence the scenic values or land use 
patterns. Alternatives include the use of other lo- 
cations, barging water from Puerto Rico, and no 
project. The only irretrievable commitment of 
resources involved will be the additional fuel 
burned by the boilers and the materials used in 
construction of the projects. The plants will con- 
tribute to the living standards of the population by 



supplying desperately needed puUbic 

' auuhrt. icttdeulud useis «nd 
i facilities, sustain and enhance 
■(■I .,H»,iiuiulic» for Vugui IsUi 
tain the quality "I We I he discharge of 
uon wastes will have a very insignificant 

iwia) 
W73-U7V77 



HYDRO* ASMS*. KKVERSI OSMOSIS MEM- 
HKAM-.S 

Hydronaui. aafd Md 

A Gollari M H lulin.andC Fiat* 
Available Iron, the National Technical Inforaav 
Uon Service as FB 215 DV. . $3 (KJ in par* 
J I 43 in rru -^arcb and Developaaejt 

Progress Report No 80*, June 1972 Office of 
Saline Water 204 p, 68 fig, 17 ub, 36 ref . 2 ap- 
pend 14 30-2528 

I>cscnptofs Miesalinatioo, 'Reverse osmoao. 
•Membrane*, 'Cellulose acetate. 'Pore***. 
Nylon. 'Permeability 

Identifiers 'HydrocaHing. Gelling solvent*. Sat 
gelling. Porous tubes, IXam casting. Polymer pro- 
perties. In situ casting. Water flux. Salt rejecuoa. 

The development of the hydrocasung method for 
the formaUon of tubular skinned reverse osmoail 
membranes of about 1 mm diameter (tubules) was 
continued Hydrocasung in single noo-poroat 
tubes uukzing modified Loeb-Sounrajan casual 
solutions has been further perfected and extended 
to casting in multiple noo-porou» tubes Varioaa 
means were found effective in suppressing the ao- 
dcsirable macropores formed during membrane fev 
bule fabneation by hydrocasung These improve- 
ments in membrane morphology and strength were 
due to: hydrocasung relatively thin membranes by 
casting in glass tubes of 15 mm ID or smaller; 
utilization of longer gas bubbles ; gelling witi) water 
of lower chemical activity, and control of geSJBJ 
water velocity The way was thus opened for rela- 
tively high pressure tc-sung <600-800 psi) of short 
(approx 8 in) supported sections as well as low 
pressure characterization (up to 220 psi) of unsao- 
ported membranes of almost full produced length 
(approx 30 in). The tests results demonstrated that 
Cellulose Acetate membrane tubules of high av 
trinsic strength and good desalting characteristics 
can be produced by hydrocasung. Work oa 
hydrocasung has been accompanied by (he 
development of a process for the fabneation of 
porous nylon tubes of high water permeability and 
strength This important development opens up 
the way for hydrocasting inside porous tubes of 
strength sufficient to allow relatively high intern! 
pressure operation. The development of a drain 
casting method which utilizes gravity draining to 
cast membranes in relative large diameter (more 
than 1/4 in) tubes in conjunction with the develop- 
ment of a Multiple Tube Module, suitable for sea- 
water operation, has also been performed. (OSW) 
W73-08185 

DEVELOPMENT OF REVERSE OSMOSIS 
MODULES FOR SEAWATER DESALINATION, 

Gulf General Atomic Co., San Diego, Calif. 
R. L. Riley, G. R. Hightower, H. K. Lonsdale, J. 
F. Loos, and C. R. Lyons. 
Available from the National Technical Inform* 
tion Service as PB-214 973, $3.00 in paper copy 
$1.45 in microfiche. Office of Saline Wate 
Research and Development Progress Report No 
799, July 1972. 41 p, 11 fig, 7 tab, 15 ref. 14-30 
2685. 

Descriptors: 'Reverse osmosis, 'Membranes 
Seawater, 'Desalination, 'Ion transport. 
Identifiers: 'Modules, 'Ultrathin membranes 
Casting device, Composit membranes, Abrasioi 
resistance, Flexibility, Fold resistance, Crosslink 
ing, Porous support. Prototype unit. 



30 



WATER SUPPIY AUGMENTATION AND CONSERVATION— Field 03 

Saline Water Conversion — Group 3A 



lie design, fabrication, and assembly of a proto- 
rpe unit for the continuous production of thin- 
Jm composite membrane support was completed, 
upporting studies for assisting in the design and 
lture operation of the casting machine were made 
> determine the release properties of the mem- 
rane from a number of stainless steel casting sur- 
ices, and a method was devised for maintaining a 
instant level of solution within the casting knife 
tservoir during casting. The formation of 800-A 
tin films under simulated continuous-casting con- 
itions and the casting of the membrane directly 
n fabric for improved strength were also ex- 
mned. Studies were also begun to develop the 
rocedures necessary to prepare spiral-wound 
;verse osmosis modules for seawater desalina- 
on. Module fabrication techniques were ex- 
nined by preparing and reverse osmosis testing 
tperimental modules using thin-film composite 
lembranes. (OSW) 
-73-08186 



EVELOPMENT OF A DISPOSABLE MEM- 
RANE CARTRIDGE FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS 
ESALINATION, 

micon Corp., Lexington, Mass. 
S. Michaels, H. J. Bixler, R. A. Cross, D. S. 
leveland, and B. Carroll. 

vailable from the National Technical Informa- 
)n Service as PB-214 954, $3.00 in paper copy, 
.45 in microfiche. Office of Saline Water 
esearch and Development Progress Report No 
»5, May 1972. 50 p, 4 tab, 25 fig, 6 ref. 14-01-0001- 

escriptors: *Desalination, *Reverse osmosis, 
dembrane processes, * Permeability, *Laminar 
bw, 'Polarization Cellulose acetate. 
entifiers: Disposal cartridge, Thin channel 
minar flow, Porous supports, *Salt rejection. 

evelopment, design, fabrication and test are 
immarized of a small scale (5.5 ft2 of effective 
embrane area) cartridge to demonstrate a practi- 
il, compact, disposable cartridge design for 
verse osmosis desalination utilizing thin channel 
minar flow feed stream management. In addi- 
>n, a 1500 psi pressure vessel for containing the 
rtridge was designed, fabricated and tested 
gether with the cartridge. (OSW) 
73-08187 



1SPOSAL OF BRINE EFFLUENTS, 

)w Chemical Co., Walnut Creek, Calif. 

>r primary bibliographic entry see Field 05E. 

73-08189 



iMPERATURE EFFECTS ON BIOLOGI- 
UXY INTERESTING MEMBRANE 

STEMS, 

iami Univ., Fla. 
. Drost- Hansen. 

'ailable from the National Technical Informa- 
n Service as PB-215 078, $3.00 in paper copy, 
45 in microfiche. Office of Saline Water 
search and Development Progress Report No. 
0, August 1972. 70 p, 24 fig, 79 ref. 14-01-0001- 
49. 

scriptors: *Membranes, 'Biological mem- 
oes, Water structure, 'Interfaces, 'Membrane 
xesses, 'Desalination, Water temperature. 
;ntifiers: 'Hani membranes, Millipore mem- 
oes, Liquid membranes, Vycor membranes, 
Jlectnc potentials, Alga valoma. 

e overall objective was to investigate the role of 
ter structure, especially the structure of water 
ir interfaces, in the properties and functioning 
membranes, particularly biological membranes, 
was found conceptually important to study 
mbranes ranging from the most simple types to 
nplex, living membranes. It was suspected and, 
turn, supported by the results of the experi- 



ments, that the structuring of water in or near 
membranes appears to play an important and, at 
times dominating role in determining functional 
properties of membranes, regardless of the level 
of morphological complexity or the operational in- 
tricacies of the membranes. (OSW) 
W73-08190 



TWO-STAGE FLUID TREATMENT SYSTEM, 

Puredesal, Inc., Levittown, Pa. (assignee) 
W.E.Bradley. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,707,231, 7 p, 1 fig, 7 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office 
Vol 905, No 4, p 748, December 26, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, Osmosis, 'Semi-permeable 
membranes, 'Reverse osmosis, Water treatment, 
Water purification, Potable water, 'Desalination! 
Demineralization, Saline water. Brackish water. 

The two-stage fluid treatment system involves the 
use of two semi-permeable membranes and an in- 
termediate fluid circulated between them. The un- 
treated liquid is introduced to the first semi-perme- 
able membrane which operates as a direct absorp- 
tion membrane. Compaction is avoided by operat- 
ing the first membrane at near zero pressure dif- 
ferential. The intermediate fluid is circulated 
rapidly on the opposite side of the first membrane 
and is so selected as to facilitate osmosis of the 
liquid to be treated. A high pressure pump trans- 
fers the intermediate fluid together with the fluid 
passing through the first membrane to the second 
membrane which is operated under reverse osmo- 
sis conditions. The second membrane is imperme- 
able to the intermediate fluid, passes the treated 
fluid, while retaining the intermediate fluid which 
is eventually recirculated to the first membrane 
(Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08308 



SUPPORT MODULE FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS 
MEMBRANE, 

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa. (as- 
signee). 
N. A. Salemi. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,707,234, 3 p, 3 fig, 2 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office 
Vol 905, No 4, p 749, December 26, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Reverse osmosis. Mem- 
branes, 'Semipermeable membranes. Water treat- 
ment, 'Desalination, Demineralization, Water pu- 
rification. 

This reverse osmosis module comprises semi- 
permeable tubular osmotic membranes. There is 
an influent conduit for supplying pressurized in- 
fluent liquid to the inside of the tubular osmotic 
membranes. It has a conduit for draining purified 
liquid from the outside of the tubular osmotic 
membranes and a support structure for supporting 
the tubular osmotic membranes to prevent rupture 
from internal pressure. The support structure com- 
prises plates fastened together to form a rigid 
stack. Each plate has holes which register with 
holes in adjacent plates, and the tubular osmotic 
membranes are disposed in these holes. Adjacent 
plates have sufficient spacing between them to 
pass liquid from the tubular osmotic membranes to 
the drain conduit. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08310 



MULTISTAGED FLASH EVAPORATOR AND A 
METHOD OF OPERATING THE SAME WITH 
SPONGE BALL DESCALING TREATMENT, 

Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan), (assignee). 
S. Takahashi, K. Otake, and T. Horiuchi. 
U. S. Patent No. 3,707,442, 5 p, 14 fig, 1 1 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol 905, No 4, p 796, December 26, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Flash distillation, 
'Evaporators, Brine, Potable water, Distillation, 
Water treatment, 'Desalination, 'Descaling. 



A method of operating a multistage flash evapora- 
tor has flashing chambers of successively lower 
pressures and temperatures. The condenser part in 
each chamber is composed of at least one brine 
tube and a flashing part Brine is passed succes- 
sively through the condensers to preheat the brine 
and condense steam evaporated in each flashing 
chamber. Brine is heated to a temperature beyond 
a scale eduction temperature occurring at 80C. 
Sponge balls are introduced to effect continuous 
removal of scale attached on the inner walls of the 
brine tubes and brine heaters. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08312 



REVERSE OSMOSIS MODULE, 

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa. (as- 
signee) 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W73-08391 



APPARATUS FOR PERFORMING THE IMMIS- 
CIBLE REFRIGERANT FREEZE PROCESS 
FOR PURIFYING WATER, 

United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Lon- 
don (England), (assignee) 
M. J. S. Smith, J. H. Wilson, and B. R. Parr. 
U. S. Patent No 3,712,075, 5 p, 5 fig, 8 ref; Official 
Gazette of the United States Patent Office, Vol 
906, No 4, p 1214, January 23, 1973. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Desalination, 'Water 
treatment, Sea water, 'Freezing, 'Crystallization, 
Separation techniques, Water purification. Brine. 
Identifiers: 'Ice crystals. 

The immiscible refrigerant freeze process com- 
prises boiling the immiscible refrigerant in the im- 
pure water (sea water) to be treated. The ice 
crystals so produced are melted to produce pu- 
rified water. The apparatus has a crystallizer sec- 
tion with two sub-sections. The first forms a 
refrigerant injection zone in which ice crystal slur- 
ry is produced. The second forms a disengagement 
zone in which entrained refrigerant is removed 
from the slurry and ice crystals are allowed to 
grow before transferring the slurry to the brine 
separating and washing section. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08392 



REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANE MODULE 
AND APPARATUS USING THE SAME, 

Aqua-Chem, Inc., Waukesha, Wis. (assignee) 
G. B. Clark. 

U. S. Patent No 3,708,069, 8 p, 6 fig, 1 ref; Official 
Gazette of the United States Patent Office, Vol 
906, No l,p 182-183, January 2, 1973. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Desalination apparatus, 
•Reverse osmosis. Separation techniques, 'Water 
treatment. Water quality control. Treatment facili- 
ties, 'Membranes. 

A support is provided for a membrane in reverse 
osmosis equipment that need not be capable of 
withstanding the high pressures encountered in 
reverse osmosis operations. The module uses 
disposable tubular membranes which are arranged 
in conjunction with a tubular casing having sub- 
stantial hoop strength. This balances out the forces 
due to high pressure within the casing between ad- 
jacent support tubes so that substantially all pres- 
sure is borne by the exterior casing. Each of the 
tubes has a discontinuous outer surface, in the 
shape of a hexagon, and all are held so that each 
tube is in contact with another tube or the interior 
of the casing about its entire peripheral extent. A 
motor driven pump within the casing receives a 
liquid mixture and raises its pressure to reverse os- 
mosis operating status. The pump also drives an 
impeller and baffles which operate to recirculate 
the liquid mixture through the membrane celL 
(Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08397 



I 

r 



31 



Field 03-WATER SUPPLY AUGMENTATION AND CONSERVATION 
Group 3B— Water Yield Improvement 



I 



3B. Water Yield Improvement 



WATERSHED HYDROMETEOROIXMilCAL 
DATA REQUIRED FOR WKATHKR MODIFICA- 
TION, 

North American Weather Consultants, Santa Bar- 
bara, Calif. 

R. D. Elliott, and J. Hannaford. 
In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972. 
Phoenix, Ariz. Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, p 61 -66, 1972. 2 fig, 2 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Weather modification, 'Data collec- 
tions, ♦Meteorological data, 'Snowpacks, 'Moun- 
tains, Meteorology, Snow surveys. Precipitation 
gages. Snow cover, Snowmelt, Cloud seeding. 

Hydrometeorological data in five western moun- 
tain watersheds were reviewed and deficiencies in 
existing data required for planning of large scale 
research weather modification projects were 
noted. Ideally the additional data needed for each 
major watershed includes a base station for pro- 
ject control, several climate stations to record 
area! coverage of precipitation and standard 
meteorological parameters, and one mountain ob- 
servatory unit for observation of special 
meteorological parameters and snow quality data. 
Existing data reveal little or no tendency for snow- 
pack to level off or to decrease at higher eleva- 
tions. A 10% increase in precipitation during the 
October through Arpil seeding periods could in- 
crease the average annual runoff by 2.5 million 
acrefeet within the five large watersheds and an 
additional 1 million acrefeet around the periphery 
of these watersheds. Extending the seeding period 
into May and June could increase the runoff from 
the five study basins by 440,000 acrefeet but cau- 
tion is needed in seeding during this period 
because of undesirable flood potentials. (See also 
W73-08138) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08150 



SOUTH DAKOTA WEATHER MODIFICATION 
PROGRAM, 

South Dakota Weather Control Commission, 
Pierre. 
M. Williams. 

In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972, 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, p 83-88, 1972. 2 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Weather modification, 'South 
Dakota, Cloud seeding, Research and develop- 
ment, Legislation, Environmental effects, Social 
aspects, Legal aspects. 

Research efforts directed toward the development 
of a weather modification capability in South 
Dakota have been underway for approximately 10 
years. An economic evaluation of the effect on 
crop production is under way. This involves 
development of a model in the form of a statistical 
regression to predict and detect changes in crop 
yield as the program progresses. Evaluation of 
sociological effects is a continuing part of the pro- 
gram. Environmental effects are also monitored. 
(See also W73-081 38) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08154 



WATER AND LAND RESOURCE ACCOM- 
PLISHMENTS, 1971. 

Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W73-08191 



POSSIBILITY OF UTILIZING ATMOSPHERIC 
CONDENSATE IN THE HIGHER PLANT 
SYSTEM, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 021. 



W73-08345 



THE MANAGEMENT OF MOUNTAIN 
CATCHMENTS BY FORESTRY, 

Stcllenbosch Univ. (South Africa) l>ept of Sil 
viculture 
C. L. Wicht. 

S Afr For J. Vol 77. p 6-12, 1971 Ulus 
Identifiers: 'Catchments, Forestry, Management, 
Mountain catchment, 'South Africa, 'Water con- 
servation. 

The management of mountain catchments in South 
Africa to maintain and improve water resources is 
still inadequate. The water yields from mountain 
areas can be strongly influenced by the control of 
vegetation and this is at present the only practical 
manner of generally increasing the basic water 
resources of the Republic, which are derived from 
precipitation. --Copyright 1973, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-O840I 



WATER STRESS IN SALT CEDAR, 

Georgia Experiment Station, Experiment. 
R. E. Wilkinson. 

Bot Gaz. Vol 1 33 , No I , p 73-77. 1 972. Ulus. 
Identifiers: Humidity, 'Salt-cedar, 'Solar radia- 
tion. Temperature, 'Water stress, Winds, 
Evaporation. 

Salt cedar (Tamarix pentandra Pall.) cladopbylls 
developed water potentials of -5 bars by early July 
and -20 bars by late Sept. while the plants grew in a 
deep sand with a high water table. Plant water 
utilization closely paralleled pan evaporation and 
solar radiation. Relative water content was corre- 
lated with season, solar radiation, air temperature, 
wind velocity, relative humidity, and prior grow- 
ing conditions. Relative water content of trees 
growing on a 3-ft water table was not significantly 
different from the relative water content of trees 
growing on a water table deeper than 10ft. Relative 
water content decreased throughout the summer 
but increased in Sept. and reached 100% in mid- 
Oct-Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08422 

3C. Use of Water of Impaired 
Quality 

EXTRAPOLATION OF INDICATOR SCHEMES 
WITHIN SALT MARSHES, 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody 

(USSR). Geographic Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02H. 

W73-07848 



SALT TOLERANCE OF ORNAMENTAL 
SHRUBS AND GROUND COVERS, 

Agricultural Research Service, Riverside, Calif. 
Salinity Lab. 

L. Bernstein, L. E. Francois, and R. A. Clark. 
J Am Soc Hortic Sci, Vol 97, No 4, p 550-556, 
1972, Ulus. 

Identifiers: Bougainvillea, Ground covers, Guava, 
Holly, Injury, Leaves, Loss, Natal-Plum, 'Orna- 
mental shrubs, Pittosponim, Rose, Rosemary, 
'Salt tolerance, Shrubs, Star-Jasmine. 

The salt tolerance of 25 shrub and ground-cover 
species was determined in plots artificially 
salinized with NaCl plus CaC12. Chloride and Na 
injury was observed in sand cultures of the same 
species with 4 different salt treatments. Tolerant 
species, like bougainvillea, Natal plum, and rose- 
mary were affected little, if at all, by soil salinities 
of 8 mmho/cm (electrical conductivity of the satu- 
ration extract: ECe), whereas sensitive species 
like star jasmine, guava, holly, and rose were 
severely damaged or killed at ECe's of 4 mm- 
ho/cm. Salt tolerance was not well correlated with 
injury by CI or Na, although many species ex- 



hibited leaf bum, our wat survival under 
saline conditions ncccttanly * good wde« 'A tali 
tolerance hive gallon specimens of tcutiuvc 
tlow -growing species such at pitbotpof 
more tolerant than I gal tpecuneut and drlaymjj 
salutation of such specie* increased tail tolerance 
somewhat leaves with symptoms like luotc of O 
or of Na injury but containing very tittle of idmc 
ions were frequently obterved in laud scape 
plantings of a number of shrub species The injury 
was attributed to inadequate watering It it tug- 
gettcd that CI or Na accumulation in leave* of 
shrubs may cause injury by interfering with nor- 
mal ttomatal cloture, causing excessive water low 
and leaf injury symptoms like those of dioughL- 
Copynght 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08347 

3D. Conservation in Domestic and 
Municipal Use 



A MANUAL ON COIJ.kX.TION Of 

HYDROLOCIC DATA FOR URBAN DRAlNAGf 

DESIGN, 

Hydrocomp, Inc. , Palo Alto, Calif 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-0780I 



REGIONAL WATER RESOURCE PLANNING 

FOR URBAN NEEDS: PART 1. 

North Carolina Univ., Chapel HOI Dept of City 

and Regional Planning. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W73-07819 



MODELS OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CON- 
TROL IN URBAN PLANNING, 

RAND Corp., Santa Monica, Calif. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-07831 



INSTANTANEOUS UNIT HYDROGRAPHS 
PEAK DISCHARGES AND TIME LAGS IN Ul- 
BANIZING WATERSHEDS, 

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. School of Civil En- 
gineering 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field OTA. 
W73-07917 



THE FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY OF RE- 
GIONALIZATION, 

Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept. of Agncni 
tural Economics and Rural Sociology. 
N. C. Williams, and J. M. Redfern. 
Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol 65, No 3, p 159-168, March, 1973. 1 fig,! 
tab, 12 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Financial feasibility, 'Regiona 
development, 'Water supply, 'Project planning 
'Cost analysis, Methodology, Water distributim 
(Applied), Water demand, Water quantity, Wale 
users, Estimating, Return (Monetary), Rates 
Amortization, Capital costs, Domestic water, In 
dustrial water, Municipal water, Rural areas 
Transmission lines, Wells, Operating costs 
Governments, Human population, 'Arkansas. 
Identifiers: 'Regional water systems, 'Economk 
analysis, Incremental investment, Economies oi 
size, Annual saving, Commercial water, BenUn. 
County, Washington County, Beaver Reservoir. 

Municipal official concerned with assuring a com 
munity an adequate water supply at least cos 
should consider a regional water system. Thi 
feasibility of providing water on a regional basis 
rather than having each municipal system augmen 
its own supply is examined. A financially feasibk 
project is defined as one that guarantees revenue: 
that suffice to cover all costs, including interest « 
funds borrowed to finance the project Herein, thi 



32 



WATER SUPPLY AUGMENTATION AND CONSERVATION— Field 03 

Conservation in Agriculture — Group 3F 



financial feasibility of supplying water from a 
common source in a two-county region in Arkan- 
sas in 1980 is examined. A demand model for esti- 
mating the quantity of water required by a region 
treats projected households as the independent 
variable. Two measures are used to determine the 
feasibility of the regional water system: (1) The 
rate of return on the incremental investment in the 
regional system is compared to the cost of capital 
for water systems in the area; and (2) the amortiza- 
tion period of a bond issue necessary to finance 
the project is established and compared to the 
productive life of the system. The rates of return 
calculated for the system under the anticipated de- 
mand patterns (target population projection and 
high population projection) exceed the cost of 
financing the system. (Bell-Cornell) 
W73-07919 



SYSTEMATIC DEVELOPMENT OF 

METHODOLOGIES IN PLANNING URBAN 

WATER RESOURCES FOR MEDIUM SIZE 

COMMUNITIES. EXPECTATION OF LIFE IN 

INDIANA, 1950-1970, 

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. Dept. of Sociology 

and Anthropology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W73-07964 



THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR HAR- 
RISTOWN TOWNSmP, MACON COUNTY, IL- 
LINOIS. 

Macon County Regional Plan Commission, 

Decatur, 111. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W73-08052 



SHORELINE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE 
ESCAMBIA-SANTA ROSA REGION. 

Smith (Milo) and Associates, Tampa, Fla. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 
W73-08053 



HIE INTENSITY OF DEVELOPMENT ALONG 
SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED STREAMS IN 
SURBURBAN PHILADELPHIA, 

Regional Science Research Inst., Philadelphia, Pa. 
R. E. Couglin, S. Sheldon, and T. R. Hammer. 
RSRI Discussion Paper Series: No 50, September, 
1971. 55 p, 8 fig, 18 tab. FWQA 161 10 DYX. 

Descriptors: 'Urbanization, *Watersheds, Regres- 
sion analysis, Maps, Slopes, Human population, 
'Pennsylvania. 

Identifiers: *Urban development controls, 
'Philadelphia metropolitan area. 

rhe intensity of urban development along streams 
n the urbanizing Philadelphia metropolitan area 
vas studied in order to evaluate the concept and 
>roposals that development should not be allowed 
Jong streams. The study consists of the observa- 
ion of 1926 stream segments from air photographs 
ind U.S. Geological Survey maps and an analysis 
)f their urban intensities. The stream segments in- 
:lude areas 300 ft., 600 ft., and 900 ft. from the 
itreams. Some of the findings were that all the seg- 
nents were less intensely developed than the 
ownship they were located in, that about 50% of 
he segments had no development at all, that the 
arger the stream the less likely there will be 
levelopment in the 300 ft. band but the more likely 
n the 600 ft. band, and that the development that 
loes occur is more likely to be apartments that sin- 
ie family houses. Finally, a regression analysis 
flowed that the most important variables related 
o intensity of development were valley slope, 
ownship population density, and watershed 
Irainage area. (Elfers-North Carolina) 
V73-08055 



WATER SUPPLY PLANNING STUDY OF THE 
CAPITOL REGION OF CONNECTICUT, 

Connecticut Univ., Storrs. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 
W73-08302 

3E. Conservation in Industry 



TO 



POWER 



SYSTEMS APPROACH 

PLANNING, 

Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, Calif. Hydro and 

Community Facilities Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08C. 

W73-07925 



AGRI-INDUSTRIAL PARK WATER IMPROVE- 
MENTS, SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES, 
BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT LOAN (FINAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Economic Development Administration, Austin, 

Tex. Southwestern Region. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W73-07978 



THE ENERGY NEEDS OF THE NATION AND 
THE COST IN TERMS OF POLLUTION, 

Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 
W73-07995 



ENTROPY AS A MEASURE OF THE AREAL 
CONCENTRATION OF WATER-ORD2NTED IN- 
DUSTRY, 

Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Coll. of Business Ad- 
ministration. 

A. S. Paulson, and C. B. Garrison. 
Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 263- 
269, April, 1973. 2 tab, 5 equ, 13 ref. 

Descriptors: *Water, *Industries, 'Areal, •Em- 
ployment, 'Entropy, 'Numerical analysis, •Ten- 
nessee, Regional analysis, Data, Water use, Equa- 
tions. 

Identifiers: 'Numbers equivalent, Water-oriented 
industry, Data analysis. 

The concepts of entropy and numbers equivalent 
are applied to the configuration of water intensive 
and non-water intensive employment data by 
country in the Tennessee Valley region to provide 
an overall measure of the areal concentration of 
employment and population. If the underlying dis- 
tribution of employees is assumed to be governed 
by the multinomial distribution, it is shown that 
there have been shifts in microlocational charac- 
teristics, since the role chance can play is minimal. 
Non-water intensive manufacturing employment 
has become much more areally dispersed over the 
study period of 1959-1968, but it appears that there 
has been neither a decrease nor an increase in con- 
centration in water intensive employment. The 
two types of employment are concentrated to mar- 
kedly different degrees. Application of the con- 
cepts of entropy and numbers equivalent shows 
that the areal concentration of water intensive 
manufacturing employment in the Tennessee Val- 
ley region is substantially greater than the cor- 
responding all-manufacturing employment. (Bell- 
Comell) 
W73-08131 

3F. Conservation in Agriculture 



ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE 
FARM WATER SOURCES IN THE CLAYPAN 
AREA OF ILLINOIS, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Agricultural 

Economics. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-07804 



SYSTEMS ANALYSIS IN IRRIGATION AND 
DRAINAGE, 

California Univ., Riverside. Dry-Lands Research 

Inst. 

W. A. Hall. 

Journal of the Hydraulics Division American 

Society of Civil Engineers, Vol 99, No HY4, 

Proceedings paper 9659, p 567-571 , April 1973. 5 p. 

Descriptors: 'Irrigation, 'drainage, 'Systems 
analysis, 'soil moisture, Water resources, Deci- 
sion making, Foods, Crops, Hydraulics, Agricul- 
ture, Plants, Nutrients, Optimization, Streamflow, 
Risks, Alternative planning, Mathematical 
models, Water rights, Water demand, Water costs, 
Water shortage, Salinity, Droughts, Irrigation 
water. 

Identifiers: Stochastic water supplies, Stochastic 
unregulated streamflow. 

It is imperative that water engineers and planners 
utilize systems analysis in order that costly irr- 
eversible water decisions may be based upon 
sound judgments. Growing population, problems 
of inadequate nutrition, and rising standards of liv- 
ing all demand increases in food production. The 
rate of increasing agricultural productivity cannot 
be maintained by continued use of fertilizer, pest 
control, and genetics; only irrigation and its cor- 
relative drainage can be counted on for certain to 
increase food and fibre supplies. But water 
shortages and resulting high costs pose great dif- 
ficulties. Because of such food production and 
water cost squeezes, and a serious political 
squeeze wherein potential water for agriculture is 
given to cities, irrigation and drainage must be 
brought to a point of maximum efficiency. Needed 
is a new technology for agricultural water use 
based on systems analysis, for: (1) precision con- 
trol of soil moisture related factors of production; 
(2) optimization of the use of unregulated 
stochastic streamflows; (3) optimization of risk 
and return from water use under uncertainty; and 
(4) optimal salinity and drought strategies. This 
step must be taken, regardless of important 
analytical limitations and considerable additional 
fundamental research requirements. (Bell-Comell) 
W73-07923 



RESEARCH NEEDS FOR IRRIGATION 
RETURN FLOW QUALITY CONTROL, 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept. of 

Agricultural Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-07965 



POLECAT BENCH AREA OF THE SHOSHONE 
EXTENSIONS UNIT, WYOMING. 

Hearing-Subcomm. of Water and Power 
Resources-Comm. on Interior and Insular Af- 
fairs, United States Senate, 92nd Cong, 2d Sess, 
September 19, 1972. 53 p, 1 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Irrigation, 'Wyoming, 'Irrigation 
programs, 'Water supply development, Mississip- 
pi River Basin, Missouri River, Environmental ef- 
fects, Crop production, Public benefits, Water 
resources development, Project planning, River 
basin development, Dam construction, Impound- 
ments, Construction, Reservoirs, Wildlife conser- 
vation, Water distribution, Water management 
(Applied). 

Identifiers: 'Congressional hearings, Federal 
Water Project Recreation Act. 

Testimony is reported on a bill to reauthorize the 
Secretary of the Interior to construct, operate and 
maintain the Polecat Bench area of the Shoshone 
extensions unit, Missouri River Basin Project, 
Wyoming. The development would provide irriga- 
tion water to 19,200 acres of irrigable lands and 
provide outdoor recreation and fish and wildlife 
conservation. The response from the Secretary of 
the Interior indicates that cost considerations are 
prohibitive. The State of Wyoming endorsed the 



5!) 



II 

r 



33 



Field 03— WATER SUPPLY AUGMENTATION AND CONSERVATION 
Group 3F — Conservation in Agriculture 



plan of development. By resolution the Board of 
Commissioners of the Polecat Bench Irrigation 
District, which encompasses the lands proposed 
for irrigation development, expressed the district's 
support for the development. The Wyoming 
Recreation Commission has requested that recrea- 
tion be included as a proposed development and 
has indicated Wyoming's intent to comply with the 
provisions of the Federal Water Project Recrea- 
tion Act. The project itself consists of a dam, 
reservoir and distribution and drainage systems. 
(Smith- Adam-Florida) 
W73-07985 



HYDRAULIC LABORATORY STUDIES OF A 4- 
-FOOT-W1DE WEIR BOX TURNOUT STRUC- 
TURE FOR IRRIGATION USE, 
Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. Engineer- 
ing and Research Center. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08B. 
W73-08086 



FOREST METEOROLOGICAL, SOIL CLI- 
MATOLOGICAL AND GERMINATION IN- 
VESTIGATION, (IN NORWEGIAN), 

Norske Skogforsoksvesen, Vollebekk. 

K. Bjor. 

Medd Nor Skogforsoksves. Vol 28, No 8, p 429- 

526, 1971, Illus. (English summary). 

Identifiers: Climatology, Ecology, 'Seedling 

establishment, *Forests, *Germination, Light, 

Meteorology, Moisture, Soils, Temperature. 

The most important aim was to reveal the ecologi- 
cal conditions for germination and seedling 
establishment. The experimental area was situated 
near Elverum (Norway) about 200 m above sea 
level. Measurements were made of groundwater 
level, temperature, relative air humidity, evapora- 
tion, wind speed, sunshine and soil moisture- 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08099 



SOUTH DAKOTA WEATHER MODIFICATION 
PROGRAM, 

South Dakota Weather Control Commission, 

Pierre. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03B. 

W73-08154 



WATER OF SIBERIAN RIVERS FOR ARID 
LANDS OF THE SOUTH (VODU SIBIRSKIKH 
REK-ZASUSHLIVYM ZEMLVAM YUGA), 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 
W73-08162 



WATER AND LAND RESOURCE ACCOM- 
PLISHMENTS, 1971. 

Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W73-08191 



SAN LUIS UNIT, CENTRAL VALLEY PRO- 
JECT, CALIFORNIA (FINAL ENVIRONMEN- 
TAL IMPACT STATEMENT), 

Bureau of Reclamation, Sacramento, Calif. Mid- 
Pacific Regional Office. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W73-08223 



EFFECT OF WATER COMPOSITION AND 
FEEDING METHOD ON SOIL NUTRIENT 
LEVELS AND ON TOMATO FRUIT YIELD AND 
COMPOSITION, 

Foras Taluntais, Dublin (Ireland). 
T. R. Gormley. 

Ir J Agric Res. Vol 11, No 1, p 101-115. 1972. Illus. 
Identifiers: *Irrigation systems, *Crop produc- 
tions, Blossoms, Conductivity, Feeding , Fruit, 
Methods, Nutrients, Rot, Soils, Tomato, 
Hydrogen ion concentration, *Water properties. 



Trickle feeding and irrigation of spring and autumn 
crop tomatoes grown in peat gave a lower soil sH 
and higher soil specific conductivity (SO and K 
content than did feeding by hose or low-level 
sprayline methods. The use of hard water for mak 
ing up feed and for irrigating gave a higher sod pH 
and S( ' than did moderately soft water The trickle 
system gave the tallest plants in the autumn crop 
In the spring crop plants were taller initially with 
the trickle system but the sprayline system gave 
the tallest plants later on. Hard water decreased 
height in both crops. Plants fed and irrigated with 
hard water yielded more marketable fruit in the 
spring crop than those treated with moderately 
soft water. The trickle system gave highest yields 
in both crops, and reduced the incidence of bios 
som-end rot in the spring crop. Values for fruit 
acidity, percentage soluble solids and K were 
lower in trickle fed tomatoes, but water type had 
little effect on fruit composition. -Copyright 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08324 



EFFECT OF IRRIGATION TREATMENTS FOR 
APPLE TREES ON WATER UPTAKE FROM 
DIFFERENT SOIL LAYERS, 

Volcani Inst, of Agricultural Research, Bet-Dagan 

(Israel). 

I. Levin, R. Assaf , and B. Bravdo. 

J Am Soc Hortic Sci. Vol 97, No 4, p 521-526. 

1972. Illus 

Identifiers: 'Irrigation effects, 'Crop response. 

Apples, Climate, Evaporation, Fruit, Irrigation, 

Layers, Size, Soils, Treatments, Trees, Moisture 

uptake. 

Six irrigation treatments consisting of replenishing 
the water extracted from the 0-60 cm or 0-120 cm 
layer, were applied to a 10-yr-old apple orchard. 
The highest yield and fruit size were obtained by 
irrigating to 60 cm depth when soil moisture to this 
depth dropped to 40% available water during the 2 
mo. of intensive fruit growth. During the rest of 
the season this treatment was irrigated to 60 cm 
whenever the 0-60 cm layer dropped to wilting 
point and to 120 cm whenever the 60-120 cm layer 
dropped to 60% available water. The relative water 
extraction from the 60-90 cm layer was the highest 
in this treatment. Increasing water uptake from 
layers below 1 20 cm by watering them was not ef- 
fective. Climatic conditions favoring high rates of 
evaporation increased the relative contribution of 
layers deeper than 90 cm in all plots. The propor- 
tion of water loss from the 0-30 cm layer increased 
with the number of irrigations. -Copyright 1973, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08327 



EFFECT OF THE SOIL AND PLANT WATER 
POTENTIALS ON THE DRY MATTER 
PRODUCTION OF SNAP BEANS, 

Dep. Soils, Univ. Concepcion, Chilian, Chile Con- 
cepcion Univ. (Chile). Dept. of Soils. 
A. A. Millar, and W. R. Gardner. 
Agron J. Vol 64, No 5, p 559-562. 1972. 
Identifiers: 'Soil- water-plant relationships, 
*Beans, Dry, Growth, Phaseolus vulgaris, Plants, 
Potentials, Production, Rates, Resistance, Soils, 
Stoma tal, Transpiration. 

The dry matter production rate of snap beans 
(Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. 'Bush Blue Lake') 
growing under field conditions on a sandy soil is 
analyzed during a drying period. Measurements of 
plant- and soil- water potentials, dry matter accu- 
mulation, and stomatal resistance were made as 
soil-water was depleted, while the transpiration 
rate were obtained by a model for a loosely struc- 
tured canopy. The transpiration and dry matter 
production rates decreased curvilinearly with soil- 
water potential. When the soil-water potential 
decreased from -0.28 to -0.40 bar, there was 47% 
reduction in the dry matter production rate. This is 
related to the turgor pressure-operated stomatal 
mechanism. The adaxial stomatal resistances in- 
creased at leaf -water potentials lower than -8 bars, 



win' I, coincided Willi a lipid (k'.iuw ui the dry 
mallei production rale SumiauJ cloture due to 
water stress resulted in a greater reduction of 
growth rate than i/i transpiration -fJopyngbt 1973, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73 -08328 



KKKMTS OK POLYKTHYUEN1 Ml I.' H OS 
IHK CHANGE OK IOPOROWTH AND MfK 
YIK.I.D OK TUBERS IN REI.A'IION TO TBB 
RATE OK NIIROOEN ABSORPTION IN SWEET 

POTATO (JN JAPAN,, 

Nugata Univ., Nagaoka (Japan) 
T Monla 

Mem lac hduc Nugata Univ. 1 3 p, 72-79 1971 B- 
lus. English summary 

Identifiers: 'Crop production, Absorption, 
Polyethylene. Plant growth, Moisture. 'Mulching, 
•Nitrogen, Rates, Soils, 'Sweet potato, 'tempera- 
ture, Tubers, Weeds. 

The soil beneath the polyethlenc film had a lower 
moisture level throughout the test period in both 
sandy soil and clayey soil, while the soil tempera- 
ture to a depth o* 10 cm during the day was higher 
in mulched plots. In clayey soil polyethylene 
mulches influenced N absorption more than in un- 
mulched plots. Furthermore, whereas little nv 
fluence was observed in sandy soil, polyethylene 
mulch in clayey soil was beneficial in the hastening 
vine elongation. As a result, in clayey soil tuber 
root formation was favored in mulched plots due 
to the limited lop growth during tuber formation. 
Polyethylene mulches in sandy soil had no in- 
fluence on tuber formation or thickening. Weedi- 
ness in mulched plots was markedly higher, espe- 
cially in clayey soil.-Copynght 1973, Biological 
Abstract, Inc. 
W73-08329 



IDENTIFICATION OF A DAY OF MOISTURE 
STRESS IN MAIZE AT CEDARA, 

Agricultural Research InsL, Cedara (South 

Africa). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02D. 

W73-08337 



EFFECT OF A MOISTURE STRESS DAY UPON 
MAIZE PERFORMANCE, 

Agricultural Research InsL, Cedara (South 

Africa). 

J. B. Mallett, and J M. DeJager. 

Agroplantae. Vol 3, No 2, p 15-19. 1971. Illus. 

Identifiers: Grain, 'Maize, 'Moisture stress, Crop 

production, Crop response. 

Moisture stress applied 3 wk before silking caused 
grain yields to be reduced by 3.2% leaf areas by 
3.1% and plant height by 2.7% per day of stress. 
Stress applied after pollination caused yields to be 
reduced by 4.2% per stress day .-Copyright 1972, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08338 



EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND MINERAL FER- 
TILIZER ON THE HYDROCHEMICAL 
SYSTEM OF RICE PADDIES STOCKED WITH 
FISH WHICH WERE EXPOSED UNDEB 
WATER VAPOR (IN RUSSIAN), 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08339 



EFFECTS OF FLOODING AND GASEOUS 
COMPOSITION OF THE ROOT ENVIRON- 
MENT ON GROWTH OF CORN, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Agronomy. 
A. C. Purvis, and R. E. Williamson. 
Agron J., Vol 64, No 5, p 674-678, 1972. 
Identifiers: 'Plant growth, 'Soil gases, Aeration, 
Carbon dioxide, 'Corn, Deficiency, Drainage, En- 
vironment, Flooding, 'Gaseous composition, Inju- 
ry, Oxygen, Roots. 



34 



WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL— Field 04 
Control of Water on the Surface — Group 4A 



rhe extent of root and shoot injury to corn, Zea 
nays L., plants exposed to various gaseous treat- 
nents (02, C02, N2) in the root environment and 
o flooding were determined from leaf area, stem 
liameter changes and root and shoot weights. The 
>arameters of growth were measured before treat- 
nent, at the end of 1-, 2-, and 4-day treatments, 
ind after a 5-day recovery period following treat- 
nent. The plants were grown in an environmental 
antral chamber with roots of one group in an in- 
ermittent solution mist in airtight chambers and a 
econd group in soil. When treated for 1 or 2 days 
vith 1.0% 02 with and without 20.0% C02, the 
umainder being N2, only a slight reduction in 
growth was observed during treatment or 
■ecovery. However, treatment with this low level 
)f 02 for 4 days caused a highly significant reduc- 
ion in growth during treatment and recovery, 
rreatments with pure N2, 21% C02 in N2, and 
looding for 2 more days reduced growth during 
reatment and recovery considerably more than 
lid 1% 02 in N2. When these treatments lasted for 
'. or more days, some of the lower leaves and a 
lortion of the root system died. Flooding the soil 
aused somewhat less injury than did treatments 
vith pure N2 or 21% C02 in N2, possibly because 
ome air was entrapped. Corn is severely injured if 
looded or if the roots are in a zero 02 atmosphere 
or more than 1 day.-Copyright 1973, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
V73-08346 



AGRICULTURE, LAND USE, AND SMALL- 
IOLDER FARMING PROBLEMS IN THE 
IGATOKA VALLEY, 

department of Agriculture, Suva (Fiji). Research 

)iv. 

i. Chandra. 

r iji Agric J. Vol 34, No 1 , p 21-25. 1972. Ejus. 

dentifiers: Agriculture, 'Farming, Fiji, *Land 

ise, Over-population, *Sigatoka Valley (Fiji), Val- 

:ys. 

v great range of arable crops is now grown by the 
mallholders who work the 45 km2 of Sigatoka se- 
ies soils on the floodplains of the Sigatoka valley. 
I tentative classification of suitability of the vari- 
us soil types of this series for some of the main 
rops is described, and compared with present ac- 
nal usage. A detailed survey of 54 farms totalling 
03 ha shows a dense population with a high pro- 
ortion of children. Each year an increasing pro- 
ortion of the farm produce must be used for 
ome consumption leaving a very low cash in- 
ome. Cropping is inefficient because the sub- 
istence crops do not realize the full soil potential, 
ne main barriers to development are over-popu- 
ition, insecurity of land tenure, slow adoption of 
ew practices (irrigation, mechanization etc.) due 
> lack of capital and knowledge, and the low yield 
nd unsuitability for summer cropping of most 
rop varieties now available. --Copyright 1973, 
biological Abstracts, Inc. 
173-08399 



ATTLE USE OF A SPRAYED ASPEN PAR- 
LAND RANGE, 

entro Internacional de Agriculture Tropical, 
ogota (Colombia). 
E. Hilton. 

Range Manage. Vol 25, No 4, p 257-260. 1972. Il- 
ls. 

ientifiers: *Aspen, Canada, "Cattle, Forests, 
Grassland, "Herbicides, Management, Parkland, 
opulus-Tremulbides, Precipitation, Range, 
prayed range. 

spen parkland range in central Alberta that had 
sen treated with a herbicide 2 yr before had 
reater grazing use of the sprayed grasslands but 
le difference was not as great as in the forest, 
tiring 1968 and 1969 when precipitation was 
savy, the grasslands were extensively used, 
[owever, when dry conditions occurred, a greater 
se of the forest vegetation was observed. A 
agression equation was developed relating graz- 



ing use to precipitation.-Copyright 1973, Biologi- 
cal Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08400 



IN SITU MEASUREMENT OF ROOT-WATER 
POTENTIAL, 

Duke Univ., Durham, N.C. DepL of Botany. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 021. 
W73-08418 



SOME WATER RELATIONS OF CERCO- 
SPORELLA HERPOTRICHOIDES, 

Washington State Univ., Pullman. Dept. of Plant 

Pathology. 

G. W. Bruehl, and J. Manandhar. 

Plant Dis Rep. Vol 56, No 7, p 594-596. 1972. Dlus. 

Identifiers: 'Cercosporella-Herpotrichoides, Foot 

rot, Rot, Water temperature, Wheat, *Win- 

terwheat, "Washington. 

Straw breaker foot rot of winter wheat was 
widespread in much of eastern Washington in 
1970-71, even in portions of Adams and Lincoln 
counties that average only 8-10 in. (20-25 cm) an- 
nual precipitation. The in vitro response of isolates 
of Cercosporella herpotrichoides from dryland 
and from wetter areas to water potential gave no 
evidence of dryland ecotypes. C. herpotrichoides 
grew on agar media amended with salts from the 
highest (wettest) water potential tested (-1 bar) to 
about -90 to -100 bars. Growth was stimulated by 
an osmotic water potential of about -4 to -10 bars 
between 1 and 25 degrees C and by S to -22 bars at 
29 degrees. Growth was reduced to 50% of max- 
imum at near -28 bars between 5 and 25 degrees C 
and at near -38 bars or lesser water potentials at 
29degrees. The slight shift in optimum water 
potential from wetter to drier as the temperature 
rises may coincide with conditions within the 
host.-Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08421 



THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRON- 
MENTAL FACTORS AND BEHAVIOUR OF 
STOMATA IN THE RICE PLANT: 2. ON THE 
DIURNAL MOVEMENT OF THE STOMATA ON 
JAPANESE), 

Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology 
(Japan). Faculty of Agriculture. 
K. Ishihara, Y. Ishida, and T. Ogura. 
Proc Crop Sci Soc Jap. Vol 40, No 4, p 497-504. 
1971. Dlus. English summary. 
Identifiers: *Diumal, *Rice, *Stomata, Sun. 

Rice grown in a submerged paddy field was much 
affected by weather conditions from day to day. 
On sunny days the aperture reached the maximum 
at about 8.30-9.00 a.m. and then decreased very 
quickly to only 1/2 or less of the maximum in the 
afternoon. On cloudy days the aperture increased 
slowly in the morning to reach the maximum at 
about noon and in the afternoon the aperture was 
wide for some time. From the tillering stage to the 
heading stage the maximum of the aperture per 
day was practically the same irrespective of 
weather conditions except under very low light in- 
tensity. After the heading stage the maximum per 
day lessened. After reaching the maximum the 
aperture decreased more quickly compared with 
before heading. The aperture decreases in the af- 
ternoon of sunny days or after heading due to the 
water unbalance in the leaves.— Copyright 1973, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08449 



04. WATER QUANTITY 
MANAGEMENT AND 
CONTROL 

4A. Control of Water on the 
Surface 



A MANUAL ON COLLECTION OF 
HYDROLOGIC DATA FOR URBAN DRAINAGE 
DESIGN, 

Hydrocomp, Inc., Palo Alto, Calif. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-07801 



INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE UPPER 
WABASH SIMULATION MODEL, 

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. Water Resources 
Research Center. 
T. P. Chang, and G. H. Toebes. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 478, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Report No. 33, 1973. 89 p, 26 
fig, 23 tab, append. OWRR A-016-IND (3) and A- 
012-IND(5). 

Descriptors: *Reservoir operation, 'Reservoir 
storage, 'Simulation analysis, *Multiple-purpose 
reservoirs, *Flood control, Model studies, 
Drainage systems, Low-flow augmentation, 
Recreation, Runoff, Water supply, 'Indiana. 
Identifiers: 'Wabash River (Ind), Drainage-area 
ratio. Storage-volume ratio. 

A recently built simulation model for the Upper 
Wabash reservoir-river system in Indiana was 
used to study how best to operate that system. The 
construction of the model and of the three daily 
operating policies for it (that presently employed 
by the Corps of Engineers, the Drainage-Area 
Ratio and the Storage- Volume Ratio) were out- 
lined in two preceding reports. This report 
discusses results that were obtained with each of 
the three policies applied to various reservoir con- 
figurations having up to five reservoirs, using a 
variety of runoff input, and for several alternative 
values of official flood-stage flows. The DAR and 
SVR policies were both superior to that used by 
the Corps when the runoff was less than 10 inches. 
Results obtained for the addition of a small water 
supply demand at one reservoir indicated that 
small changes in the mix of project purposes 
require careful alteration of the operating policies 
throughout the system. The major conclusion was 
that this practical model and its operating policies 
can be a useful aid to design, planning and regula- 
tory agencies. 
W73-07815 



THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER-A WATER SOURCE 
FOR TEXAS. (EVALUATION OF A PROPOSED 
WATER DIVERSION), 

Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. Dept of 

Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W73-07816 



AN ECONOMIC APPROACH TO LAND AND 
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: A RE- 
PORT ON THE PUGET SOUND STUDY, 

Washington Univ., Seattle. Dept of Economics. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 
W73-07826 



NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR MANAGING 
FLOOD LOSSES, GUIDELINES FOR PREPARA- 
TION, TRANSMITTAL, AND DISTRIBUTION 
OF FLOOD-PRONE AREA MAPS AND 
PAMPHLETS, 
Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 






P 



! 



5 



35 



Field 04— WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 
Group 4A — Control of Water on the Surface 



For primary bibliographic entry see Meld 07C. 
W73-07849 



EUREKA -IT FITS A PEARSON TYPE 3 DIS- 
TRIBUTION, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

N. C. Matalas, and J. R. Wallis. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 281- 

289, April 1973. 8 tab, 11 ref. 

Descriptors: *Statistical methods, •Probability, 

•Stream/low forecasting, Time series analysis. 

Variability. 

Identifiers: 'Pearson distribution. 

Under the assumption that a random variable is 
distributed as Pearson type 3, a comparison was 
made between moment and maximum likelihood 
estimates of the parameter values of the distribu- 
tion and the variate values at specified probability 
levels. For the region where maximum likelihood 
solutions may be obtained, maximum likelihood 
estimates yield solutions that are less biased and 
less variable than the comparable moment esti- 
mates. When these results are extended to quite 
small samples, they become quite pronounced as 
the probability becomes greater than N/ (N + 1 ). 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07883 



APPLICATION OF NONLINEAR SYSTEM 
IDENTIFICATION TO THE LOWER MEKONG 
RIVER, SOUTHEAST ASIA, 

Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. Water 

Resources Div. 

S. M. Zand, and J. A. Harder. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 290- 

297, April 1973. 4 fig, 14 ref. 

Descriptors: "Systems analysis, 'Simulation anal- 
ysis, 'Mathematical models, *Streamflow 
forecasting, Synthetic hydrology, Input-output 
analysis, Time series analysis. Variability, Hydro- 
graph analysis. 
Identifiers: 'Mekong River (Cambodia). 

The generalized functional series representation of 
systems may be solved numerically by using a 
transformation of input that considerably reduces 
the computational difficulties, with a multiple- 
regression analysis that establishes an optimum 
model. Computer programs for constructing such 
models were applied in the construction of two 
models for the lower Mekong River. Both models 
have single outputs, the daily gage height of the 
river at Chaudoc, South Vietnam. One model is of 
the single-input type, in which the input is the net 
average daily discharge below Phnom Penh, Cam- 
bodia. The second model is of the double-input 
type; it has as a second input, the daily rainfall at 
Takeo, Cambodia. A total of 1 ,497 daily measure- 
ments from January 1, 1964 to February 5, 1968, 
were used in the analysis. The predicting capabili- 
ty of the technique was tested by using the model 
constructed for 1,104 days as a predictor for the 
remaining 393 days. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07884 



INTRODUCTION OF TIME VARIANCE TO 
LINEAR CONCEPTUAL CATCHMENT 

MODELS, 

Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford (England). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 
W73-07885 



DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL KERNELS 
FOR SECOND-ORDER STATIONARY SUR- 
FACE RUNOFF SYSTEMS, 

Technion - Israel Inst, of Tech., Haifa. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W73-07886 



IDENTIFICATION Of MULTIPLE KRA< II 
CHANNEL PARAMETERS, 

CaUfornk ijniv , Lot AagMi i*-pt ■•' 

ing System*. 

lor primary bibliographic entry »ce Field 02 1-. 

W7307887 



APPROXIMATE SOLUTIONS FOR NON- 
STEADY COLUMN DRAINA' 

Asian Inst of Tech , Bangkok (Thailand) Div of 

Water Science and F.ngineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry »ee Field 02G 

W73-07895 



MULTISITE DAILY FIjOW GENERATOR, 

Department of the Environment, Ottawa (On- 
tario). Water Management Service. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A 
W73-07899 



SPRING DISCHARGE OF AN ARCTIC RIVER 
DETERMINED FROM SALINITY MEASURE- 
MENTS BENEATH SEA ICE, 
Louisiana Slate Univ., Baton Rouge. Coastal Stu- 
dies Inst. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 
W73-07900 



REGULATION OF STREAMFIvOW (REGU- 

LrROVANTYE RECHNOGO STOKA), 

Ya. F. Pleshkov. 

Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1972. 508 p. 

Descriptors: 'Streamflow, 'Regulated flow, 
•Regulation, 'Reservoirs, 'Reservoir operation. 
Reservoir storage, Reservoir releases. Reservoir 
yield, Flood routing, Hydrographs, Water 
resources, Water management (Applied), Water 
supply, Water utilization, Water consumption (Ex- 
cept consumptive use), Water loss, Water yield, 
Water quality control, Electric powerplants. Pro- 
ject planning. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, Mineralization, Nomograms. 

Principles and techniques of project planning and 
streamflow regulation for water supply, irrigation, 
hydroelectric and thermal power, flood control, 
and other beneficial water uses are discussed. 
Schedules and guides for reservoir operation are 
developed to determine the most effective use of 
reservoir storage and release of stored water for 
conservation purposes, and changes in water- 
quality characteristics of reservoirs are examined 
from the standpoint of the protection and improve- 
ment of community water supplies. (Josefson- 
USGS) 
W73-07909 



WATER RESOURCES OF LAND AREAS (FOR- 
MntOVANTYE RESURSOV VOD SUSHI). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 
W73-07910 



OPTIMIZATION OF DEAD END WATER DIS- 
TRIBUTION SYSTEMS, 

Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering. 
P. K. Swamee, V. Kumar, and P. Khanna. 
Journal of the Environmental Engineering Divi- 
sion, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol 99, 
No EE2, Proceedings paper 9650, p 123-134, April, 
1 973. 4 fig, 37 equ, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water distribution (Applied), 'En- 
vironmental engineering, 'Optimization, 
'Economics, 'Rural areas, 'Water supply, 
Withdrawal, Networks, Pipelines, Mathematical 
models, Systems analysis. 
Identifiers: Savings, Loops, Pump heads. 

A single dead end system with multiple 
withdrawals has been synthesized. The distribu- 



Uori network of any wale* supply tyktcin ui»cWv«a 
a major portion ol the local caI of the »ytUm, tail 
portion iMMMI wilii decreasing oopulaUoa. 
iJcad end water distribution tyiicim arc eoi.mre 
lered frequently in rural supply »yUem» Thai 
design problem consists eihcrjUaDy of optimizing a 
nonlinear objecuve function subject U> »w»l»— y 
constraints which are themselves funcUoa* #f 
flow direction and therefore not uniquely ^fina- 
ble The solution it presented in a form directly 
usable by a design engineer, providing optaad 
pipe diameter*, pumping head, hydraulic, gradieal 
line, and the minimal cost The solution ha* beta 
generalized for a continuous withdrawal of 
discharge The case of two withdrawal* i* derxclcd 
in graphical form and provide* a clear intight tat* 
the variation of the vanou* parameter* Substan- 
tial saving can be achieved by designing the water 
distribution facilities at minimal cost* 'Beli-Car- 
neU) 
W73-07V20 



WALKER BRANCH WATERSHED A STUDY 
OF TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC SYSTEM 
IMKRACTION, 

Oak Ridge National I .ab , Tenn 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 041.1 

W73-07947 



RECTIFICATION OF DEFICIENCIES IN 
COMPLETED LOCAL PROTECTION PRO- 
JECT, WELLSVTLLE, NEW YORK (KI.NAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Buffalo, NY 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 

W73-07975 



BRANTLEY PROJECT, NEW MEXICO (FINAL 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08D. 

W73-07976 



COP AN LAKE, LITTLE CANEY RIVER, 
OKLAHOMA (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IM- 
PACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Tulsa, Okla 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 

W73-07979 



LOST CREEK LAKE PROJECT, ROGUE 
RIVER, OREGON (SUPPLEMENT TO FINAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Portland, Oreg. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 

W73-07980 



SNAGGING AND CLEARING PROJECT ON 
MILL CREEK AT RIPLEY, WEST VIRGINIA 
(FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATE- 
MENT). 

Army Engineer District, Huntington, W. Va. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as EIS-WV-72-5281-F, $3.00 in paper 
copy, $1.45 in microfiche. May 15, 1972. 12 p, 1 
plate, 1 map, 1 illus. 

Descriptors: 'West Virginia, 'Environmental ef- 
fects, 'Flood control, 'Channel improvement, 
'Flow control, Flood protection, Overflow, Sur- 
face runoff, Flood stages, Flow rates, Non-struc- 
tural alternatives, Fish kill, Water pollution ef- 
fects, Hydraulic structures, Stream improvement. 
Fisheries, Fish passages, Open channels, Banks, 
Channel flow, Clogging, Streamflow. 
Identifiers: 'Environmental Impact Statements, 
•Mill Creek (W. Va.). 

The proposed project consists of snagging and 
clearing of the Mill Creek channel for a distance of 



36 



WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL— Field 04 
Control of Water on the Surface — Group 4A 



pproximately 2.5 miles downstream from Ripley, 
test Virginia. There is dense growth on the banks 
f the creek and considerable debris and fallen 
-ees in the stream, all of which contribute to poor 
tream flow and chronic flooding. The city of 
ipley maintains a sewage lagoon adjacent to the 
tream which is subject to flooding. The project is 
e signed to reduce flood stages and flood damage 
l Ripley, and alleviate stream pollution by reduc- 
lg the frequency of inundation of the existing 
?wage lagoon. Adverse environmental effects in- 
iude a temporary increase in the sediment in the 
tream and a loss of some fish and wildlife cover 
long the banks of the stream. Alternatives con- 
idered included channel widening and the con- 
traction of levees. However, these measures 
Vere considered more expensive and more disrup- 
ve to the environment than the proposed project. 
Adams-Florida) 
V73-07981 



OLECAT BENCH AREA OF THE SHOSHONE 
XTENSIONS UNIT, WYOMING. 

; or primary bibliographic entry see Field 03F. 
V73-07985 



(ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DELAWARE 
tTVER BASIN COMMISSION, 1972). 
)elaware River Basin Commission, Trenton, N J. 
'or primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
V73-07990 



JMTTING FEDERAL RESERVED WATER 
LIGHTS THROUGH THE STATE COURTS, 

"or primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
V73-07991 



VATER LAW-PRIMARY JURISDICTION OF 
TEE BOARD OF CONTROL OVER QUESTIONS 
»F WATER RIGHTS. 

■or primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
V73-07992 



tEGULATION OF RIVERS, LAKES, AND 
TREAMS. 

■or primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
V73-O8002 



LEEDS CONTROL EUTROPHICATION OF 
IALATON LAKE, 

iesearch Inst, for Water Resources Development, 

tudapest (Hungary). 

'or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

V73-08025 



TIE PHYSIOGRAPHY AND CHARACTER OF 
HE SUBSTRATUM OF THE DRAINAGE 
iREAS OF STREAMS OF THE POLISH HIGH 
ATRA MOUNTAINS, 

"olish Academy of Sciences, Krakow. Zaklad 
tiologdi Wod. 
C. Pasternak. 

tcta Hydrobiol, Vol 13, No 4, p 363-378, 1971. Il- 
ls. 

dentifiers: Benthic animals, *Drainage, Moun- 
ains, 'Physiography, Streams, Substratum, 
Tatra Mountains. 

mportant abiotic factors (relief, structure, and 
ihysico-chemical properties of the substratum) of 
be aqueous medium of the principal streams of 
be Polish High Tatra Mts. were studied. The zonal 
ifferentiation of hydrological conditions, the 
hemical composition of water, and the sub- 
tratum of the bottom of these streams chiefly de- 
end on the quality of the substratum of the 
rainage area and on climatic conditions. The shift 
glacial and contemporaneous) down valleys and 
eds of streams of fragments of higher-lying 
rystalline rocks increased the range of their in- 



fluence on the quality of the water and the settle- 
ment of benthic animals.-Copyright 1972, Biologi- 
cal Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08039 



BOUNDARY EFFECTS ON STABILITY OF 
STRUCTURES, 

Uttar Pradesh Irrigation Research Inst, Roorkee 

(India). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08B. 

W73-08058 



TRANSPOSITION OF STORMS FOR ESTIMAT- 
ING FLOOD PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS, 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept of Civil 

Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02E. 

W73-08085 



THE APPLICATION OF SNOWMELT 
FORECASTING TO COMBAT COLUMBIA 
RTVER NITROGEN SUPERSATURATION 
PROBLEMS, 

Corps of Engineers, Portland, Oreg. North Pacific 

Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W73-08142 



FORECAST STUDY FOR PRAIRIE PROVINCES 
WATER BOARD, 

Water Survey of Canada, Calgary (Alberta). Al- 
berta and Northwest Territories District Office. 
W. Nemanishen. 

In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972, 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, p 23-29, 1972. 3 fig, 3 tab, 8 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water yield, *Streamflow forecast- 
ing, *Snowmelt, Data collections, Hydrologic 
data, Climatic data, Meteorological data, Regional 
analysis, Weather data, 'Canada, Snowpacks, 
Snow surveys. 
Identifiers: 'South Saskatchewan River. 

The Prairie Provinces Water Board of western 
Canada initiated a study to improve and coor- 
dinate the water supply forecast for Alberta, 
Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Initial forecasts for 
the April to October period are based on winter 
storage precipitation data, summer rainfall, and 
winter base flows. The use of correction factors 
based on data for three integrating loss basins sig- 
nificantly improved the accuracy of forecast for 
the South Saskatchewan River. Extreme residuals 
were reduced from 23% to 8%. (See also W73- 
08138) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08143 



AIR TEMPERATURE OBSERVATIONS AND 
FORECASTS-THETR RELATIONSHIP TO THE 
PREDICTION OF SPRING SNOWMELT IN THE 
EAGEL RTVER BASIN, COLORADO, 

National Weather Service, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

River Forecast Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W73-08144 



WATER OF SIBERIAN RIVERS FOR AMD 
LANDS OF THE SOUTH (VODU SIBIRSKIKH 
REK-ZASUSHLTVYM ZEMLYAM YUGA), 

I. Geradi. 

Gidrotekhnika i Melioratsiya, No 12, p 13-23, 

December 1972. 1 fig, 2 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Rivers, 'Arid lands, 'Diversion, 
'Alteration of flow, 'Water resources develop- 
ment, Water utilization, Water management (Ap- 
plied), Water distribution (Applied), Water con- 
trol, Water supply, Water requirements, Crop 
production, Irrigable land, Land reclamation, Ir- 



rigation, Flooding, Projects, Planning, Feasibility 

studies, Forecasting. 

Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Siberia, Soviet Central Asia, 

Kazakhstan. 

Specific measures for diversion of Siberian water 
to arid zones of Soviet Central Asia and Kazakh- 
stan are outlined in a decree of the Central Com- 
mittee of the Soviet Communist Party and the 
USSR Council of Ministers 'On Further Reclama- 
tion of Lands and Their Agricultural Use in 1971- 
75.' The areas involved are in the territory known 
as the Midland Region of the USSR, whose boun- 
daries extend from the Urals and the Caspian Sea 
on the west to the Yenisey River on the east In 
scale, the diversion of part of the discharge of 
Siberian rivers to the Midland Region would sur- 
pass anything thus far attempted anywhere in the 
world. Major problems that need to be resolved 
are the choice of places where water would be 
tapped from the Siberian rivers, the alignment of 
the diversion routes, and the economically desira- 
ble volume of water diversion. A schematic map of 
proposed diversion projects in the region shows 
existing and proposed canals, pumping stations, 
existing reservoirs, section of the Irtysh to be aug- 
mented by Ob' waters, and the direction of diver- 
sion. (Josefson-USGS) 
W73-08162 



DRAINAGE AREAS, HARTFORD NORTH 
QUADRANGLE, CONNECTICUT, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08173 



WATER, SEWER AND STORM DRAINAGE 
PLAN FOR THE CUMBERLAND PLATEAU 
PLANNING DISTRICT. 

Thompson and I Jtton, Inc., Wise, Va. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06D. 

W73-08179 



URBAN STORM DRAINAGE AND FLOOD 
CONTROL IN THE DENVER REGION-FINAL 
REPORT. 

Denver Regional Council of Governments, Colo. 

Final report, August 1972. 219 p, 40 tab, 25 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Planning, 'Urban drainage, 
•Drainage programs, 'Urbanization, 'Flood con- 
trol, 'Colorado, Flood protection, Regional analy- 
sis. Drainage engineering, Storm runoff, Local 
governments, Administration. 
Identifiers: 'Denver (Colorado). 

Realizing that urbanization affects society and the 
quality of life, both positively and negatively, Pro- 
ject REUSE (Renewing the Environment through 
Urban Systems Engineering) was concerned with 
two aspects of the urban environment in the 
Denver Region-storm drainage and flood control, 
and solid waste management This report includes 
a 20-year regional program for major drainage in 
the study area. Included are discussions of major 
drainage systems, management responsibilities, 
criteria, assumptions and uncertainties, four alter- 
native concepts or programs for consideration, 
and an evaluation of these programs. Basically, 
the four plans are: (1) the current 1970-1974 pro- 
gram, (2) master planning with initial emphasis on 
preventive master planning followed by design 
master planning, (3) master p lanning with con- 
struction to be implemented on a county basis as 
soon as masterplanning is accomplished, and (4) 
the same plan as item number three except that all 
preventive master p lanning would be completed 
by 1975. The latter is evaluated to be the best plan 
and costs are estimated to be more than $8,500,000 
for all planning and construction. (Poertner) 
W73-08180 



r 



37 






Field 04— WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 
Group 4A — Control of Water on the Surface 



WATER AND LAND RKSOUHCK ACCOM- 
PLISHMENTS, 1971. 

Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, DC. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08 A 
W73-08191 



GREAT DISMAL SWAMP AND DISMAL 
SWAMP CANAL. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W73-08193 

PRESERVATION AND ENHANCEMENT OF 
THE AMERICAN FALLS AT NIAGARA. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 
W73-08194 



A SURVEY OF STATE REGULATION OF 
DREDGE AND FILL OPERATIONS IN NON- 
NAVIGABLE WATERS, 

Florida Univ., Gainesville. School of Law. 

R. C. Ausness. 

Land and Water Law Review, Vol 8, No 1, p 65- 

91,1973. 132 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Legislation, 'Non-navigable waters, 
•Dredging, 'Constitutional law. Eminent domain, 
Water law, Water policy, Legal aspects, Judicial 
decisions, Navigable waters, Riparian rights, Wet- 
lands, Conservation, Protection, State jurisdic- 
tion, Maine, Massachusetts, California, Zoning, 
Land use, Land development, Regulation. 
Identifiers: Public trust doctrine. Nuisance (Legal 
aspects). 

This note examines decisions arising under 
recently enacted state legislation regulating dredge 
and fill operations in certain classes of nonnaviga- 
ble waters to determine the nature and extent of 
constitutional limitations on such regulation. Most 
states have used the public trust doctrine to 
sustain regulation over dredging and filling in 
navigable waters; but until lately control over such 
operations in non-navigable waters has been left to 
private remedies based upon nuisance and riparian 
right theories. Since dredge and fill operations 
frequently cause ecological harm, regulation is 
desirable regardless of whether or not the waters 
involved are navigable. Most legislation to date 
has been limited to coastal wetland areas, but 
similar legislation in landlocked areas might 
promote protection of water quality , conservation 
of fish and wildlife and flood control. Based on 
cases discussing the Massachusetts, Maine and 
California laws, protection of wetlands by regula- 
tion of dredge and fill operations has met with ju- 
dicial approval, and no challenge based on a denial 
of due process has been successful. (Glickman- 
Florida) 
W73-08197 



W73-082I*. 



SM1THVII.I.E LAKE, LITTLE HI All I KIVH* 

MISSOURI PINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IM 

PACT ST AILMENT). 

Army Kngincer District Kansas ( Hy , Mo 

I- or primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A 

W73-O8210 



WALKER DAM IMPOUNDMENT, AQUATO 
PLANT CONTROL PROJECT, NEW KENT 
COUNTY, VIRGINIA (FINAL ENVIRONMES 
TAL IMPACT STATEMEVI i 

Army Engineer District, Norfolk, Va 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-08212 



COW CREEK WATERSHED, STEPHENS AND 
JEFFERSON COUNTIES, OKLAHOMA (FINAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W73-08214 



WILLOW ISLAND LOCKS AND DAM OHIO 
RIVER, OHIO AND WEST VIRGINIA (FINAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Huntington, W. Va. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08 A. 
W73-08216 



DETAILED PROJECT REPORT, INVESTIGA- 
TION FOR FLOOD PROTECTION, MUNDAY, 
TEXAS, BRAZOS RIVER BASIN, TEXAS 
(FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATE- 
MENT). 

Army Engineer District, Fort Worth, Tex. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W73-08217 



KAHULUI HARBOR WEST BREAKWATER 
REPAIR, MAUI, HAWAH (FINAL ENVIRON- 
MENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Corps of Engineers, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Pacific Ocean Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 

W73-08218 



GDLA RIVER BASIN, NEW RIVER AND 
PHOENIX CITY STREAMS, ARIZONA, DREA- 
MY DRAW DAM, MARICOPA COUNTY, 
ARIZONA (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 
STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Los Angeles, Calif. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W73-08219 



Available from the National 'technical \ul*m* 
Ml F. 16 7), u. |.«pc, 
II 4', m microfiche Water Resource- ' out 
772 V2p 

Descriptors * Environmental effect*. 'River DMBl 

■>A protection 'Water manny 
iiicnl (Applied/. North < arolina, Vugim* Wo 
Virginia. Flood damage Hydrotkclrv 
Recreation, Wildlife habitats Water control Flo* 
augmentation Aesthetics, River regulation 
Identifiers 'Kanawha River Basin 'kuviruoMM 
LaJ Impact Statement 

This action consists of a comprehend ve study at 
the Kanawha River Haun in North Carolina, Vr 
gima, and West Virginia The study, completed b? 
the state-federal interagency committee, recoa 
mends a comprehensive plan for the utilization o 
the water and related land resources of tJx 
Kanawha River Basin The projects and program 
of the comprehensive plan would provide flow 
damage prevention, augmentation of low flows ii 
the stream, hydroelectric power, land treatmeat 
National Forest development, and recreation. TV 
proposed measures would have some adverse en 
vironmenlal effects including loss of free flowiai 
streams, lots of wildlife habitat, relocation of peo 
pie and changes in stream fishery. The plan pro 
vides a framework for continuing developmea 
and management of water and related lam 
resources in the basin, which reflects consider* 
lion of alternative means and obsectiva 
(Mockler-Flonda) 
W73-08222 



SAN LUIS UNIT, CENTRAL VALLEY PRO 

JECT, CALIFORNIA (FTNAL ENVIRO.N'MEN 

TAL IMPACT STATEMENT), 

Bureau of Reclamation, Sacramento, Calif Mid 

Pacific Regional Office. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 

W73-08223 



CACHE RIVER BASIN FEATURE, MISSISSIPP 
RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES PROJECT, AR 
KANSAS (FTNAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPAC 
STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Memphis, Term. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 
W73-08224 



CHANGES IN THE MICROBIAL POPULA 
TTONS OF A RESERVOIR TREATED WITI 
THE HERBICIDE PARAQUAT, 

University of Wales Inst of Science and Tech- 
Cardiff. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08239 



THE WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL, 

National Water Commission, Arlington, Va. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W73-08198 



TTDELANDS-URGENT QUESTIONS IN SOUTH 
CAROLINA WATER RESOURCES LAWS, 

South Carolina Univ., Columbia. School of Law. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W73-08201 



LEGAL ASPECTS OF COASTAL ZONE 
MANAGEMENT IN ESCAMBIA AND SAN 
ROSA COUNTIES, FLORIDA (ESCAROSA), 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W73-O8204 



ARTIFICIAL ADDITIONS TO RIPARIAN 
LAND: EXTENDING THE DOCTRINE OF 
ACCRETION, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 



T OR C WILLIAMSBURG ARROYOS 
WATERSHED, SIERRA COUNTY, NEW MEX- 
ICO (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 
STATEMENT). 

Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08 A. 
W73-08220 



PEARL RIVER BASIN, EDFNBURG DAM AND 
LAKE, MISSISSIPPI AND LOUISIANA (FTNAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT), 

Army Engineer District, Mobile, Ala. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08 A. 

W73-08221 



KANAWHA RIVER COMPREHENSIVE BASIN 
STUDY, NORTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, AND 
WEST VIRGINIA, (FTNAL ENVIRONMENTAL 
IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Ohio River Basin Commission, Cincinnati. 



AN ANALYSIS OF YEARLY DIFFERENCES D 
SNOWPACK INVENTORY-PREDICnO! 

RELATIONSHIPS, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept of Watershe. 

Management 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W73-O8301 



HERBACEOUS PLANT COMMUNITIES IN TH 
SUMMIT ZONE OF MOUNT KTNABALU, 
J. M. B. Smith. 

Malay Nat J. Vol 24, No 1 , p 16-29. 1970/1971. 
Identifiers: 'Borneo, Plant communities 
Floristics, Growth, 'Herbaceous plants, 'Mow 
Kinabalu (Borneo), Nutrients, Soils, Zones. 

In North Borneo, Mount Kinabalu forms 
granodiorite batholith 13,455 ft high. The summ 
is cleft by a gully 4,000 ft. deep dividing Kinabal 
West from Kinabalu East A study was made c 
floristic, edaphic, and biotic factors; the Summ 
Zone is predominantly bare rock, but supports 



38 



WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL— Field 04 
Groundwater Management — Group 4B 



scrubby growth wherever there is sufficient soil to 
support it. It is suggested that water relations are 
more important than the soil nutrient status for the 
jstablishment of plants. A variety of herbaceous 
immunities appear, but none is entirely distinct; 
here are intermediate communities in some cases. 
rhe community categories are: bog, field layer 
jeneath open shrub canopy, community on loose 
-ocks of screes and landslides, rock crevice com- 
n unities on open slopes, community on shallow 
iandy soils subject to drought and flooding, and 
he communities on felled sites. A table shows the 
lerbaceous species found in 14 sites in a variety of 
ummit zone habitats of altitudes exceeding 1 1 ,000 
1— Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
V73-08333 



["HE EFFECT OF SODIUM ALKYLBENZENE- 
SULPHONATE ON THE DRAINAGE OF 
.VATER THROUGH SAND, 

Vestfield Coll., London (England). Dept. of 

Zoology. 

'or primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

V73-08342 



A stochastic model describes the behavior of a ma- 
ture drainage network in terms of four network 
parameters. The principal parameters are stream 
length ratio and bifurcation ratio. The model is 
amenable to computer solution and may be used to 
estimate the number, sizes and interfluvial 
distances of streams to be crossed when traversing 
a drainage basin, or succession of basins, with a 
path of varying width. Reliability of the model is 
materially enhanced by quantifying all four 
parameters within the geographical area of in- 
tended model use. However, the model reliability 
is little reduced if the basin shape and drainage 
density parameters are assumed to have equilibri- 
um values. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08380 



SURFACE WATER SUPPLY OF THE UNITED 
STATES, 1966-1970: PART 6-MISSOURI RIVER 
BASIN, VOLUME 4-MISSOURI RIVER BASIN 
BELOW NEBRASKA CITY, NEBRASKA. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08381 



the forest can be realized through continued fire 
protection and careful logging; reforestation of 
abandoned land can provide additional benefits.— 
Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08419 



ANNUAL CYCLES OF SOIL MOISTURE AND 
TEMPERATURE AS RELATED TO GRASS 
DEVELOPMENT IN THE STEPPE OF EAST- 
ERN WASHINGTON, 

Washington State Univ., Pullman. Dept. of 

Botany. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02G. 

W73-08436 



AVAILABLE SOIL MOISTURE AND PLANT 
COMMUNITY DD7FERENTIATION IN DA VIES 
ISLAND, MIDDLE TENNESSEE, 
Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02G. 
W73-08440 



4B. Groundwater Management 



APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING TO 
SOLUTION OF ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS, 

BM Federal Systems Div., Bethesda, Md. 
'or primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 

V73-08358 



APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING TO 
ITREAM DISCHARGE PREDICTION, 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 

funtsville, Ala. George C. Marshall Space Flight 

>nter. 

'or primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 

V73-08359 



iATELLITE OBSERVATIONS OF TEMPORAL 
[ERRESTRIAL FEATURES, 

Ulied Research Associates, Inc., Concord, Mass. 
'or primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 
V73-08362 



NTERDISCWLINARY APPLICATIONS AND 
INTERPRETATIONS OF REMOTELY SENSED 
)ATA, 

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, 
'or primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 
V73-08363 



OVERBED FORMATION, 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept. of Civil 

Engineering. 

'or primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 

V73-08365 



GEOLOGICAL AND GEOHYDROLOGICAL 
rrUDIES FOR ANGOSTURA DAM, CHIAPAS, 
MEXICO, 

?omision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico City, 
'or primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
V73-08376 



I PROBABILISTIC MODEL FOR STRUCTUR- 
NG A DRAINAGE NETWORK, 

Vrmy Project Mobile Army Sensor Systems Test 
Evaluation and Review Activity, Fort Hood, Tex. 
I. T. Robinson, and A. J. Swartz. 
Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va 22151 as 
AD-750 371 Price $3.00 printed copy; $1.45 
nicrofiche. 1972. 14 p, 3 fig, 2 tab, 5 ref. 

)escriptors: *Geomorphology, 'Terrain analysis, 
'Hortons law, 'Statistical models, 'Drainage pat- 
ems (Geologic), Stochastic processes, Probabili- 

y- 



THE ECONOMICS OF WATER TRANSFER, 

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Dept. of Agricultural and 

Resource Economics. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W73-08387 



GREAT BASIN STATION: SIXTY YEARS OF 

PROGESS IN RANGE AND WATERSHED 

RESEARCH, 

W. M. Keck. 

For Serv Res Pap Int. 118. p 1-48. 1972. Illus. 

Identifiers: 'Great Basin, History, 'Range 

research, Utah, 'Watershed research. 

A brief history is given of the Great Basin Experi- 
mental Range from its establishment in 1912 as the 
Utah Experiment Station. Key problems in 
management of watershed and rangelands and the 
experiments devised to solve them are described 
and applications of this research are indicated. - 
Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08398 



AGRICULTURE, LAND USE, AND SMALL- 
HOLDER FARMING PROBLEMS IN THE 
SHJ ATOKA VALLEY, 

Department of Agriculture, Suva (Fiji). Research 
Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03F. 
W73-08399 



THE MANAGEMENT OF MOUNTAIN 
CATCHMENTS BY FORESTRY, 

Stellenbosch Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Sil- 
viculture. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03B. 
W73-08401 



FORESTS AND FLOODS IN THE EASTERN 
UNITED STATES, 

Forest Service (USDA), Upper Darby, Pa. 

Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 

H. W. Lull, and K. G. Reinhart. 

US For Serv Res Pap Ne. Vol 226, p 1 -94, 1972. 

Identifiers: Control, Cover, Erosion, 'Floods, 

Flow, Forestation, 'Forests, Hydrologic studies, 

Runoff, 'Eastern US. 

A historical background is presented as a 
backdrop for discussion of the hydrologic 
processes affecting flood flows and erosion, the 
impact of various land uses, and the potentials for 
management. The forest is the best of all possible 
natural cover for minimizing overland flow, ru- 
noff, and erosion. The flood-reduction potential of 



FATE OF TRACE-METALS (IMPURITIES) IN 
SUBSOILS AS RELATED TO THE QUALITY OF 
GROUND WATER, 

Tuskegee Inst., Ala. Carver Research Foundation. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W73-07802 



THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER-A WATER SOURCE 
FOR TEXAS. (EVALUATION OF A PROPOSED 
WATER DIVERSION), 

Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W73-07816 



UNSTEADY FLOW TO A PARTIALLY 
PENETRATING, FINITE RADIUS WELL IN AN 
UNCONFTNED AQUIFER, 

Washington Univ., Seattle. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W73-07898 



THE TRANSIENT FLOW PROBLEM - A ONE- 
-DEVfENSIONAL DIGITAL MODEL, 

Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Dept. of Civil and 

Architectural Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W73-07916 



HYDROLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS AND THE 
SIGNIFICANCE OF I -234/1 -238 DIS- 
EQUILIBRIUM IN THE GROUND WATERS OF 
CENTRAL TEXAS, 

Rice Univ., Houston, Tex. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-07949 



AGRI-INDUSTRIAL PARK WATER IMPROVE- 
MENTS, SEWAGE TREATMENT FACHJTDiS, 
BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT LOAN (ITNAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Economic Development Administration, Austin, 

Tex. Southwestern Region. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W73-07978 



HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF 
THE VALLEY-FILL AQUIFER IN THE ARKAN- 
SAS RIVER VALLEY, BENT COUNTY, 
COLORADO, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08O68 



P 

B 






39 



Field 04— WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 
Group 4B — Groundwater Management 



WATER-RESOURCES RECONNAISSANCE OF 

THE O/.ARK PI.ATKAIJS PROVINCE, 

NORTHERN ARKANSAS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, I) « 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08069 



HYDRAULIC HOTS IN HOLE UAK-3, 
AMCHITKA ISLAND, ALASKA, 

Geological Survey, Lakewood, Colo. 
W. C. Ballance. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va 22151, 
Price $4.00 printed copy; $1.45 in microfiche 
Geological Survey Report USGS-474-26. Revi- 
sion! (Amchitka-17, Rev-1), April 1973 30 p, 17 
fig, 1 tab, 3 ref . AT (29-2M74. 

Descriptors: 'Aquifer testing, 'Specific capacity, 
Groundwater movement. Drawdown, Tranimis- 
sivity , Water yield, Aquifer characteristics. 
Identifiers: * Amchitka Island (Alaska). 

During August through November 1967, the U.S. 
Geological Survey hydraulically tested hole UAe-3 
on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Inflatable straddle 
packers were used to isolate and test selected in- 
tervals. Packer seats were poor in the uncased part 
of the hole because of unstable wall conditions, 
and leakage around packers occurred during some 
tests. However, leakage generally was slight and 
had little effect on the tests. The static water levels 
in the intervals tested ranged from 31.6 meters 
below land surface in the upper interval tested to 
about 115 meters below land surface in the lower 
interval tested, indicating decreasing head with 
depth. The relative specific capacities of isolated 
zones ranged from less than 0.001 cubic meter per 
day per meter to 0.898 cubic meter per day per 
meter of drawdown. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08071 



GEOHYDROLOGY AND ARITFICIAL- 

•RECHARGE POTENTIAL OF THE IRVINE 
AREA, ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, 

Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. Water 

Resources Div. 

J. A. Singer. 

Geological Survey Water Resources Division 

open-file report, January 8, 1973. 41 p, 16 fig, 2 

tab, 22 ref. 

Descriptors: *Hydrogeology, 'Artificial recharge, 
•Coastal plains, 'Water spreading, 'California, 
Aquifer characteristics, Aquitards, Transmissivi- 
ty, Water levels, Withdrawal, Water yield, 
Groundwater resources, Drawdown. 
Identifiers: 'Orange County (Calif), 'Irvine 
(Calif). 

The Irvine area is in hydraulic continuity with the 
rest of the coastal plain in Orange County, Califor- 
nia. Rapid facies change and the large percentage 
of silt and clay in the section locally result in con- 
fining conditions. The aquifer, most of which is in- 
cluded in the Fernando Formation, is as much as 
1 ,300 feet thick beneath parts of the plain. The al- 
luvium overlying the Fernando Formation 
averages about 200 feet in thickness and also con- 
tains significant amounts of silt and clay. Trans- 
missivities range from 25,000 to 100,000 gallons 
per day per foot in the Irvine area, values which 
are much lower than those in the rest of the coastal 
plain in Orange County. Water levels have 
recovered as much as 60 feet from the low levels 
of the early 1950's. In the winter nonpumping 
season water tends to move toward upper New- 
port Bay and the rest of the coastal plain. During 
the summer pumping season a cone of depression 
develops, reversing the winter gradient. The 
average dissolved-solids content of the ground- 
water is about 800 milligrams per liter. The most 
prevalent cations are sodium and calcium; the 
most prevalent anions are bicarbonate and sulfate. 
No long-term degradation of water quality has oc- 
curred, with the exception of a slight increase in 
dissolved solids. No areas in the Irvine area are 



suitable loi the huge scale spreading of walei loi 
artificial recharge (by and silt piedoinuialr in llie 
section beneath the I uilin plain, and in the foothill 
areas eilhci bedrock is close to the »u/1a' I './ the 
alluvium is line grained (Knapp IJSGS) 
W73-08072 



POLLUTION OF St BSI kFA( I WATER BY 

SANITARY LANDFILLS, VOI I MF I 

Drexel Univ , Philadelphia, Pa 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B 

W73-08073 



POSSIBLE ACCUMULATION OF 

AUTOGENIC, KXPANDABI.E-TYPK (LAY 
MINERALS IN THK SUBSTkt < II kl III II I 
TLE CREEK DAM, KANSAS, U-S.A., 
New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. Dept. of (jcolo 

gy 

For primary bibliographic entry sec Held 02K. 
W73-08093 



HEAVY METALS REMOVAL IN WASTE 
WATER TREATMENT PK(K T.SSKS: PART I, 
Orange County Water District, Santa Ana. Calif 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W73-08117 



EFFECT OF INCLUDING WATER PRICE ON 
THE CONJUNCTIVE OPERATION OF A SUR- 
FACE WATER AND GROUNDWATER 
SYSTEM, 

Plan Organization, Tehran (Iran). 

F. Mobasheri, and S. Grant. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 463- 

469, April, 1973. 2 fig, 17 equ, 15 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Optimization, 'Water demand, 
•Surface waters, 'Groundwater, 'Prices, Cost- 
benefit analysis, 'Operating costs, 'Water supply. 
Management, Equilibrium prices. Constraints, Al- 
gorithms, Mathematical models, Operations 
research, Computer programs, Water distribution 
(Applied). 

Identifiers: 'Nonlinear programming, 'Net 
benefits, 'Conjunctive operation. Penalty cost, 
Residential water. 

A mathematical model is developed to study the 
impact of water price on residential water demand 
and on the conjunctive operation policy of a sur- 
face water and groundwater system. The 
economic objective is to maximize the present 
worth of net benefits from operation of the supply 
system. The objective function and constraints are 
nonlinear. A penalty cost is introduced into the ob- 
jective function to take into consideration the cost 
of operating the system beyond the planning time 
horizon; the penalty cost is a function of the final 
groundwater state. Nonlinear programming is used 
to find the optimum operation strategy for the con- 
junctive management of the supply sources. Cal- 
culated simultaneously are the optimum demand, 
the distribution of supply, and the equilibrium 
price for each time period in the planning horizon. 
The model is applied to a hypothetical residential 
area to test the efficiency of the computer pro- 
gram; the planning time horizon is 25 years. (Bell- 
Cornell) 
W73-08132 



RENOVATING SEWAGE EFFLUENT BY 
GROUNDWATER RECHARGE, 

Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Water Conservation Lab. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W73-08141 



DISSOI VKti HUH M IS (.KOI NUWAIFJI A 
POSSIBI F MEIHOU K>ll I KAMI M AHD 

iiiomi m rifosrH nwc 

MtMi" Haiiulluo I'wunui I/- 

Physics 

I i.i piuiury i>iMi<«i«ptu<. cuUy set Fieid 02K 

W73-0C137 



KW OBDS Or WELIJi * Mi I KYI BORINGS!* 
mr si v;i HiANNA EfVEl BA.SIN 

YORK, 

+yc«l Survey. Albany, N Y 
' unary btbuographu. entry %cc Held 07( 
W73-08I59 



HYDROGEOIOG1 aMj ENGINEERING 

GEOLOGY K,ll)k(K,K<iUK,liA I is/HrSrJL 
naYa GEOLO&YA). 

Gornyi InsUtut. I /ciungrad (USSR; 

I oi primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F 

W73-08I63 



MAP SHOWING GENERAL CHEMH AL 
QUALITY OF GROI MjU AfF.k IN THE 
SALINAQUADRANGI.E. IT AH, 

Geological Survey, Washington, DC 

For primary bibliographic entry ice Field 07C. 

W73-0K172 



HYDROI.OGICAL EFFECTS OF THE CAN- 
NIKIN EVES I 

Geological Survey, Denver. Goto. 

D. D. Gonzalez, and L E WolhU 

Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 

Vol 62, No 6, p 1527-1542. December 1972 10 fig. 

2 tab, 2 ref 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear explosions, 'Hydrogeoto- 
gy. Drawdown, Groundwater movement. Surface- 
ground water relationships, Streamflow, Recharge, 
Craters, Excavation, Hydrology. 
Identifiers: 'Amchitka Island (Alaska). 

The hydrological effects of the underground 
nuclear explosion, Cannikin, were monitored by a 
network of streamflow stations and groundwater 
boreholes located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. 
Continuous records were obtained from six sur- j 
face-water stations that range from 1.50 to 14.07 
km from surface ground zero. Confined fluid pres- 
sures in boreholes were recorded at five stations 
with slant distances ranging from 2.14 to 14.1 1 km 
from ground zero. Fluctuations of water level 
were measured in one open hole. The stream 
system chaining the site lost 96% of its flow within 
hours after the explosion. Lakes formed by the ex- 
plosion remain low in stage and appear to be 
providing infill water for the rubble chimney. Mea- 
surements in boreholes also showed that the 
groundwater gradient was toward the explosion 
site. The response of confined fluid pressures was 
recorded in a number of boreholes. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W73-08367 



MAP SHOWING APPROXIMATE GROUND- 
WATER CONDITIONS IN THE PARKER 
QUADRANGLE, ARAPAHOE AND DOUGLAS 
COUNTIES, COLORADO, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08369 



AVAILABILITY OF GROUNDWATER, HART- 
FORD NORTH QUADRANGLE, CONNEC- 
TICUT, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08370 



WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL— Field 04 
Effects on Water of Man's Non-Water Activities — Group 4C 



VTURAL AND ARTIFICIAL GROUND- 
VATER RECHARGE, WET WALNUT CREEK, 
ENTRAL KANSAS, 
eological Survey, Lawrence, Kans. 

B. Gillespie, and S. E. Slagle. 

ansas Water Resources Board Bulletin No 17, 
i72. 94 p, 55 fig, 7 tab, 19ref. 

escriptors: 'Groundwater resources, 'Irrigation, 
Cansas, 'Groundwater recharge, Aquifers, 
quifer characteristics, Streams, Natural 
charge, Artificial recharge, Water quality, 
fiemical analysis, Streamflow, Water wells, 
'ater yield, Water level fluctuations. 

le withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation is ac- 
lerating rapidly in western and central Kansas, 
atural recharge or artificial recharge to the 
luifers is needed to ensure an adequate supply of 
ater for the future. Wet Walnut Valley in central 
ansas is a narrow alluvial valley in which an in- 
rrupted meandering stream dominates the 
'drologic system. Wet Walnut Creek is generally 
losing stream in most of the reach through the 
[idy area. The average annual streamflow leaving 
e area is 50,530 acre-feet, most of which occurs 
storm runoff. Recharge to the aquifer from the 
sing reach of the creek during low-flow periods 
only about 0.05 cubic foot per second per mile of 
annel because of a relatively impermeable layer 
fine-grained material with an average thickness 
about 2 feet that lies between the bottom of the 
annel and the sand and gravel of the lower allu- 
um. The maximum amount of water available for 
tificial recharge is streamflow, which averages 
out 50,000 acre-feet per year. The average 
nount probably will be less than the potential for 
charge after floodwater retarding structures and 
tificial recharge systems have been placed in ser- 
ce. (Woodard-USGS) 
73-08379 

C. Effects on Water of 
Man's Non- Water 
Activities 



'ORM FLOW FROM HARDWOOD- 

ORESTED AND CLEARED WATERSHEDS IN 

EW HAMPSHIRE, 

>rest Service (USDA), Durham, N.H. Northeast- 

d Forest Experiment Station. 

W. Hombeck. 

ater Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 346- 

4, April 1973. 3 fig, 3 tab, 10 ref. 

sscriptors: 'Storm runoff, 'Forest watersheds, 
'lear-cutting, 'New Hampshire, 'Rainfall-runoff 
lationships, Forest management, Water yield, 
oods, Forests, Hydrographs, Hydrograph analy- 
>, Demonstration watersheds. 

langes in storm flow as a result of forest clearing 
:re determined for a small mountainous 
itershed in New Hampshire by using a paired 
itershed as a control. Reduction of transpiration 
d interception losses produced wetter soils with 
is opportunity for storing rainfall. Consequently, 
ick flow volumes and instantaneous peaks in- 
eased during the growing season. The absence of 
e hardwood forest canopy also caused earlier 
d more rapid snowmelt and affected most spring 
>rmflow events involving snow water. In con- 
ist, storm events occurring after soil moisture 
charge in the fall and before the start of spring 
owmelt were unaffected by forest clearing, 
though changes in the spring and summer storm- 
iw were readily detectable, their magnitude was 
t great. The maximum increase in individual 
ick flow was 30 mm for the summer streamflow 
ason and just over 50 mm during spring snow- 
sit. Changes in mean quick flow were much 
iver. The relatively small amount of forest clear- 
} currently taking place in New England head 
iters should not increase downstream flood 
tential. (Knapp-USGS) 



W73-07889 



EFFECTS OF LAND USE ON WATER 
RESOURCES, 

Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, 

Washington, D.C. 

W. E. Bullard. 

Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, 

Vol 38, No 4, p 645-659, April 1966. 23 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Watershed management, 'Water 
quality control, 'Surface runoff, 'Urban runoff, 
Sediment control, Erosion control, Nutrients, 
Toxins, Environmental effects, Management, Ur- 
banization. 

The basic operations of a watershed, i.e. infiltra- 
tion and runoff, and the effect of various land uses 
on these operations, particularly in relation to 
water quality, are discussed. Three broad areas are 
identified that affect water quality: erosion and 
sedimentation, toxins and nutrients, and wastes. 
Under each of these categories and principal 
sources are identified, the water quality effects are 
discussed, and means to minimize the adverse ef- 
fects are offered. In general, the problems can be 
broken into a non-urban versus urban dichotomy. 
The non-urban land uses such as agriculture, 
forestry, mining, and recreation can usually be 
handled best through improved management prac- 
tices. The urban runoff problem, however, with its 
dirt, chemicals, oil, and nutrients from urban ac- 
tivities may require major treatment and storage 
facihties in addition to management attempts. (F.l- 
fers-North Carolina) 
W73-08054 



THE CHANGING WATER RESOURCE, 

Atmospherics, Inc., Fresno, Calif. 
T.J. Henderson. 

In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972, 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, p 2-5, 1972. 2 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Snow, 'Water resources, 'Con- 
ferences, 'Water resources development, 
Weather modification, Urbanization, Conserva- 
tion, Water supply. 

Water resources are not changing, but man's in- 
fluence on this resource and his need for water are 
rapidly changing. The effects of man on natural 
patterns of water supply are usually largely inad- 
vertent. But man's intentional activities may often 
improve the supply of "ater for either more direct 
benefit or improve the landscape for greater 
aesthetic advantage. Man has built dams, diverted 
large rivers, drained swamps, reclaimed deltas, 
developed enormous irrigation schemes, started to 
use saltwater conversion, and has modified the 
weather. (See also W73-08138) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08139 



COPING WITH POPULATION GROWTH AND 
A LIMITED RESOURCE, 

Arizona Water Commission, Phoenix. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06A. 

W73-08140 



SNOW, RELATED ACnVITffiS AND CON- 
CERNS ON THE GRAND MESA, WESTERN 
COLORADO, 

Forest Service (USDA), Delta, Colo. Grand Mesa- 

Uncompahgre National Forests. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W73-08147 



A WILDERNESS SNOW COURSE, 

Forest Service (USDA), Kalispell, Mont. Flathead 

National Forest. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W73-08148 



WDLDERNESS IN THE NATIONAL PARKS, 

National Park Service, Denver, Colo. Denver Ser- 
vice Center. 
J. Henneberger. 

In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972. 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, p 58-60, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Recreation, 'National parks, 

'Recreation facilities, 'Surveys, Conservation, 

Planning. 

Identifiers: 'Wilderness areas. 

A wilderness studies program has been underway 
in the National Park Service since 1964 when the 
Wilderness Act directed the Service to study all 
roadless areas of 5,000 acres or more in the parks 
and other areas of the System that existed in 1964. 
This would include a total of 65 areas. Public 
hearings have been held on 43 and up through 
fiscal year 1972 reports on 40 of these areas have 
been completed. Substantial progress on the 
balance has been made and completion by 1974 is 
anticipated. To date. Congress has created wil- 
derness units in the Petrified Forest National Park 
and Craters of the Moon National Monument. (See 
also W73-081 38) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08149 



URBAN HYDROLOGY-A SELECTED 

BD3LIOGRAPHY WITH ABSTRACTS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
G. L. Knapp, and J. P. Glasby. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 105, $6.75 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Geological Survey Water- 
Resources Investigations 3-72, 1972. 21 1 p, 651 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Bibliographies. 'Abstracts, 'Urban 
hydrology, 'Urban runoff, Rainfall-runoff rela- 
tionships, Storm runoff. Water pollution sources. 
Groundwater, Climatology, Urbanization, Cities, 
Urban drainage. Land use. Storm drains. Mathe- 
matical models, Surburban areas. 

This bibliography of 651 selected references on 
urban hydrology is intended as a source document 
for scientific and water-management needs. It was 
stimulated by increasing interest in the problems 
of runoff and water quality caused by increasing 
urbanization. The bibliography brings together ab- 
stracts with citations that pertain to the rainfall-ru- 
noff process, urban groundwater problems, urban 
water pollution sources, urban climatic changes, 
and urban runoff modeling. Emphasis is given to 
technical advances of the past ten years as well as 
to needs for new research. The bibliography is ar- 
ranged alphabetically by author and has separate 
geographic and subject indexes. Each abstract is 
followed by several added key words to relate it to 
other similar references. (USGS) 
W73-08164 



GILA RIVER H\MV NEW RIVER AND 
PHOENDC CITY STREAMS, ARIZONA, DREA- 
MY DRAW DAM, MARICOPA COUNTY, 
ARIZONA (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 
STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Los Angeles, Calif. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W73-08219 



HYDROLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE CAN- 
NIKIN EVENT, 

Geological Survey, Denver, Colo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04B. 

W73-08367 






41 



Field 04— WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 
Group 4D — Watershed Protection 

4D. Watershed Protection 



WAI.KKK BRANCH WATERSHED: A STUDY 
OK TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC SYSTEM 
INTERACTION, 

Oak Ridge National Lab , Tenn 
G. S. Henderson, J. W. Elwood, W I- Harris, H 
H. Shugart, and R. I. Van Hook 
Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as ORNI. 
4848; $3.00 paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. In In 
vironmental Sciences Division Annual Progress 
Report for Period Knding September 30, 1972, Re- 
port No. ORNI.^848, Feb. 1973, p 9-19, 7 fig, 3 
tab. 

Descriptors: * Water resources, 'Forest 
watersheds, 'Biochemistry, 'Watersheds 

(Basins), 'Water yield, 'Ecosystems, Biological 
communities, Hydrology, Minerology, Cycles, 
Water quality, Aquatic populations, Comparative 
benefits, 'Tennessee. 
Identifiers: 'Walker Branch Watershed. 

The primary objective of the Walker Branch 
Watershed project is quantification of 
biogeochemical cycles in a forested landscape. To 
accomplish this objective, both terrestrial and 
aquatic ecosystems of the watershed are being stu- 
died to (1) establish quantitative relationships 
between the hydrologic and mineral cycles, (2) re- 
late water quality and aquatic productivity to 
characteristics of the adjacent terrestrial system, 
(3) provide information on natural terrestrial and 
aquatic system interactions for comparisons with 
those modified by cultural treatments, and (4) 
apply the knowledge gained from this small, con- 
trolled drainage basin study to broader landscale 
units to evaluate the impact of man's activities on 
the total ecosystem. (Houser-ORNL) 
W73-07947 



RECTIFICATION OF DEFICIENCIES IN 
COMPLETED LOCAL PROTECTION PRO- 
JECT, WELLSVILLE, NEW YORK (FINAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Buffalo, N.Y. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08 A. 

W73-07975 



ILLINOIS AND DESPLAINES RIVERS; 
KASKASKIA RIVER WATERSHED. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W73-08003 



EFFECTS OF LAND USE ON WATER 
RESOURCES, 

Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, 

Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04C. 

W73-08054 



BACON CREEK WATERSHED, PLYMOUTH 
AND WOODBURY COUNTIES, IOWA, (FINAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W73-08211 



VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA -BEACH ERO- 
SION CONTROL AND HURRICANE PROTEC- 
TION (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 
STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Norfolk, Va. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 

W73-08213 



COW CREEK WATERSHED, STEPHENS AND 
JEFFERSON COUNTIES, OKLAHOMA (FINAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08 A. 



W73 08214 



T OR C WII.I.IAMSBI H(. ARROVOS 
WATERSHED, SIERRA COt MY NEW MEX 

ICO (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPA< i 
STATEMENT). 

Soil ( onservalion Service, Washington, I J < 
For primary bibliographic entry nee Held OXA 
W7308220 



GREAT BASIN STATION: SIXTY YEARS Ot 
PROCESS IN RANGE AND WATERSHED 
RESEARCH. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A 
W73-08398 



FORESTS AND FLOODS IN THE EASTERN 
UNITED STATES, 

Forest Service (USDA), Upper Darby, Ha 
Northeastern Forest Experiment Station 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A 
W73-084I9 



05. WATER QUALITY 
MANAGEMENT AND 
PROTECTION 

5A. Identification of Pollutants 



THERMOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF 
DIMETHYLMERCURY IN AQUEOUS AND 
NONAQUEOUS SOLUTIONS, 

Missouri Univ., Rolla. Dept. of Chemistry. 
G. L. Bertrand. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 262, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Missouri Water Resources 
Research Center, Columbia Completion Report, 
1973. 1 3 p, I fig, 4 tab, 4 ref . OWRR A-045-MO (1 ). 
14-31-0001-3525. 

Descriptors: Physicochemical properties, 'Solu- 
bility, 'Aqueous solutions, 'Mercury, Pollutant 
identification, Analytical techniques, Water analy- 
sis, Ions. 

Identifiers: 'Dimethylmercury, 'Thermochemical 
studies. 

Calorimetric investigations were made of the in- 
teractions of dimethylmercury (DMM) with vari- 
ous organic solvents and compounds in solution. 
Heats of solution of DMM in inert solvents 
cyclohexane and carbon tetrachloride and in ac- 
tive solvents benzene, pyridine, and p-dioxane 
were measured. The effects of nitrobenzene, 
thiophenol, and thiourea were also investigated. 
All heats of solution were endothermic and less 
than 0.6 kcal/mole. No indications of specific in- 
teractions were observed for any of these com- 
pounds. The apparent solubility of DMM in water 
and in aqueous electrolyte solutions was deter- 
mined using flameless atomic absorption spec- 
trophotometry. The term 'apparent solubility' is 
used to specify the total concentration of all forms 
of mercury in an aqueous phase in prolonged con- 
tact with an excess of DMM. The solubility of 
DMM in pure deaerated water is 3.0 micro g Hg/g 
water, and over the range 5-45 degrees C, Solubili- 
ty (micro g Hg/g water) ± 127.7 exp (-1 109/T) plus 
or minus 0.05. The presence of halide ions was 
found to greatly increase the apparent solubility of 
DMM, with more than a tenfold increase in 1 M 
NaCl. It is suspected that this increase is due to a 
reaction forming the more soluble methylmercury 
halide. 
W73-07806 



RADIOACTIVITY OF W ASTE WATERS IN 
NUCLEAR RESEARCH INSTITUTE, REZ, AND 
ENVHtONMENT, (VLIV RADIOAKT1VITY OD- 



PADNH H VOO \ '. /».! M'.MIH JADUtMEOt , 

CENTRA V KEZI NA (MUM I 

toventka Akadeuuc Ved Ed ' »Uj 
JadCfBebO Vy/kuifiu 

I or primary bibuog/aptiu ml/y tec Field 
W73-07V26 



RESII.IS (-ROM Ml I II IHM t- M EMENT 
NEUTRON A<-|l\AMO% 4NALYM I 

MARIM* HIOI (K.U AC SPM IM1 
California I J ruv , Irvine l>epi of Cheni; 
For primary bibliographic entry tee Field 
W73^J7V27 



MOMIORJSO <»t RAWOAfllV* ISOIOPKa 

is ENVIRONMENTAL materials, 

Atomic Energy of ' a/iada I Kj < haJi K 

tano) Chalk River Nuclear Ijibt 

W E Orummitt 

In International Sympouum of Identification ami 

Measurement of F.n vironmental Pollutant-. June 

14-17, 1971. Ottawa Ontario, National Research , 

Council of Canada, Ottawa, p 399-403 4 fig, 3 ref. 

Descriptors 'Nuclear wallet, " Monitoring, 
'Radioisotopes, 'Gamma rayy Neutron activation < 
analysis, Effluents, Spectroscopy Canada, 
k i vers, Cobalt radioisotopes, Instrumentation, I 
Pollutant identification. Water pollution control, i 
Path of pollutants 

Several gamma -emit Ung nuclides may be 
identified simultaneously using a Ge (Li) detector. I 
The background in the Co60 photopeak channel it I 
very low. It is seldom that anything but fallout 
radionuclides are seen downstream in the Ottawa 
River; however, Co and Mn could be delected at 
0.02 picoCunes/uier. To locate sources of con- 
tamination, effluents are monitored before dilu- 
tion in the river. Contamination from a failed fuel I 
rod would result in an order of magnitude higher l 
level of neutron capture products (Mb, Mn, Sc, I 
Fe, Zn, and Co) as compared wiuS fission products 
(1131. Bal40, Lal40, Rul03) In purging air from 
water used for reactor shielding, identification was I 
made of Ar41, Kx*5, Kx87, Kr88, Xel35, Xel38. 
and Rb and Cs daughters. Iodine and Br 
radionuclides were absent (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07929 



ENVIRONMENTAL MONITOR NG REPORT 

FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE JANUARY- 

■ DEC EMBER 1971. 

National Environmental Research Center, Lai 

Vegas, Nev. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-07936 



DETERMINATION OF PLUTONIUM IN EN- 
VHtONMENT AL SAMPLES, 

Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). 
M. Sakanoue, M. Nakaura, and T. Imai. 
In: Proceedings of an International Symposium, 
Rapid Methods for Measuring Radioactivity in the 
Environment, July 5-9, 1971, Neuherberg (Ger- 
many), p 171-181 . 6 fig, 2 tab, 23 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear wastes, 'Radiochemical 
analysis, 'Analytical techniques, 'Environmental 
effects, Water analysis, Sea water, Soil con- 
tamination, Sediments, Asia, Pacific Ocean, 
Separation techniques, Solvent extractions, 
Radioactivity techniques. Path of pollutants. Pol- 
lutant identification, Monitoring. 
Identifiers: Plutonium radioisotopes. 

Pu239 and Sr90 in bottom sediment of Nagasaki 
water reservoirs are highest in those nearest the 
blast (100-200 picoCuries Pu239/kg). In recent 
coral samples from the Pacific coast, Pu239 con- 
centration is about 2 picoCuries/kg; Pu238, about 
0.8. In coastal sea water, Pu239 concentration is 
0.6-0.8 picoCurie/kiloliter; Pu238, 0.1-0.5. The 



42 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Identification of Pollutants — Group 5 A 



d of radiochemical separation of Pu from the 
pies was determined by the addition of Pu236 
er. The samples were extracted with trioc- 
mine. The extract was scrubbed with nitric and 
rochloric acids, respectively, to remove U and 
Pu was stripped by hydrofluoric acid and then 
troplated onto a stainless-steel plate. The Pu 
opes were measured by alpha spectrometry. 
:mate y, a rapid, semiquantitative measureme t 
; large number of samples is given using mica 
ion-track detectors in conjunction with a 
rce of thermal neut ons. (See also W72-09437 
W72-06353.) (Bopp-ORNL) 
(-07939 



ARATION AND ENRICHMENT METHODS 
I MEASURING RADIOACTIVITY IN THE 
rtRONMENT, 

linical Univ. of Warsaw (Pola d). 

Inczewski. 

Proceedings of an International Symposium, 

id Methods for Measuring Radioactivity in the 

ironment, July 5-9, 1971, Neuherberg (Ger- 

y),p 57-69. 4 tab, 43 ref. 

criptors: 'Radioisotopes, 'Radioactivity 
tuques, 'Solvent extractions, 'Monitoring, 
lytical techniques, Separation techniques, 
i of pollutants, Chromatography, Ion 
lange, Pollutant identification, Nuclear 
tes, Waste treatment, Radiochemical analysis, 
lation, Reviews. 

irief review is given of concentration and 
ration of radionuclides by precipitation, chro- 
Dgraphy, liquid-liquid extraction and 
tilization. Cs is sorbed by Cu or Zr ferrocya- 
, ammonium molybdophosphate, or sodium 
:rylamate-nitrobenzene. Cation-exchange 
imatography frequently gives enrichment of 

million. Anion-exchange chromatography 
g sorbed liquid esters is in principle a multi- 
e extraction process performed continuously. 
facilitate extraction, inorganic species are 
d complexed (1) with organic ligands or (2) 

inorganic ligands which can be extracted in 
form of ion pairs with a suitably large organic 
Extraction possibilities for radionuclides with 
aid of organic reagents are tabulated. (See also 
1-09437 and W72-06353.) (Bopp-ORNL) 
i-07940 



ATTVE RISKS FROM RADIONUCLIDES 
IND IN NUCLEARLY STIMULATED NATU- 

.GAS, 

Ridge National Lab., Tenn. 

. Kelley, P. S. Rohwer, C. J. Barton, and E. G. 

xness. 

liable from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as CONF. 

08-4; $3.00 paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. 

4F.721 108-4, Nov. 1972. 27 p, 9 tab, 43 ref . 

:riptors: 'Nuclear explosions, 'Underground, 
clear engineering, 'Radioactivity, 'Natural 
'Radioisotopes, Krypton radioisotopes, 
ntium radioisotopes, Tritium, Radium 
lisotopes, Air pollution, Water pollution, 
ic health, 
tifiers: 'Stimulation. 

risks from man-made radionuclides possibly 
ent in nuclearly stimulated natural gas are con- 
red in three steps: (1) radionuclides are ranked 
he basis of their estimated radiation dose 
ntiaJs; (2) projected doses expected to result 
i gas usage are compared with estimated doses 
i other radiation sources; and (3) risk projec- 
i for the estimated doses are compared with 
r risks encountered in the normal activities of 
n technologically developed nations. It is pru- 
to assess the radiological impact of nuclear 
stimulation technology, because the results of 
development could affect millions of people. 
lion should be exercised in establishing ac- 
able concentrations of man-made radioactivi- 



ty in natural gas for industrial and domestic con- 
sumption. (Houser-ORNL) 
W73-07941 



WATER AND WASTE WATER STUDD2S, 1971 
(WASSER- UND ABWASSERCHEMISCHE UN- 
TERSUCHUNGEN), 

Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung m.b.H., Karl- 
sruhe (West Germany). 

H. Guesten, W. Kluger, W. Koelle, H. Rohde, and 
H.Ruf. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as KFK 
1690 UF; $3.00 paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. Re- 
port KFK 1690 UF, Oct. 1972. 68 p, 19 fig, 11 tab, 
24 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water pollution, 'Chlorinated 
hydrocarbon pesticides, 'Mercury, 'Activated 
carbon, Analytical techniques, Chromatography, 
Gas chromatography, Adsorption, Instrumenta- 
tion, Pollutant identification, Organic wastes, 
Water quality, Water quality control, Organic 
loading, Solvent extractions, HaJogenated pesti- 
cides, Organic pesticides, Ethers, Aromatic com- 
pounds, Rivers, Water analysis, Path of pollu- 
tants, Water treatment, Public health, Fish, Algae. 

Five papers concern analytical methods for or- 
ganic pollutants. Data (1970-1971) concerning the 
organic content of German rivers are reviewed 
critically. Methods described include column chro- 
matography for various organic compounds, thin- 
layer chromatography for chloro-organics, and 
neutron-activation analysis for Hg in algae and 
fish. Activated carbon filters from waterworks 
were analyzed to give the following order of 
decreasing quantity for organics which had re- 
sisted biologic decomposition: chloro-organics (in- 
cluding polychlorobiphenylenes and hexachloro- 
cyclohexane but no weed-killing agents), aromatic 
nitro compounds, aromatic compounds with tertia- 
ry butyl groups, esters, and ethers. A sixth paper 
concerns study of activated carbon in waterworks 
technology by its sorption-desorption charac- 
teristics for dimethylformamide. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07944 



CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF ALPHA 
AND BETA RADIOACTIVITY OF WATER IN 
VD3W OF MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE CONCEN- 
TRATIONS FOR THE PUBLIC, 

Commissariat a l'F.nergie Atomique, Saclay 
(France). 

J. Matutano, P. Hory, and L. Girvaud. 
Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as CEA- 
CONF-2007; $3.00 per copy, $1.45 microfiche. Re- 
port CEA-CONF-2007, March 1972. 11 p, 7 fig, 1 
tab. 

Descriptors: 'Radioactivity, 'Measurement, 
'Nuclear powerplants, 'Effluents, 'Assay, 
'Radioisotopes, Lakes, Fish, Regulation, Potable 
water, Monitoring, Evaporation, Equipment, 
Aerosols, Filtration, Analytical techniques. Effi- 
ciencies. 
Identifiers: 'France. 

Some liquid effluents from the CNEN-Saclay 
were put into the Saclay lakes which contain large 
quantities of fish. The radioactivity level was mea- 
sured to be less than or equal to the maximum per- 
missible concentrations of drinking water. A de- 
tector consisting of two flow counter which 
operates as a proportional counter was developed 
for the continuous measurement of the activity (10 
to the minus 6th power to 10 to the minus 8th 
power) of liquid effluents. The equipment used in 
the measurements concentrates the radioactivity 
of a volume of water by evaporation. The evapora- 
tion is effected by the atomization of the water in a 
hot air flow; the dry aerosol is recovered using air 
filtration. The efficiency and performance of the 
apparatus are given. (Houser-ORNL) 
W73-07945 



FALLOUT PROGRAM QUARTERLY SUMMA- 
RY REPORT, SEPTEMBER 1, 1972 - 
DECEMBER 1, 1972, 

New York Operations Office (AEC), N.Y. Health 

and Safety Lab. 

E.P.Hardy, Jr. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as HASL- 

268. $3.00 per copy, $1.45 microfiche. Report No. 

HASL-268, Jan. 1 , 1973. 179 p, 8 fig, 25 tab, 19 ref, 

6 append. 

Descriptors: 'Fallout, 'Radioactivity, 'Monitor- 
ing, 'Measurement, 'Asssay, Sampling, Analyti- 
cal techniques, Radiochemical analysis, Data col- 
lections, Atlantic Ocean, Strontium, Tritium, 
Food chains, Public health, Bibliographies, Publi- 
cations. 

Current data are presented from the HASL Fallout 
Program; the National Radiation Laboratory in 
New Zealand, and the EURATOM Joint Nuclear 
Research Centre at Ispra, Italy. Interpretive re- 
ports are presented on strontium-90 fallout over 
the Atlantic, fallout tritium and dose commitment, 
and quality control analyses of surface air, fallout, 
diet, and bone analyses during 1971. Tabulations 
of radionuclide levels in fallout, surface air, strato- 
spheric air, milk, and tap water are included. A 
bibliography of recent publications related to 
radionuclide studies, is also presented. (See also 
W73-0795 1 ) (Houser-ORNL) 
W73-07950 



APPENDIX TO QUARTERLY SUMMARY RE- 
PORT, SEPT. 1, 1972, THROUGH DEC. 1, 1972. 
HEALTH AND SAFETY LABORATORY, FAL- 
LOUT PROGRAM, 

New York Operations Office (AEC), N.Y. Health 
and Safety Lab. 
E. P. Hardy, Jr 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as HASL- 
268, Appendix. $3.00 per copy, $1.45 microfiche. 
Report No. HASL-268, Appendix, Jan. I, 1973. 
448 p, 6 Append. 

Descriptors: 'Fallout, 'Data collections, 
•Sampling, 'Assay, 'Strontium, 'Food chains, 
'Population, Public health, Air pollution. Water 
pollution, Atlantic Ocean, Lead, Milk, Domestic 
water. 

Presents fallout data in the following six appen- 
dices: (A) Strontium in Monthly Deposition at 
World Land Sites; (B) Radiostrontium Deposition 
at Atlantic Ocean Weather Stations; (C) 
Radionuclides and Lead in Surface Air; (D) 
Radiostrontium in Milk and Tap Water, (E) Table 
of Conversion Factors, and (F) Table of 
Radionuclides. (See also W73-O7950) (Houser- 
ORNL) 
W73-07951 



ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY IN 
GREENLAND IN 1971, 

Danish Atomic Energy Commission, Risoe. 
Health Physics Dept. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W73 -07953 



DETERMINATION OF TRACE METALS AND 
FLUORIDE IN MINERALOGICAL AND 
BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES FROM THE MARINE 
ENVIRONMENT, 

Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C. 
D. J. Bressan, R. A. Carr, P. J. Hannan, and P. E. 
Wilkniss. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as CONF- 
721010-8; $3.00 paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. Re- 
port CONF-721010-8, 1972. 10 p, 4 tab, 10 ref. 
From International Conference on Modem Trends 
in Activation Analysis, Oct. 2, 1972, Saclay, 
France. 

Descriptors: 'Neutron activation analysis, 'Mer- 
cury, 'Marine algae, 'Air pollution. Dusts, 



s 

r 






43 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5A — Identification of Pollutants 



I 



Oceans, Water pollution sources, Gamma rays, 
Spectroscopy, Path of pollutants, Fluorides, Ab- 
sorption, Trace elements. Tracers, Analytical 
techniques, Food chains. 

Hg or its volatile compounds must condense on at- 
mospheric particles or react with them, since 
neutron-activation analysis shows that Hg is about 
two orders of magnitude higher in over-ocean dust 
than the average in the earth's crust. That the at- 
mospheric dust is of continental origin is suggested 
by higher F (330-875 ppm) than for sea salt (37 
ppm) as determined by neutron-activation analysis 
and other methods. The neutron activation 
technique for analysis of Hg in marine aJgae was 
checked by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Car- 
rier-free Hgl97, produced by irradiation of gold 
targets, was used in determining Hg uptake by 
marine algae at varying Hg concentrations in the 
water. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07959 



BACTERIAL AND ALGAL CHLOROPHYLL IN 
TWO SALT LAKES IN VICTORIA, AUS- 
TRALIA, 

S. U. Hussainy . 

Water Research, Vol 6, No 11, p 1361-1365, 

November 1972. 3 fig, 1 tab, 15 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water analysis, 'Chlorophyll, 'Al- 
gae, 'Bacteria, 'Dissolved solids. Distribution 
patterns, Australia, Optical properties. Separation 
techniques, Saline lakes. 

Identifiers: 'Optical density, 'Grammetric analy- 
sis. Lake Keilambete, Lake Gnotuk. 

Water samples were collected at depths of 1 , 2, 3, 
5, 10, and 20 m from Lake Gnotuk and at 10 m 
from Lake Keilambete (Australia) and analyzed 
for total dissolved solids, algal chlorophyll, and 
bacterial chlorophyll. Solids were estimated gram- 
met rically; algal chlorophyll was determined by 
filtering the sample, extracting with acetone, and 
recording the optical density; bacterial chlorophyll 
was estimated by applying a provisional equation 
derived by Takahashi and Ichimura to the optical 
density data. Total dissolved solids concentrations 
were 59.3 and 60.2 g per 1 for Lakes Keilambete 
and Gnotuk, respectively. The standing crops of 
autotrophic sulphur bacteria in terms of bacterial 
chlorophyll were found to be in larger quantities 
than algal chlorophyll a. Both at the surface and at 
the bottom, bacterial chlorophyll was about ten 
times as much as algal chlorphyll a. Their popula- 
tion in smaller quantities at other depths may be 
due to the heavy grazing by the zooplankton. It is 
suggested that the bacteria may be a good food 
source for the zooplankton. It is also suggested 
that the deep orange pigmentation in the Copepoda 
may be due to their grazing on the pink bacteria. 
(Little-Battelle) 
W73-08018 



THE USE OF AGAR DIP-SLIDES FOR ESTI- 
MATES OF BACTERIAL NUMBER IN POL- 
LUTED WATERS, 

Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Civil Engineering. 
D. D. Mara. 

Water Research, Vol 6, No 12, p 1605-1607, 
December 1972. 2 fig, 1 tab, 3 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sewage bacteria, 'Aquatic bacteria, 
'Monitoring, 'Estimating, Water pollution, 
Sewage, Methodology, Pollutant identification. 
Identifiers: 'Agar dip-slides, Culture media, 
Agars, Plate counts. 

Oxoid and 'Uricult' agar dip-slides were used to 
estimate to the nearest order of magnitude total 
and coliform counts in sewage and polluted rivers. 
Samples of sewage and polluted river water were 
collected in sterile 8-oz (228-ml) bottles. Standard 
plate counts were obtained in Oxoid yeast extract 
agar after 24 h incubation at 35 degrees C. Total 
coliform and faecal coliform pour-plate counts 



were obtained in lactose teepol agar (lamctofi arid 
Emberley, 1 956) after 4 h incubation at 30 degree* 
( followed 18 20 h at eilliei 15 degree* or 44 
degrees ( (Mara, in preparation) I liese counts 
were used to judge the accuracy of the dip slide 
counts I wo Oxoid dip- slides were imrriciscd in 
the sewage or nver flow for ca 5 » and incubated, 
one at 35 degrees C and (he other 44 degrees ' for 
20-24 h. At some sampling stations Uricult' dip- 
slides (Onon Pharmaceutical, Helsinki) were also 
used. These estimates agreed closely with the DM 
responding pour-plate counts in yeast extract agar 
and lactose teepol agar I tic dip slide technique is 
simple and suitable for routine monitoring <>f cf 
fluent quality and nver pollution (Holoman Mat 
telle) 
W73-08021 



A NEW SIMPLE WATER 1M)W SYSTEM KM 

ACCURATE CONT1NOUS HOW I KSI S, 

Kristinebergs Zoologiska Station, liskebackslul 

(Sweden). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 

W73-08022 



A SIMPLE METHOD FOR CONCENTRATING 
AND DETECTING VIRUSES IN WASTE- 
WATER, 

Central Public Health l-.nginecnng Research Inst., 

Nagpur (India). 

V. C. Rao, U. Chandorkar. N. U Rao, P. 

Kurmaran, and S. B. Lakhe. 

Water Research, Vol 6, No 12, p 1565-1576, 

December, 1972. 1 fig, 13 tab, 1 1 ref 

Descriptors: 'Waste water (Pollution), 'Isolation, 
•Methodology, 'Viruses, Sewage, Sewage ef- 
fluents, Hydrogen ion concentration, Laboratory 
equipment, Biochemical oxygen demand. Pollu- 
tant identification. Efficiencies, Sampling, Cul- 
tures. 

Identifiers: 'Sample preparation, Recovery, 
'Membrane filters, Poliovirus type I, Coxsackie 
virus B3, Coxsackie vinis B5, Echo virus 9, Tissue 
culture, Elution, Enteroviruses. 

A simple method has been developed for rouUne 
analysis of sewage effluents for detecting viruses 
using adsorption at pH 3 on a 0.45 -micron 47-mm 
diameter membrane filter and elution at pH 8. It 
was tested on viruses added to autoclaved sewage. 
Homogenizing the sample for 4 min in a Waring 
blender and clarification by centrif ligation at 1800 
g and later at 9230 g facilitated easy filtration 
without any loss of virus. Retention of the eluant 
for 30 min on the millipore membrane and then 
elution in situ under suction provided a sterile elu- 
ate with 100 per cent recovery of viruses. Viruses 
added to fecal suspensions with 600 mg/1 BOD 
were completely recovered when the sample pH 
was adjusted to 3 and its salt concentration in- 
creased by adding 1200 mg/1 of Mg (2 + ) as the 
chloride. This procedure eliminated the need for 
passing the samples through ion exchange resins 
for removing membrane coating components. In a 
1 yr program of monitoring of raw sewage from a 
middle income group community in Nagpur, a 
maximum of 3150 PFU/1 during monsoon and 
1 1575 PFU/1 during winter was obtained. High ef- 
ficiency and reproducibility of the method allowed 
the use of sample volumes of 40 ml of raw sewage 
and 320 ml of treated effluent for the detection of 
viruses. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08023 



WATER QUALITY MONITORING IN DIS- 
TRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A PROGRESS RE- 
PORT, 

National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, 
Mich. 

N. I. McClelland, and K. H. Mancy. 
Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol 64, No 12, p 795-803, December, 1972. 21 
fig, 4 tab, 3 ref. 



DMcriptors 'Potable water, 'aiotuio: 
s inline illation 'Water temperature 'Isistutov 
oxygen, 'Hydrogen too cxaacenUaUuti *' oudax 
cmiy. 'Ha/duett. 'Chlorides M, 
bidily, 'Alkalinity. 'Nulneot? ***Qm 

< ailuuuui ly-a-J ' ■nfnvn. Vaaftj 
Water analyst*. hlectrical cqcupf. 
equip" ' ahbrauooa ' alciun Cat 

boiiale Walei qu 

Identifiers 'Heavy metals, loo selective cite 
trodes, Ncphelomeicr*, Galvanic eels Anon* 
stripping vollammelry. Membrane c.< 
Sample preparation, fcrtsrhial chlorine. Glass caec 
trodes, I>iiferential anodic stripping » oltammeVjr. 

The progress of the Water Quality Monitoring Pm 
jeet which is being conducted by the Nations 
Sanitation Foundation is reviewed A pfoiotypt 
potable water quality monitor is on stream ant 
can measure temperatures using lhermisto:< (X 
with a voilamrnetnc membrane electrode , pH antf 
a glass electrode, conductivity with an a c condnt 
tivity cell, hardness, nitrates, chlorides, ant 
fluorides with ion selective electrodes, turbant) 
with a nephelomelcr, free residual chlorate wnni 
galvanic cell, alkalinity with a glass electrode. Ci 
by anodic stripping vollammelry , f.d and Pb b) 
differential anodic stripping vollammelry . and CAT' 
rosion by a polarization admittance lechmqne 
Sample analyses for hardness, nitrates, chlorides 
fluorides, and heavy metals are included A' 
laboratory test for measuring scaling 
using a rotating ring disc electrode has alto 
developed (Little HatteUci 
W73-08027 



MIKKX RESIDUES IN WIUJ POPULA1 

Oh ITO EDIBLE RED CRAWFISH rpSOCAkV 

BARUS CLARK!), 

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Golf- 
port. Miss. Plant Protection and Quarantine Pro- 
grams. 

G. P. Marion, J. H Ford, and J. C. Hawthorne. 
Bulletin of hnvironmental Contamination and 
Toxicology, Vol 8, No 6, p 369-374, December, 
1972.1 tab, 10 ref 

Descriptors: 'Crawfish, 'Pesticide residues. 
Crustaceans, Invertebrates, Insecticides, DDT, 
Gas chromatography, Chlorinated hydrocarbon 
pesticides. Poly chlorinated bipbenyls, Solvent ex- 
tractions, Chemical analysis, Pesticide toxicity, 
Water pollution effects, TDE, DDE. 
Identifiers: 'Mirex, 'Procambarus clarki, Aroclor 
1260, Sample preparation, Chlordane, Toxaphent, 
Detection limits. Arthropods, Macroin vertebrates. 
Decapods, Electron capture gas chromatography, 
Metabolites. 

Red crawfish from southcentral Louisiana were 
analyzed in order to determine if mirex residues in 
specimens from treated areas are beginning to 
reach those levels found to affect crawfish under 
laboratory conditions. Crawfish samples were 
washed to remove adhering materials, ground and 
mixed in a blender, a 50-gram subsample extracted 
in organic solvents, and analyzed by electron cap- 
ture gas chromatography. Samples were also 
analyzed for DDT and its me ta boh ted (TDE, 
DDE), chlordane, Toxaphene, and Aroclor 1260. 
The level of detection was 0.01 ppm. DDT residues 
ranged from 0.02-0.44 ppm while mirex residues 
were barely detectable. PCB residues were de- 
tected in few instances and 0.11 ppm chlordane 
was detected in one sample. No results are given 
for TDE, DDE, toxaphene or Aroclor 1260. There 
is no real evidence that the insecticide mirex has 
any significant effect on crawfish populations. 
(Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08030 



PCB RESIDUES IN ATLANTIC ZOOPLANK- 
TON, 

California Univ., Berkeley. Inst, of Marine 

Resources. 

R. W. Risebrough, V. Vreeland, G. R. Harvey, H. 

P. Miklas, and G. M. Carmignani. 



44 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Identification of Pollutants — Group 5A 



stiii of Environmental Contamination and 
icology, Vol 8, No 6, p 345-355, December 
:. 1 fig, 1 tab, 23 ref. 

;riptors: *Polychlorinated bipbenyls, 'Pesti- 
residues, *Zooplankton, 'Atlantic Ocean, 
lutant identification, Chemical analysis, 
'T, Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, Ab- 
tion, Marine animals, Insecticides, Gas chro- 
jgraphy, Sampling, Solvent extractions, 
>E. 

tifiers: P P 'DDT, p p 'DDE, Isomers, Sample 
aration. 

results of measurements of PCB and other 
rinated hydrocarbons are presented for 
ilankton samples from the Atlantic Ocean, 
samples were obtained during 3 cruises of the 
Atlantis II of the Woods Hole Oceanographic 
ration with a No. 6 mesh plankton net. Im- 
iately after collection, the plankton was trans- 
id to polycarbonate or glass jars and frozen, 
pies were prepared for gas chromatographic 
ysis by extraction in hexane. Dry and lipid 
ht determinations were also made. PCB in the 
ilankton from the stations on the continental 
and slope ranged from 2.4 to 260 ppm, with a 
an value of approximately 40 ppm. Median 
ent lipid weight of dry weight was 3.8 percent, 
dry and wet weight basis, representative con- 
ations in zooplankton from the shelf and 
: areas would be in the order of 1.5 ppm and 
ppm, respectively. Collections from the North 
itic contained high concentrations of PCB, 
ng from 0.007 to 0.45 ppm on a wet weight ba- 
Residues of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were 
d to be in the range of less than 0.00001-0.08 
and 0.00007-7.0 ppm, respectively. (Holoman- 
;lle) 
-08031 



ORATION AND QUANTITATIVE DETER- 
\TION OF THE YTTRIUM GROUP 
rHANTDES BY GAS-LIQUID CHRO- 
OGRAPHY, 

State Univ., Ames. Inst, for Atomic 
arch; and Iowa State Univ., Ames. Dept. of 
lis try. 

Burgett, and J. S. Fritz, 
ytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 1 1 , p 1738-1742, 
smber 1972. 5 fig, 3 tab, 10 ref. 

riptors: 'Separation techniques, 'Aqueous 
ions, Chemical reactions, Chemical analysis, 
imetric analysis, Solvent extractions, Heavy 
Is, Methodology, Gas chromatography, 
ition, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Organic 
iounds, Iron, Aluminum, Sulfur compounds, 
ifiers: 'Electron capture gas chromatog- 
i, *Flame ionization gas chromatography, 
thanides, 'Yttrium metal, Chemical 
r ery, Rare earth elements. Detection limits, 
ucal interference, Thermogravimetry, Preci- 
Mixtures, Ligands, Polyfluorinated 
■ketones, Organic solvents, Gas liquid chro- 
graphy, Sample preparation, F-19, Fluorine 
isotopes, Gadolinium, Terbium, Dysprosium, 
lium, Erbium, Thulium, Ytterbium, I.uteti- 
(ttrium, Uranium, Thorium, Scandium, Di-n- 
sulf oxide. 

; chromatographic method is reported for the 
ation and subsequent quantitative determina- 
>f the yttrium group lanthanides. The lantha- 
are synergistically extracted from aqueous 
on with the polyfluorinated beta-diketone 
2,2,6,6,7,7,7-decafluoro-3,5-heptanedione, 
HD)), as ligand, and di-n-butylsulfoxide (DB- 
is neutral donor. The composition of the ex- 
d species is reported to be R.E. 
03.2DBSO. Thermogravimetric analysis of 
>mplexes is reported. Analytical curves were 
red and found usable through a range of 0.1 
) microgram metal. Individual lanthanides 
determined with 97.5 percent recovery with a 
ye standard deviation of plus or minus 1 .9 
Mixtures of lanthanides were determined 



with 97.1 recovery with a relative mean deriation 
of plus or minus 2.3 pph and a relative standard 
percent deviation of plus or minus 3.1 pph. Detec- 
tion limits were determined for all of the rare 
earths. The detection limit was taken to be that 
amount of mixed ligand -complex necessary to give 
a chromatographic peak response equal to or 
greater than twice the background response. The 
detection limit observed was 20 micrograms metal 
for all the rare earth. The response to the flame 
ionization detector varied from metal to metal. 
When the electron capture detector was em- 
ployed, it was extremely sensitive to the com- 
plexes; however, concentrations of 20 micrograms 
metal were sufficiently high to overload the detec- 
tor even at purge flow rates of 400 ml/min. When 
the concentration was lowered, no response was 
observed. (Long-Battelle) 
W73-O8033 



SUPPORT-BONDED POLYAROMATIC 

COPOLYMER STATIONARY PHASES FOR 
USE IN GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, 

Applied Automation, Inc., BarUesville, Okla. 

Systems Research DepL 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 

W73-08034 



ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL AS A GAS CHRO- 
MATOGRAPH-MASS SPECTROMETER INTER- 
FACE, 

Northgate Lab., Hamden, Conn. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W73-08035 



PLASMA CHROMATOGRAPHY OF THE 
MONO-HALOGENATED BENZENES, 

Waterloo Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Chemistry. 
F. W. Karasek, and O. S. Tatone. 
Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 1 1 , p 1758-1763, 
September, 1972. 7 fig, 2 tab, 14 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Chemical analysis, Instrumentation, 

Aromatic compounds. 

Identifiers: 'Plasma chromatography, 'Mono- 

halogenated benzenes. Chromatography peaks, 

Chlorobenzene, Bromobenzene, Iodobenzene, 

Fluorobenzene, Thermal electrons. Sample 

preparation. 

Using thermal electrons and positive reactant ions 
from nitrogen gas, both positive and negative 
plasmagram patterns have been obtained for 
fluorobenzene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, 
and iodobenzene. The plasmagrams give charac- 
teristic qualitative data. Positive plasmagrams 
show protonated molecular ions containing one 
and two molecules; the negative plasmagrams, ex- 
cept for the fluorobenzene, show only a strong 
halogen ion peak, which provides experimental 
evidence for dissociative electron capture by ther- 
mal electrons. (Long-Battelle) 
W73-08037 



PIEZOELECTRIC DETECTORS FOR OR- 
GANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS AND 
PESTICTOES, 

Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans. Dept. of 

Chemistry. 

E. P. Scheide, and G. G. Guilbault. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 11, p 1764-1768, 

September, 1972. 6 fig, 2 tab, 25 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Pollutant identification, 'Or- 
ganophosphorus pesticides, 'Chemical analysis, 
Organic compounds, Instrumentation, Selectivity, 
Methodology. 

Identifiers: 'Piezoelectric detector, Paraoxon, O 
O-diethyl-o-p-nitrophenyl phosphate, Chemical in- 
terference, Sensitivity, Sample preparation, De- 
tection limits. 



A quartz piezoelectric crystal coated with a sub- 
strate has been used for the detection of small 
mass changes caused by the selective adsorption 
of organophosphorus compounds and pesticides. 
Incorporation of the crystal into a variable oscilla- 
tor circuit and measurement of the change in 
frequency of the crystal due to the increase in 
mass allows a highly sensitive indication of the 
amount of organophosphorus compound present 
in the atmosphere down to the part per million 
level. Instrumentation is relatively inexpensive 
and can be easily used in the field. Analysis is non- 
destructive and requires very little time. AT cut 
quartz crystals with fundamental frequencies of 
9.0 MHz were coated with various inorganic sub- 
strates and these were evaluated as to slectivity 
and sensitivity with respect to organophosphorus 
pollutants. Other parameters that affect the effi- 
ciency of the detector were also studied and evalu- 
ated. The detector has potential use as both an air 
pollution sensor and a specific gas chromatog- 
raphy detector. (Long-Battelle) 
W73-08038 



COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CAL- 
CIUM USING REAGENTS OF THE GLVOXAL 
BIS (2-HYDROXYANIL) CLASS, 

Clemson Univ., S.C. DepL of Chemistry and 

Geology. 

C. W. Milligan, and F. Lindstrom. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 1 1 , p 1822-1829, 

September, 1972. 10 fig, 5 tab, 16 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Clorimetry, 'Chemical analysis, 
•Calcium, 'Chelation, Chemical reactions. Alkali 
metals. Cations, Anions, Color reaction, 
Hydrogen ion concentration. Sodium, Potassium, 
Magnesium, Strontium, Aluminum, Iron, Cobalt, 
Nickel, Zinc, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Nitrates, 
Phosphates, Chlorides, Silicates, Sulfates. 
Identifiers: 'Glyoxal bis (2-hydroxyanil), 'Re- 
agents, Chemical interference, Metal chelates, 
Reproducibility. Mixtures, Absorption spectra. 
Lithium, Barium, Uranyl, Tin, Chlorates. 

The determination of calcium in solution from 0.1 
to 15 micrograms per milliliter is easy, accurate, 
and reproducible with reagents of the glyoxal bis 
(2-hydroxyanil) class. A few precautions are 
needed: obviously all chemicals must be calcium- 
free and the sequence of adding the reagents is 
critical. However, no extraction is needed and a 
simple, inexpensive colorimeter is all the instru- 
mentation necessary. The reagents chelate calcium 
yielding red colors at a high pH so interferences 
are limited. The various reagents have been evalu- 
ated and the chelate combining ratios and the ap- 
parent formation constants measured. (Long-Bat- 
telle) 
W73-08040 



DETERMINATION OF NANOGRAM QUANTI- 
TIES OF SIMPLE AND COMPLEX CYANIDES 
IN WATER, 

Department of the Environment, Ottawa (On- 
tario). Water Quality Div. 

P. D. Goulden, B. K. Afghan, and P. Brooksbank. 
Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 1 1 , p 1845-1849, 
September 1972. 7 fig, 3 tab, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Methodology, 'Distillation, 
•Colorimetry, 'Water analysis, Automation, In- 
dustrial wastes. Pollutant identification. Iron, 
Copper, Chemical analysis, Separation 
techniques. Laboratory equipment, Chlorides, 
Sulfates, Zinc, Carbonates, Nitrates. 
Identifiers: 'Cyanides, Detection limits. Sample 
preparation, Ottawa River, Synthetic water. 
Chemical interference, Standard methods, 
Bisulfites, Chemical recovery, Sulfides, Thio- 
cyanates. 

Two methods for analysis of cyanide in water are 
described. In the first, modifications to the normal 
distillation procedure given in 'Standard Methods' 



45 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5A — Identification of Pollutants 



are made to lower (he limits of detection of this 
method to 5 micrograms/liter CN. An automated 
method is described that enables 10 samples per 
hour to be analy/.ed with a limit of detection of I 
microgram/liter CN. With a sample size of 7 ml, 
this corresponds to a detection limit of 7 nano- 
grams CN. Distinction is made between simple and 
complex cyanides by irradiation with ultraviolet 
light. This irradiation breaks down complex cya- 
nides, including those of cobalt and iron. (I-ong- 
BatteUe) 
W73-08O41 



IMPROVED UREA ELECTRODE, 

Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans. Dept. of 

Chemistry. 

G. G. Guilbault, and G. Nagy. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 45, No 2, p 417-419, 

February 1973. 4 fig, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Aqueous solutions, 'Pollutant 
identification, 'Ureas, Selectivity, Potassium, 
Ions, Enzymes, Electrical stability, Zeta potential, 
Construction, Methodology, Electrochemistry. 
Identifiers: 'Urea electrode, *Ion selective elec- 
trodes, Biological fluids, Response time. Urease, 
Ammonium electrode. 

An improved urea electrode was made by covering 
the active surface of a solid type emmonium elec- 
trode with a physically immobilized urease (en- 
zyme) reaction layer. This layer was made accord- 
ing to the procedure of Guilbault and Montalvo 
(1970). A nylon net was placed over the sensor sur- 
face and fixed with rubber rings. A solution of 17S 
mg urease in 0.9 ml monomer solution was 
dropped onto the netting and polymerized by light 
for 60 min. The ammonium selective electrode was 
made using the antibiotic Nonactin as the active 
ingredient embedded in a silicone rubber matrix. 
Studies of the electrode show it to have good sta- 
bility and response characteristics. It allows a con- 
venient determination of urea in water solution, an 
estimation of urea content of biological fluids of 
unknown potassium ion concentration, and an ac- 
curate measurement of the urea concentration in 
biological fluids of approximately known potassi- 
um concentration. Some theoretical aspects of the 
enzyme electrode are discussed. (Holoman-Bat- 
telle) 
W73-08O42 



ACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS AT HIGH IONIC 
STRENGTHS USING HALrDE-SELECTTVE 
MEMBRANE ELECTRODES, 

State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Dept. of 

Chemistry. 

J. Bagg, and G. A. Rechnitz. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 45, No 2, p 271-276, 

February 1973. 5 tab, 22 ref. 

Descriptors: *Halides, 'Measurements, Bro- 
mides, Chlorides, Fluorides, Electrochemistry, 
Iodides, Sodium chloride, Electrolytes, Anions. 
Identifiers: *Ion selective electrodes, 'Membrane 
electrodes, 'Halide selective electrodes, 'Ionic 
strength, 'Ionic activity, Potassium chloride, 
Potassium bromide, Potassium fluoride, Lithium 
chloride. 

The newer halide-selective electrodes have been 
examined in a cell with a homoionic liquid-junc- 
tion which does not require a reversible cation- 
electrode or the use of extra-thennodynamic as- 
sumptions in the calculation of theoretical emf. 
These electrodes have been shown to have nearly 
theoretical potentiometric response in chloride, 
bromide, and fluoride solutions up to 4-5 molal. 
The iodide-selective electrode is restricted by 
deterioration of the electrode surface to solutions 
less than 0.5 molal. The single-ion activity conven- 
tion, based upon hydration considerations, 
proposed by Bates, Staples, and Robinson, com- 
bined with the Henderson equation for residual 
liquid-junction potentials, fitted the data for a cell 



win. beteraionk j>""< Ifon do lo '<ni Na( i. 4m K< i 

4in Kill. tin Kl\ and I in I i' I I lir R 

sistent with previously pi< • 

models foi the opcattoa <>f crystal meinbrane 

electrodes (Holoiuan Uallclle) 

W73-08043 



EI.MTK'H HEMH Al CHAKA< IEKISIH S Or 
THE GOLD M1CROMESH MM IKOlit 
Wisconsin IJniv , Mutifffl Dept of ' licmistry 
For primary bibliographic entry see field 02K 
W73-08044 



ORGANOCHIX>RINE PESTICIDE KESIM KS is 

WATER, SEDIMENT, ALGAE, AM) HSU, 

HAWAII - 1970-71, 

Hawaii Uruv , Honolulu. Dept. of Agricultural 

Biochemistry. 

A. Bevenue. J. W Hylin, Y Kawano, and I W 

Kelley. 

Pesticides Monitoring Journal, Vol 6, No I, p 56- 

64, June 1972 3 fig, 8 tab, 27 ref 

Descriptors: 'Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, 
'Pesticides residues, 'Sediments, 'Algae, IM, 
Chemical analysis, 'Sewage effluents , Water anal- 
ysis. Potable water, Rain water, 'Hawaii, DDT, 
Dieldrin, DDE, DDD, Gas chromatography, 
Methodology, Heptachlor, Aldnn, Solvent extrac- 
tions, Separation techniques, Plankton, A roc lor s 
Identifiers: Lindane, Heptachlor epoxide, Chlor- 
dane, Sample preparation, Detection limits, Elec- 
tron capture gas chromatography, Guppy, Molly, 
p p' DDD, p p' DDE, p p' DDT, Ala Wai Canal, 
Kapalamca Canal, Kalihi Stream, Sand Island 
Outfall. 

Rainwater, drinking water, and nonpotable waters 
in Hawaii were sampled and found to contain 
chlorinated insecticide residues in the low pam- 
per- trillion range. A portion of each sample was 
tested for chloride ion concentration and pH and 
the remainder subjected to hexame extraction, 
evaporation and gas chromatography. Sewage 
water samples were prepared for (1) pen- 
tachlorophenol identification by pH adjustment, 
hexane extraction, diazomethane treatment, hex- 
ane dissolution, and gas chromatography, and for 
(2) chlorinated pesticides other than PCP by the 
combined Florisil and silicic acid procedure of Ar- 
mour and Burke. Dredged sediment samples were 
subjected to sodium sulfate, hexane extraction 
and the Mills' Florisil cleanup procedure, and then 
gas chromatographed. The cleanup procedure 
used for algae and fish samples prior to gas chro- 
matography was a modification of the method of 
Kadoum. Dieldrin, p,p'-DDT, and lindane were 
the pesticides most prevalent; pentachlorophenol 
was present in samples from a sewage fallout. The 
ratio of chlorinated pesticide residues in canal 
waters to residues in algae, sediment, and fish 
from the same canals was 1:4,000:9,000:32,000, 
respectively. According to proposed water quality 
standards, results of this study indicated that pol- 
lution of Hawaii's water by organochlorine pesti- 
cides does not occur to any significant degree. 
(Mackan-Battelie) 
W73-08047 



ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN 
COMMERCIALLY CAUGHT FISH IN CANADA 
-1970, 

Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Winnipeg 
(Manitoba). Freshwater Inst. 
J. Reinke, J. F. Uthe, and D. Jamieson. 
Pesticides Monitoring Journal, Vol 6, No 1, p 43- 
49, June 1972. 1 fig, 1 tab, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, 
'Polychlorinated biphenyls, 'Commercial fish, 
'Canada, 'Pesticide residues, DDT, DDE, DDD, 
Dieldrin, Heptachlor, Aldrin, Separation 
techniques, Water analysis, Freshwater fish, 
Saline water fish, Chemical analysis, Gas chro- 






inatogfaptiy, Salmon, Yellow perch, M«| 
Kauioow Uoul ' atflUtct ' «/(> l^kr WE] 
heads, Walleye, l.aie I rte I^Jct Ontano, 

■M I^Jce Superior V l^wicbcc El 
J.ake Huron Solvent extracttofit Pikes 
Saugcr 

Identifiers 'Gat uquid chi ornate ,»j 
layer chromatography Heptacnj' 
dane. Oiioidane. Melaboutr freeiij 

' liemicaJ recovery. Detection limits Van 
preparation. Burbot. Muilurk ' -ale 

Wliilcfish, Kokanee, Yellow p»c« ■, 

Shcepshcad, Alewi/e. ( rapptct, lull' 
Winnipeg, Sturgeon River, Otlav. , 

flair, pp DDT, pp' DDD, pp MI>1 
l.a*c Nipigan, lake St Paul, 'old V. 
Kivcr 

A modified Mills extraction method M cot 
with a thin layer chromatographic confirm 
and a gas chromatographic quantification of 
ganochlonne pesticide residues in common 
caught fish from 78 locations in 68 central < 
an lakes and nvers Only a few of these w. 
yielded fish with appreciable concentrauotn 
1 ;l ; I and its analogs 'greater than 1 pprru, a», 
only a few cases did the concentrations exceed 
maximum permissible level of 5 ppm Of the oi 
organochlonne pesticides commonly used, oao. 
lindane, aldnn, heptachlor, heptachlor epox 
endrm, dieldrin, and chlordane, only dieldrm ■ 
found at significant levels in a number of samp 
but these amounts were still below the maxnr 
permissible level. Trace amounts of lindane » 
found in some samples The presence 
polychlorinated biphenyls fPCB'sJ was notec 
samples from the Great Lakes and the south ' 
of lake Winnipeg. PCB's were separated fi 
DDE on aluminum oxide G (type E) plates run ' 
tnethylamine-hexane solvent system. 'Mack 
BattelJe) 
W73-08048 

CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN LAKE ERIE F1S 

1970-71, 

Food and Drug Administration, Cincinnati Ohi 
R. L. Carr, C. E. Finsterwalder, and M J SchflJ 
Pesticides Monitoring Journal, Vol 6, No 1 , p 
26, June 1972 I fig, 2 tab, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Lake Erie, 'Pesticide residv 
•Mercury, 'Freshwater fish, DDE, DDT, D 
drin, Polychlorinated biphenyls. Yellow per 
Channel catfish, Carp, Drums, White bass, Po 
tant identification. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pe 
cides, Great Lakes, Ohio. 
Identifiers: TDE, Gas liquid chroma tograp 
Thin layer chromatography, Coho salmon. Biol 
ical magnification, Accumulation, Pe 
flavescens, Oncorhynchus kisutch, Roa 
chrysops, Aplodinotus grunniens, Ictalurus pu 
tatus, Cyprinus carpio. 

Yellow perch, coho salmon, carp, channel catfi 
freshwater drum, and white bass from the O 
shore of Lake Erie were analyzed during 1970 
for residues of chlorinated pesticides (DDE, TI 
DDT, and dieldrin), polychlorinated bipben 
(PCB's), and mercury. The method employed 
extraction and cleanup of samples to delerm 
DDT residues, dieldrin, and PCB's was t 
described by Porter, Young, and Burke. Th 
layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromat 
raphy were used for confirmation and quantitat 
analysis of the residues. All but 1 of the 80 samp 
analyzed contained DDT and/or its metabolit 
PCB's were found in all samples. Fifty-three of 
80 samples were analyzed for mercury, and 
were found positive. Average levels of reskii 
for the species sampled ranged from 0.06 to 
ppm for DDE; 0.07 to 0.52 ppm, TDE; 0.03 to 
ppm, DDT; 0.18 to 0.90 ppm, total DDT; 0.01 
0.07 ppm, dieldrin; 0.08 to 4.4 ppm, PCB's; i 
0.12 to 0.64 ppm, mercury. The highest aven 
residue levels of total DDT were in coho sain 
and channel catfish. Average levels of PCB's w 



46 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Identification of Pollutants — Group 5A 



ficantly higher in channel catfish, and levels 
ercury were significantly higher in white bass. 
:kan-Battelle) 
-08049 



ILLOMETRIC TITRATION OF INOR- 
IC HALIDES WITH MERCURY (II) 
TATE, 

agos Gyogyszereszeti Intezet, Budapest 

gary). 

scher, and E. Posgay. 

chrift fur Analytische Chemie, Vol 258, No 5, 

^358, May 16, 1972. 1 fig, 1 tab, 3 ref . 

riptors: 'Halides, 'Pollutant identification, 

Movement, Aqueous solutions, Chlorides, 

udes, Iodides, Chemical analysis, Inorganic 

KHinds, Instrumentation, Volumetric analy- 

ifiers: 'Mercury (II) acetate, 'Oscillometric 
ion, Relative ion mobility, Oscillotitrator, 
Irion. 

scillometric titration method is presented for 
^termination of inorganic halides with mercu- 
) acetate. A standardized mercury (II) acetate 
ion sample is added in 0.5-ml portions to the 
:iuve cell of an oscillotitrator system and the 
imental deflection is then plotted against the 
ne of standard solution added. The method is 
i on the difference between the relative ion 
lity of the acetate and halide ions, and the 
known slight dissociation of the mercury ha- 
and can therefore be used for the titrimetric 
mutation of the inorganic chlorides, bro- 
s, and iodides, Errors in the determination of 
us halogenides were between 0.2 and 1 .4 per- 
(Byrd-Battelle) 
08050 



ECTION, DECONTAMINATION AND 
[OVAL OF CHEMICALS IN WATER, 

wood Arsenal, Md. Army Development and 
leering Directorate. 
. Rosenblatt, and J. Epstein, 
available from the National Technical Infor- 
>n Service as AD-738 544, $3.00 in paper 
, $1.45 in microfiche. In: Proceedings of First 
ing on Environmental Pollution, 15-16 April 
Sponsored by American Ordnance Associa- 
Edgewood Arsenal Special Publication EASP 
8. February 1972, p 75-82. 

riptors: 'Pollutant identification, 'Chemi- 
Wastes, 'Chemical warfare, 'Water pollu- 
'Water pollution sources, Water pollution 

stent, Water pollution control, Public health, 

noleptic properties, Chemical analysis. 

ifiers: 'Nerve gases, 'Vesicants, 'Arseni- 



aical agent water contamination problems as 
sd to those of more conventional types of pol- 
i are examined. Certain military chemical 
uninants such as the nerve gases, the vesi- 
i and the arsenicals pose hazards when 
:nt in water. Therefore, the means of identifi- 
d, detection, and treatment must be found. 
matic analyses worked well for the identifica- 
ind detection of militarily significant chemical 
tants. They were extremely rapid and sensi- 
ind even more or less specific through the use 
(elective enzyme or parallel use of several en- 
;s. Decontamination was achieved in most 
i by utilizing the super-chlorination-carbon 
Bent. (Smith-Texas) 
08114 



JID CHROMATOGRAPHY OF CARBA- 
E PESTICIDES, 

ronmental Protection Agency, Athens, Ga. 
beast Environmental Research Lab. 
Thruston, Jr. 



Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP1 .23/2:72-079, $0.55; microfiche from NTIS as 
PB-219 669, $1.45. Environmental Protection 
Technology Series Report No EPA-R2-72-079, Oc- 
tober 1972. 15 p, 3 fig, 3 tab, 6 ref. EPA Project No 
16020 EWC. 

Descriptors: 'Carbamate pesticides, 'Pollutant 
identification, Organic pesticides, Chromatog- 
raphy, Analytical techniques. 
Identifiers: 'Liquid chromatography, 'Retention 
time, Baygon, Furadan, Matacil, Mobam, Sevin, 
UC 10854, UC 8454, Carbanolate, RE 5305, Mesu- 
rol, Zectran, Ultraviolet detectors, Carbaryl, 
Aprocarb, Carbofuran, Aminocarb, Terbutol, 
Dazomet, Methonyl, Sirmate (2-3-isomer), Sir- 
mate (3-4-isomer), Bux, Azak, Benomyl, IPC, 
CIPC, Dimetilan, Temik, Swep, Barban, Thiram, 
Mylone, Lannate. 

Standard solutions of 23 carbamate pesticides 
prepared in isopropanol were analyzed using a Du- 
Pont Model 820 liquid chromatograph equipped 
with an ultraviolet photometric detector. Stainless 
steel columns (1 m x 2 mm i.d.) packed with either 
Pennaphase ODS (octadecyl silane) or Per- 
maphase ETH (ether) were used with the follow- 
ing mobile phases: 6 and 30 percent MeOH in 
water, hexane, one percent isopropanol/hexane, 
and 4 percent isopropanol/hexane. The retention 
times of the pesticides are given. The UV detector 
required 20-1500 ng for the pesticides studied to 
give a 25 percent full-scale recorder response. 
(Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08129 



QUALITY OF SURFACE WATERS OF THE 
UNITED STATES, 1968: PART I. NORTH AT- 
LANTIC SLOPE BASINS. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08155 



DISSOLVED HELIUM IN GROUNDWATER: A 
POSSIBLE METHOD FOR URANIUM AND 
THORIUM PROSPECTING, 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept. of 

Physics. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W73-08157 



TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING METALLIC 
SALT EFFECTS UPON THE INDIGENOUS 
HETEROTROPHIC MICROFLORA OF A 
NATURAL WATER, 

Simon Fraser Univ. Bumaby (British Columbia). 
Dept. of Biological Sciences. 
L. J. Albright, J. W. Wentworth, and E. M. Wilson. 
Water Research, Vol 6, No 12, p 1589-1596, 
December 1972. 2 fig, 3 tab, 12 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Metals, 'Salts, Water pollution ef- 
fects, 'Aquatic microorganisms, 'Methodology, 
Sodium chloride. Radioactivity techniques, Bioas- 
say, Heavy metals, Cations, Chlorides, Cadmium, 
Sodium, Alkali metals, Chromium, Mercury, 
Copper, Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Spectrometers, 
Aquatic bacteria. 

Identifiers: 'Heterotrophic bacteria, 'Viability, 
Substrate utilization, Silver sulfate, Barium 
chloride, Cadmium chloride, Chromium chloride, 
Mercury chloride, Copper chloride, Nickel 
chloride, Lead chloride. Zinc chloride, Glucose, 
Silver, Sodium metaarsenate. Barium, Mercuric 
chloride, Cupric chloride. Scintillation counting. 

A heterotrophic activity assay method is described 
which may be used to determine the effects of 
several metallic salts, Ag2S04, NaAs03, 
BaC12.2H20, CdC12.2.5 H20, CrC12.6H20, 
CuC12, HgC12, NaCl, NiC12.6H20, PbC12 and 
ZnC12, at very low concentrations, upon the net 
activity of the native heterotrophic microflora of 
an aquatic ecosystem, without unduly disturbing 



in situ conditions. The method is based upon the 
uptake and mineralization of a radioactivity 
labeled metabolite (C-14-glucose) by native 
heterotrophic microflora and the analysis of data 
by Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics equations. 
A 100- ml water sample was collected, temperature 
determined, and divided into 25 -ml portions, each 
of which was treated with 0.0538, 0.2690, 0.5375 or 
0.8075 microgram amounts of C-14-glucose. Five 
milliliters were removed from each portion and 
placed in separate 25-ml erlenmeyer flasks which 
were sealed immediately. The reaction and control 
were incubated with reciprocal shaking (60 
strokes/min) in the dark at the same temperature 
of the water when sampled. After 0.5 h incubation 
the reaction flasks were acidified to about pH 1 .0 
to stop microbial activity and to drive off C-14 02 
which was trapped on phenethylamine-im- 
pregnated Whatman paper. After further incuba- 
tion for an hour, the Watman papers were 
removed, placed in scintillation vials containing a 
toluene-based cocktail of 2,5-diphenyloxazole (0.4 
percent) and 1,4-bis- (5-phenyloxazoly 1-2)- 
benzene (0.01 percent). The aquatic contents of 
each flask were filtered, washed, dried at 60C for 
15 min and added to vials contianing the same 
cocktail. Counting was done with a Beckman LS- 
250 scintillation spectrometer. Salt effects upon 
bacterial viability were determined using nutrient 
agar plate counts immediately before and 0.5 h 
after treatment of water samples. Petri plates were 
incubated at 15 degrees C for % h before counting. 
Concentrations of metallic salts which resulted in 
bacterial death also caused erratic uptake and 
mineralization rates of C-14-glucose whereas sub- 
lethal concentrations, as determined by nutrient 
agar plate counts, caused a non-competitive inhibi- 
tion of maximum heterotrophic activity and mar- 
kedly increased the turnover time of the glucose 
substrate. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08236 



UTILIZING METAL CONCENTRATION RELA- 
TIONSHIPS IN THE EASTERN OYSTER (CRAS- 
SOSTREA VIRGINICA) TO DETECT HEAVY 
METAL POLLUTION, 

Virginia Inst, of Marine Science, Gloucester Point. 
R. J. Huggett, M. E. Bender, and H. D. Slone. 
Water Research, Vol 7, No 3, p 451-460, March 
1973. 9 fig, 4 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Oysters, 'Pollutant identification, 
'Heavy metals, 'Water pollution sources, Mol- 
lusks, Invertebrates, Salinity, Sampling, Cadmi- 
um, Copper, Zinc, Least squares methods, 'Vir- 
ginia, Industrial wastes, Chesapeake Bay, Sedi- 
ments, Estuaries, Saline water-freshwater inter- 
faces, Statistical methods. 

Identifiers: 'Crassostrea virginica, Macroinver- 
tebrates, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry, 
James River, Hampton Roads, Elizabeth River, 
Data interpretation. 

A total of 495 oysters were collected during 
February-May, 1971, at various sites in the Ches- 
apeake Bay area, removed from the shell without 
puncturing, digested in concentrated HN03, and 
analyzed for Cd, Cu, and Zn using atomic absorp- 
tion spectrophotometry. Examination of the data 
showed that oysters from the same sampling loca- 
tion often differed in metal concentration as much 
as 100 percent and occasionally 300 percent. These 
variable concentrations are assumed to be nor- 
mally distributed around some population mean, 
therefore the sample mean from each location 
should approximate the population mean. Means 
were used only to ascertain the areal distribution 
of metals in the various river systems. The means 
showed that a concentration gradient existed in all 
systems and that each metal increased in concen- 
tration as fresh water was approached. Several as- 
sumptions were made. (1) The metals (Cu, Cd, and 
Zn) available to oysters in non-industrialized areas 
are from the natural weathering of rocks. (2) The 
ratio of copper to zinc in the weathering rocks is 
relatively constant within a drainage basin. (3) 






I 



47 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5A — Identification of Pollutants 



Oysters accumulate a constant percentage of each 
element available to them. Statistical analysis of 
the metal concentration data showed that a linear 
relationship exists between Cu and /.n, and < d 
levels in contaminated and uncontaminated 
oysters. No single concentration for an action 
level can be set for cadmium, copper or zinc in 
oysters which will definitely indicate pollution 
sources. However, the approach described has 
been proven valid in the Chesapeake Bay and may 
be of use elsewhere. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08237 



NUTRIENT STUDIES IN TEXAS IMPOUND- 
MENTS, 

Union Carbide Corp., Tonawanda, N.Y. Linde 

Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W73-0824I 



DEEP-SEA BENTHIC COMMUNITY RESPIRA- 
TION: AN IN SITU STUDY AT 1850 METERS, 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Mass. 
K. L. Smith, Jr., and J. M. Teal. 
Science, Vol 179, No 4070, p 282-283, January 19, 
1973. 1 tab, 13 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Biochemical oxygen demand, 
•Respiration, 'Metabolism, 'Benthos, Research 
equipment. Biological communities, Continental 
slope, Chemical oxygen demand, Oceans, Sea 
water. 

Identifiers: *Respirometers, Total oxygen de- 
mand, Ion selective electrodes, Recorders. 

In situ measurements of oxygen uptake, as a mea- 
sure of metabolic activity, were made on 
undisturbed deep-sea benthic communities by 
placing respirometers (bell jars) at a depth of 1850 
meters on the continental slope south of New En- 
gland. The respirometers consisted of two capped 
Plexiglas cylinders which enclosed 48 sq cm of 
sediment. A polarographic oxygen electrode in 
each chamber fed a signal to a Rustrak recorder 
housed in a glass sphere atop the unit. Each 
chamber was stirred by a magnetically driven 
stirrer. Uptake measurements were made over 
periods of 48-72 hours. Formalin injection was 
used to poison the biological oxygen demand. Ad- 
ditional measurements of total oxygen uptake and 
chemical oxygen demand were made from a 
research vessel using a drill rig equipped with a 
2000- m drill pipe, a television camera pod, and a 
hook apparatus. Oxygen uptake under the bell jars 
ranged from 0.39-0.55 mg/sq m/hr. Values ob- 
tained from the research vehicle were 0.62 ml/sq 
m/hr. These values were two orders of magnitude 
lower than values from shallow depths. After 
treatment of the sediments with formalin there 
was no measurable chemical oxygen uptake which 
shows that the total uptake is biological (communi- 
ty respiration). It is concluded that metabolic ac- 
tivity of deep-sea benthic communities is low. (Lit- 
tle-Battelle) 
W73-08245 



LOWER PH LIMIT FOR THE EXISTENCE OF 
BLUE-GREEN ALGAE: EVOLUTIONARY AND 
ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS, 

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Bacteriology. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08248 



THE MICROBIOLOGY OF AN ACTIVATED 
SLUDGE WASTE-WATER TREATMENT 
PLANT CHEMICALLY TREATED FOR 
PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL, 

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Dept. 

of Microbiology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W73-O8250 



IIK.il RESOLUTION MELD lOM/A I 
MASS SPLIT KOMKTHV OK HAITI-RIAL 
PYKOI.YSIS PRODI ( IS 

BOH IJniv (West Germany) IrisUlut fw-r 

I'hysikalische (.'hemic. 

H R Schullcn.H I) Bcckcy, H 1 ( Meuzelaai. 

and A J H Bocrhoorri 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 45, No I, p 191 195, 

January 1973 1 fig, I tab, 20 ref 

Descriptors: 'Pseudomonas, 'Organic com- 
pounds, 'Pollutant identification. Mask spec 
trometry. 

Identifiers 'Held ionization mass spectrometry, 
Sample preparation, I'scudomonas puUda, Mass 
spectra, Pyrolysis. 

The purpose was to explore the potentials of high 
resolution field ionization mass spectrometry 0-1 
MS) for the analysis of extremely complex mul 
ticomponent mixutres and to perform a general 
survey of the chemical nature of bacterial pyroly 
sis products. The spectra were obtained with a 
double-focusing mass spectrometer equipped with 
an Fl-ion source and specially designed emitter- 
adjusting manipulator. The sample was 5 mg of 
Pseudomonas putida bacteria, freeze-dried and 
pyrolyzed in a vacuum at 500C. Over 200 lines 
were revealed on the developed photoplate. Densi- 
ty measurements were made on about 180 lines. 
Accurate mass measurements are listed for 1 1 9 of 
the strongest lines, and proposed names are in- 
cluded for some compounds. The results show that 
the range of compounds that can be anlyzed by II 
MS is greater than that of GLC-MS The useful- 
ness of FI-MS is limited by its inability to separate 
and identify isomers without additional informa- 
tion. Consequently, the two methods may be used 
to supplement each other. Differentiation of bac- 
terial strains may be possible in this way. (Ijttle- 
Battelle) 
W73-08256 



AUTOMATED DATA HANDLING USING A 
DIGITAL LOGGER, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst, and State Univ., 

Blacksburg. Dept. of Chemistry. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W73-08257 



DEMOUNTABLE RING-DISK ELECTRODE, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. School of Chemical 

Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 

W73-O8260 



LINEAR AND NONLINEAR SYSTEM CHARAC- 
TERISTICS OF CONTROLLED-POTENTIAL 
ELECTROLYSIS CELLS, 

California Univ., Livermore. Lawrence Liver- 
more Lab. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 
W73-08261 



A PORTABLE VIRUS CONCENTRATOR FOR 
TESTING WATER IN THE MELD, 

Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, Tex. Dept of 
Virology and Epidemiology. 
C. Walhs, A. Homma, and J. L. Melnick. 
Water Research, Vol 6, No 10, p 1249-1256, Oc- 
tober, 1972. 3 fig, 12 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Viruses, 'On-site tests, 'Equip- 
ment, 'Pollutant identification, 'Methodology, 
On-site investigations, Adsorption, Potable water, 
Filtration, Monitoring. 

Identifiers: 'Portable virus concentrator, Adsor- 
bents, Virus assays, Poliovirus, Metal complexes, 
Particulate matter, Plaque forming units, Detec- 
tion limits. 

A system is described for concentrating viruses 
from large volumes of water. The system consists 



ol ■ water pump, an ckctrv. genet ale* , * scruai 
cla/uVrs, a virus adsorbent, a virus re 
tor, a 5 and a I gal pressure vcMd wtfa • i 
Urii of nitrogen as a source of pu: 
and ancillary equipment, all mounted n 
cart* for easy portabilit y Standard! /.alios oft) 
system was achieved by use of minute aiijouau < 
poliovuus Die virus was added to 'VcU-xuaic 
tity lap water so that it could not be dcsMfa^H 
lets the virus was fust coocenlralcd la g 
system, raw lap water containing virus it septal 
passed through clarifying Idler i of porotittei of ! 
I rrucrons to remove particulate matter and Ike 
through a I micron cotton textile filler u> clean 
statically remove submicroo feme and afe 
heavy metallic complexes These filters do not* 
leclably remove varus Sail* are then added U> (k 
running lap water to enhance the adsorpuoa c 
finis to a fiberglass or cellulose acetate filler kai 
water could be processed at the rate of 300 gain 
per hour, with total varus removal from the aajjt 
and with 80 percent eluuon of the virus froa ft 
adsorbent Ofoloman Batlellej 
W73 -08262 



IDhNTIMES Ol- POLYI Hi-ORISATH 

BIPHENYI. ISOMERS LN AROCLORS 

I'.nvironmenlal Protection Agency, Athens, G» 

Southeast Water Lab. 

k (, Webb, and A C Mc( all 

Journal of the Association of Official Analyhej 

Chemists, Vol 55, No 4, p 746-752, July, 1971: 

fig, 2 tab. 15 ref 

Descriptors: 'Poly chlorinated bipbeayfcv 

•Aroclors, 'Pollutant identification, DDK, Gk 
chromatography, Water pollution sources, liaM 
spectrometry, Spectrometers, Chemical reaction 
Chemical analysis, Organic compounds. 
Identifiers: 'Infrared spectroscopy, *f*aaW 
ionization gas chromatography, 'Sample p i tp aa V 
tion, Gas liquid chromatography, ChloruHaed 
hydrocarbons, Isomers, 2 3 5-tnchloroaniline, 24 
5-trichloriodobenzcDe, Gomberg reaction, UkV 
mann reaction, Aroclor 1221, Aroclor 1232, 
Aroclor 1242, Aroclor 1248, Aroclor 1254. 

Twenty-seven polychlorinaled bi phenyls (PCB) a 
Aroclors 1221, 1242, and 1254 were separated nd 
identified by matching both their gas-liquid chro- 
matographic (GLC) retention times and infrared 
spectra with known compounds prepared by the 
Gomberg or Ullmann reactions. Each Aroclor was 
mixed with p.p -DDE prior to chromatographic 
analysis in order to relate observed PCB retentk* 
times to those for p,p'-DDE. The compounds 
identified by these methods are tabulated as «d 
as those compounds prepared in this study thai 
failed either the GLC or IR tests and were con- 
cluded to be absent from the Aroclors. (Long-Bat- 
telle) 
W73-08263 



LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY OF POLY- 
CYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, 

Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. 

Div. of Chemistry and Physics. 

N. F. Ives, and L. Giuffrida. 

Journal of the Association of Official Analytical 

Chemists, Vol 55, No 4, p 757-761, July, 1972. 2 

fig, 1 tab, 22 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Liquid chromatography, *Pory- 
cyclic compounds, 'Aromatic hydrocarbons, 'Ul- 
traviolet spectroscopy, 'Detection systems, Food 
additives, Preservatives, Duropak OPN, Cellulose 
acetate, Scanning spectrometer, Sample prepara- 
tion. 

Two column materials (Durapak-OPN and 40 per- 
cent cellulose acetate), used for Liquid chromato- 
graphic analysis, were compared using a continu- 
ous monitoring UV detection system for the or- 
ders of elution and resolution of 18 polycyclic aro- 
matic hydrocarbons. The detection system con- 



48 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Identification of Pollutants — Group 5A 



of a nitrogen pressurized sample injection to 
|;>1 the rate of sample flow onto the column 
ubsequently control the rate of UV spec- 
trie analysis of compounds eluted from the 
iin. The order of elution of the polycyclic 
carbons from both column materials is tabu- 
as individual retention times relative to 
!e. Neither system resolved all the com- 
ls, but the use of both systems increased the 
er of compounds which were detected. The 
ity of this detection system ranged from 
0.25 to greater than 12 micrograms using 
le as a test compound, a tungsten or deuteri- 
unp, and a wavelength of 3358 Angstroms. 
5-Battelle) 
08264 



AND DDE RESIDUES IN BLOOD FROM 
.DREN, SOUTH CAROLINA - 1970, 

cal Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, 
of Preventive Medicine. 
Keil, W. Weston, in, C. B. Loadholt, S. H. 
ifer, and J. J. Colcolough. 
;ides Monitoring Journal, Vol 6, No 1 , p 1-3, 
1972. 1 fig, 3 tab, 7 ref . 

riptors: *DDT, *DDE, *Pesticide residues, 
th Carolina, Least squares method, Public 
i, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Gas chro- 
graphy, Methodology, Solvent extractions, 
ation techniques, Pollutant identification, 
ns. 

ifiers: *Blood, 'Electron capture gas chro- 
p-aphy, Biological samples, Humans, Chil- 
Blood plasma, Gas liquid chromatography, 
ile preparation, p p' DDT, p p' DDE. 

and DDE residue levels in blood plasma from 
hildre in South Carolina, ages 6-9 years, in- 
:d that Negro children had levels two to three 
higher than white children. Plasma samples 
treated by multiple solvent extractions, 
>rations, and dilutions in hexane and then in- 
1 into a gas chromatograph equipped with 
n foil electron capture detector. DDT 
ies averaged 18.4 ppb in Negroes and 6.7 ppb 
ites; DDE values for these two races were 
>pb and 24.8 ppb, respectively. White males 
s group also had significantly higher levels of 
compounds than white females. From the 
in this study, baseline levels for a high-risk 
trie group, usually prone to pesticide poison- 
rere established. (Mackan-Battelle) 
08265 



/UNOCHLORJNE PESTICIDE LEVELS IN 
AN SERUM AND ADIPOSE TISSUE, UTAH 
:AL YEARS 1967-71, 

State Div. of Health, Salt Lake City. 

Wamick. 

:ides Monitoring Journal, Vol 6, No 1, p9-13, 

1972. 3 tab, 23 ref. 

iptors: *Utah, *Pesticide residues, *DDT, 
i, 'Dieldrin, Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesti- 
, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Gas chroma tog 
', Pollutant identification, Separation 
iques, Sampling, Methodology, 
ifiers: *Blood, *Adipose tissue, Biological 
Ies, Humans, Serum, p p' DDT, p p' DDE, 
I plasma. 

al of 1417 blood and 103 adipose tissue sam- 
were collected over a 5-year period (1967- 

from the general population and from per- 
xcupationally exposed to pesticides in Utah, 
ction, cleanup and analyses performed in- 
d: the Radomski and the Mills, Onley and 
er methods for adipose tissue analysis; the 

Curley, and Cueto method for blood; and 
: ications of Mills adipose and Dales serum 
xls. The results supported previous evidence 

increase in pesticide storage in the general 
ation since 1951 and a tendency towards 
ased storage since 1966. (Mackan-Battelle) 
98266 



MIREX AND DDT RESIDUES IN WILDLIFE 
AND MISCELLANEOUS SAMPLES IN MISSIS- 
SIPPI - 1970, 

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Dept. of 

Biochemistry. 

K. P. Baetcke, J. D. Cain, and W. E. Poe. 

Pesticides Monitoring Journal, Vol 6, No 1, p 14- 

22, June 1972. 4 tab, Href. 

Descriptors: *Pesticide residues, 'Wildlife, 
*DDT, *Estuaries, Persistence, Food chains, Bird 
eggs, 'Mississippi, Pollutant identification, Path 
of pollutants, Solvent extractions, Organic pesti- 
cides, DDD, DDE, Catfishes, Sunfishes, Channel 
catfish, Game birds, Non-game birds, Song birds, 
Cattle, Milk, Annelids, Silage, Insects, Deer, 
Isopids, Oligochaetes, Insect control, Grasses, 
Freshwater fish. 

Identifiers: 'Mirex, Electron capture gas chro- 
matography, Thin layer chromatography, Infrared 
spectroscopy, Biological samples, Sample 
preparation, Detection limits, Chemical recovery, 
Metabolites, Adipose tissue, Brain, Liver, 
Arthropods, Crickets, Spiders, Blue heron, Cattle 
egiet, Ictalurus punctatus, Lepomis cyanellus, 
Solenopsis saevissima, Fire ant, Bettles, 
Grasshoppers, Arachnids, Gas liquid chromatog- 
raphy, Festuca, Odocoileus virgjnianus, Gallus 
gallus, Colinus virginianus, Toxostoma rufum, 
Cyanocitta cristata, Sturnella magna, Meleagris 
gallopavo, Tyrannus tyrannus, Turdus migra- 
torius, Strix varia, Bubulcus ibis, Florida caerulea, 
Lumbricus teiTestris. 

Samples of wildlife and a few miscellaneous sam- 
ples, such as beef, were collected in Mississippi in 
1970 and analyzed for the presence of mirex and 
DDT and its analogs. Analytical procedures 
chosen for extraction and cleanup for residue anal- 
ysis involved methods described in the Pesticide 
Analytical Manual, Volumes I and HI, and other 
previously described methods. Primary identifica- 
tion and quantification were accomplished by elec- 
tron capture gas-liquid chromatography in the 
determinative step. Thin-layer chromatography 
and infrared spectroscopy were utilized for confir- 
mation in selected samples. Levels of mirex 
residues were found to range from O ppm to a high 
of about 104 ppm; residues of DDT and its 
metabolites (DDTR equals DDT plus DDE 
plusDDD) were found to range from less than 
0.001 ppm to 126 ppm. Comparisons of the amount 
of the two pesticides found in individual samples 
showed that mirex residues often exceeded DDT 
residues. The high levels of mirex residues found 
in some of these samples 1 year after treatment in- 
dicate that mirex can be considered a persistent 
pesticide. (Mackan-Battelle) 
W73-08267 



OIL SPILL SOURCE EDENTIFIC ATION, 

Esso Research and Engineering Co., Florham 
Park, N.J. Government Research Div. 
M. Lieberman. 

Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP1 .23/2:73-102, $2.35; microfiche from NTIS as 
PB-219 822, $1.45. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Technology Series Report EPA-R2-73- 
102, February 1973. 175 p, 28 fig, 19 tab, 7 ref, 6 
append. EPA Project 15080 HDL, 68-01-0058 

Descriptors: *Oil spills, 'Pollutant identification, 
'Chemical analysis, 'Correlation analysis, 
'Weathering, Gas chromatography, Mass spec- 
trometry, Tagging, Water pollution sources. 
Identifiers: Passive tagging, n-Paraffins, 
Polynuclear aromatics, Naphthenes, Nickel, 
Vanadium, Nitrogen, Sulfur. 

Five different crude oils, two residual fuel oils 
(No. 4 and No. 5) and one distillate fuel oil (No. 2) 
were subjected to simulated weathering in the 
laboratory. Samples were weathered for 10 and 21 
days at 55 and 80F, under high and low salt water 
washing rates. 'Weathered' and 'unweathered' oil 
samples were analyzed by low voltage mass spec- 
troscopy (polynuclear aromatics), high voltage 



mass spectroscopy (naphthenes), gas chromato- 
graph (n-paraffins), emission spectroscopy 
(nickel/vandium), X-ray total sulfur and Kjeldahl 
total nitrogen techniques. Several compound in- 
dices were adequately stable toward simulated 
weathering to discriminate between like and unlike 
pairs of oils. Discriminant function analysis was 
used to select the best compound indices for the 
oils used. Using these indices, weathered and un- 
weathered samples were correctly paired with high 
statistical confidence. (EPA) 
W73-08289 



THE APPEARANCE AND VISIBILITY OF THEN 
OIL FILMS ON WATER, 

Edison Water Quality Research Lab., N.J. 

B. Hornstein. 

Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 

EP1. 23/2:72-039, $2.50; microfiche from NTIS as 

PB-219 825, $1.45. Environmental Protection 

Agency, Technology Series Report EPA-R2-72- 

039, August 1972. 95 p, 31 fig, 5 tab, 8 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Oil-water interfaces, 'Thin films, 
'Oil wastes, 'Color, Theoretical analysis, Labora- 
tory tests, On-site investigations, Water pollution, 
Oil pollution, Water pollution sources, 'Pollutant 
identification. 

Identifiers: 'Visibility, Iridescent films, Optical 
interference, Reflectivity. 

Oil films of controlled thickness up to 3000 
nanometers, upon water surfaces in the laborato- 
ry, confirm an inherent and orderly thickness-ap- 
pearance relationship which is independent of oil 
type and water type. These laboratory studies also 
investigated the effects of viewing conditions 
upon the ease of visibility of these thin films. Out- 
of-doors observations were made; these and the 
observations reported by other sources were 
found to correspond with the laboratory results. 
The visibility of a thin oil film depends not only 
upon its thickness-dependent inherent ap- 
pearance, but also upon conditions external to the 
film. These include nature of illumination and sky 
conditions, sun angle, color and depth of water, 
color of bottom, and viewing angle. Color photo- 
graphs are included for illustration of the points 
discussed. (EPA) 
W73 -08295 



MICROFLORA OF THE NEUSTON AND ITS 

ROLE IN WATER BODIES. 

Polskie Towarzystwo Przyrodnikow im. Koper- 

nika, Warsaw. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W73-08335 



SULFIDE DETERMINATION IN SUBMERGED 
SOILS WITH AN ION-SELECTIVE ELEC- 
TRODE, 

Ministry of Agriculture, Cairo (Egypt). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W73-08351 



APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING TO 
SOLUTION OF ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS, 

IBM Federal Systems Div., Bethesda, Md. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 
W73-08358 



INTERDISCIPLINARY APPLICATIONS AND 
INTERPRETATIONS OF REMOTELY SENSED 
DATA, 

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 
W73-08363 



USING LIGHT TO COLLECT AND SEPARATE 
ZOOPLANKTON, 

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Dept. of 
Fisheries and Wildlife. 



49 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5A — Identification of Pollutants 



For primary bibliographic entry sec Field 07H 
W73-0K406 



CHEMICAL ANALYSES OK SELECTED 
PUBLIC DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES (IN- 
CLUDING TRACE MET Alii), 

Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison. 

R. Baumeister. 

Wis Dep Nat ResourTech Bull. 53 p 1-16. 1972. U- 

lus. 

Identifiers: 'Chemical analysis. Copper, Lead, 

Metals, 'Trace elements, Water supply, Zinc, 

♦Potable water. 

Drinking water supplies utilizing ground and sur- 
face water sources were sampled for trace ele- 
ments in addition to the standard chemical analy- 
sis. None of the raw water samples exceeded the 
Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards 
for chemical quality , and 1 sample from a distribu- 
tion system exceeded the standards. The 1 
parameter exceeded was Pb (.06 mg/l reported, .01 
mg/1 higher than the standard) which leached from 
a service line because of corrosive water in the dis- 
tribution system. Corrosive water in other systems 
also caused increased concentrations of Cu and 
Zn.-Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08424 



THE EXPENDABLE BATHYOXYMETER, 

Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Oceanog- 
raphy. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 
W73-08438 



ACETONE CONTAMINATION OF WATER 
SAMPLES DURING QUICKFREEZING, 

Maryland Univ., Solomons. Natural Resources 
Inst. 

C. W. Keefe, D. H. Hamilton, and D. A. Flemer. 
Chesapeake Sci. Vol 13, No 3, p 226-229. 1972. 
Identifiers: *Acetone contamination, 'Freezing, 
Quick-freezing, Samples, 'Pollutant identifica- 
tion. 

Water samples for nutrient concentration analysis 
'quick-frozen' in an acetone-dry ice bath may 
become contaminated with acetone, even though 
tightly sealed in screw-cap polyethylene bottles. 
Acetone interferes with oxidation steps in am- 
monia and total P analyses, as well as the oxidative 
determination of dissolved organic C. Samples 
taken for such purposes should not be quick- 
frozen in an acetone-dry ice bath. Alternatives are 
discussed.—Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W73-08442 

5B. Sources of Pollution 



FATE OF TRACE-METALS (IMPURrnES) IN 
SUBSOILS AS RELATED TO THE QUALITY OF 
GROUND WATER, 

Tuskegee Inst., Ala. Carver Research Foundation. 
W. E. Nelson. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 401, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Tuskegee Institute School of 
Applied Sciences report, September 1972. 163 p, 
77 fig, 66 tab, 48 ref , 1 append. OWRR B-028-ALA 
(3). 14-01-0001-3053. 

Descriptors: 'Heavy metals, 'Path of pollutants, 
Soil contamination, Animal wastes, Cation 
exchange, Chelation, 'Soil contamination effects, 
Chemical precipitation, Diffusion, Groundwater, 
Adsorption, Manganese, Runoff, Organic matter, 
Calcium, Potassium, Cobalt, Sodium, Chromium, 
Lead, Strontium, Magnesium, Water quality. 

Laboratory and field studies were conducted to 
evaluate metal adsorptive capacities of six soils. 
These and stability constants of soil-metal com- 



plexes were used to understand the ability of the 
soils to complex trace metals, and to explain the 
teachability Of locution «1 toxic metals by certain 
soils. Maximum adsorption capacities, relative 
amounts of metal complcxed with one mole of 
soil, and stability constants (log K values) writ 
calculated from adsorption data of cations 
retained by soils Ibc sod-metal adsorption pit 
tt ins obtained were similar to the (.angjnuir 
Fruendlich adsorption isotherms Adsorption stu- 
dies indicated that soil complexes metals and 
renders them insoluble regardless of genesis, or- 
ganic matter content, and their physicocbenuca! 
properties. Readiness to complex, however, de- 
pends on these properties and the nature of the 
metal rendered insoluble Multivalent and divalent 
and the more electronegative cations make rela- 
tively more stable complexes, particularly with 
soils high in organic matter Mechanisms mainly 
responsible for rendering the metals insoluble 
were considered to be chelation, surface adsorp- 
tion, precipitation, and diffusion and physical en- 
trapment. Spectral studies were used to investigate 
the structure of metal ligands and whether com- 
plex formation had occurred nondestructively. 
The laboratory models indicated that the soil has 
maximum capacity to adsorb metals. However, 
under field conditions, there was no indication that 
the maximum capacity was reached. (Warman- 
Alabama) 
W73-078O2 



ORGANIC WASTES AS A MEANS OF AC- 
CELERATING RECOVERY OF ACID STRIP- 
MINI-: LAKES, 

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Dept, of Civil En- 
gineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W73-07808 



INDUSTRIAL WASTELINE STUDY - A SYSTEM 
FOR CONTROLLED OCEAN DISPOSAL, 

Franklin Inst., Philadelphia, Pa. Labs, for 

Research and Development. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05E. 

W73-07812 



THE CONTEMPORARY STATE OF DECON- 
TAMINATING WASTE WATER, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W73-07835 



PH BUFFERING OF PORE WATER OF 
RECENT ANOXIC MARINE SEDIMENTS, 

California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept of Geology. 
S. Ben-Yaakov. 

Limnology and Oceanography, Vol 18, No 1 , p 86- 
94, January 1973. 3 fig, 2 tab, 20 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Hydrogen ion concentration, 'Pore 
water, 'Connate water, 'Bottom sediments, 'Ox- 
idation-reduction potential, Water chemistry, 
Biodegradation, Sulfates, Sulfur bacteria, Sul- 
fides, Carbonates, Sea water. 
Identifiers: 'Buffering (pH). 

A model is proposed to explain the relative pH sta- 
bility in pore water of recent anoxic marine sedi- 
ments. The model assumes that the pH of the pore 
waters is controlled by the byproducts of organic 
decomposition, sulfate reduction, and precipita- 
tion of sulfide and carbonate. The model predicts 
that the pH of pore waters should remain in the 
range 6.9 to 8.3, which is in agreement with mea- 
sured values. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07851 



PREDICTING TIME-OF-TRAVEL IN STREAM 
SYSTEMS, 

Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W73-07879 



hm< l Of i <i'.«. in UINAI. iMSPULMONfJ 
UYNAMH MA'IhM (jl Al MY KIArO*aJBfjJ 
S'l REAMS AMI HVEM 
Manhattan CoU bronn N Y hovirotuncalrfltJ 

reenng and Science Prog/ am 
V Ihoinann 
Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2. p }« 
366, ApnJIV73 1 1 fig. 4 ur. |gff 

Descnplors • Dispersion. 'Path of poUuUmh 
Mixing, Advcctioo, Mathematical models '<um 
ical analysis, Kinetics, Water pollution < t.easu 
degradation 

Ihc amplitude and phase characteristics of a rt»c 
subjected to a time variable waste input art cob 
puled for two cases: zero dispersion with no an 
ing and dispersion levels represenlaUve of stream 
and large rivers The frequency response 'irpeod 
on a set of dimcnsionless numbers that charac 
tenze the reactive and dispersive nature of B> 
river I or upland streams and n vers srnail arr>ou« 
of dispersion may be important when the input v» 
nes with periods of about 7 days or less I- or targe 
deep nvers the effect of dispersion can geacfgfj 
not be neglected when the input is time variable 
longitudinal dispersion in water quality response 
in streams and nvers is analyzed based a 
frequency response The analysis provides soc* 
guidelines for deciding whether a no mixing fay 
flow model is suitable when the problem conLti 
mvolves a time-varying waste input 'Knapp 
USGS) 
W73-07890 



BOTTOM CURRENTS IN THE HUDH* 
CANYON, 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminmn 

tion, Miami, Ha Atlantic Oceanographic aac 

Meteorological Labs. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02E. 

W73-07903 



MOVEMENT OF CHEMICALS IN SOILS IY 
WATER, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Agronomy. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02G. 
W73-079O4 



MODELING THE MOVEMENT OF CHEMI- 
CALS IN SOILS BY WATER, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Agronomy. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02G. 
W73-O7905 



A REGIONAL PLANNING MODEL FOB 
WATER QUALITY CONTROL, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst, and State Univ., 
Blacksburg. 

D. E. Pingry, and A. B. Whinston. 
(1972). 46 p, 2 fig, 7 tab, 71 equ, 1 map, 22 ref. 
OWRR-B-020-IND (15). Supported by Army 
Research Office. 

Descriptors: Water quality control, 'Water tem- 
perature, 'Dissolved oxygen, 'Water pollution 
treatment, 'Costs, 'Simulation analysis, •Op- 
timization, Resource allocation, Comprehensive 
p lanning , River basins, Regional analysis, Ef- 
fluents, Economic efficiency, Alternative water 
use, Biochemical oxygen demand, Thermal pollu- 
tion, Waste water (Pollution), Cooling towers, 
Flow augmentation, Constraints, Computer pro- 
grams, 'Indiana. 

Identifiers: 'West Fork White River (Ind), Exter- 
nal effects, Regional planning, Opportunity costs, 
By-pass piping, Treatment plants, Nonlinear pro- 
gramming. 

The information problem when dealing with exter- 
nal effects of water pollution is immense. Usually 
the external effect (cost or benefit) is transferred 
to the affected party through a complex series of 
physical, chemical or biological processes; an ini- 



50 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Sources of Pollution — Group 5B 



ffluent discharged by a polluter may affect a 
istream user, and in such a case the opportu- 
;osts of a specific resource allocation are not 
clear. This has led to attempts to produce the 
ts of resource allocation under external ef- 
by modeling the appropriate physical system. 
over, since different policies are appropriate 
ifferent polluters-uniform rules cause signifi- 
inefficiencies— a regional approach (thus vari- 
treatment strategies) is being considered. 
nted is a simulation model of river basin 
r quality that serves as the constraint for an 
lization model which searches for the effi- 
solutions given the quality goals. The model 
citly considers water temperature and its rela- 
hip to dissolved oxygen; it considers simul- 
msly several treatment strategies and their 
. The model answers: What is the least cost 
tination of treatment facilities that will meet 
i temperature and dissolved oxygen goals. 
; such a model, a river basin authority could 
nt an assortment of river use and cost com- 
ions for consideration by the affected parties. 
Cornell) 
07918 



EMS APPROACH TO WATER QUALITY 
AGEMENT, 

r Resources Engineers, Inc., Walnut Creek, 

Orlob, and B. B. Dendy. 

lal of the Hydraulics Division, American 

ty of Civil Engineers, Vol 99, No HY4, 

sedings paper 9660, p 573-587, April, 1973. 8 

ref. 

riptors: 'Systems analysis, *Water quality 
ol, 'Groundwater basins, *Water manage- 
(applied), 'Hydraulics, 'California, Op- 
ition, Mathematical models, Economics, 
i, Surface water, Flow, Wells, Aquifers, Data 
ssing, Decision making, Water levels, Dis- 
d solids. 

ifiers: 'Santa Ana River Basin (Calif), Prado 
Orange County Water District, Seawater in- 



itegy is presented for the development of an 
itable plan for the management of a natural 
resource where quality control is a primary 
:m. The strategy embodies many elements of 
ins analysis and is being applied currently by 
»nta Ana Watershed Planning Agency (SAW- 
o a major river basin in Southern California- 
ibed is the SAWPA systems approach to 
ation of alternative plans for control of quali- 
the Santa Ana groundwater basin. The vari- 
schniques and tools developed for SAWPA 
le proposed scheme for their application are 
ined. Historic water quality changes are 
nted and the strategy for assessment of 
:es predicted by mathematical models is out- 
Models of basin hydrologic behavior and 
quality response are used conjunctively with 
onomic model to find the least costly plan 
i will produce acceptable quality over the en- 
asin throughout a 30-year planning horizon. 
Cornell) 
)7922 



OACTIYTTY OF WASTE WATERS IN 

.EAR RESEARCH INSTITUTE, REZ, AND 

RONMENT, (VLIV RADIOAKTrVTrY OD- 

IICH VOD VYZKUMNEHO JADERNEHO 

"RA V KEZI NA OKOLI), 

islovenska Akademie Ved, Rez. Ustav 

aeho Vyzkumu. 

pelka, and J. Chysky. 

■a Energie Vol 18, No 5, p 146-150, May 

3 fig, 3 tab, 15 ref. 

iptors: 'Nuclear powerplants, 'Nuclear 
s, 'Radioactive waste disposal, Contami- 
, Industrial wastes. Chemical wastes, Water 
ton, Water pollution sources, Monitoring, 
irement, Regulation, Assay, River basins. 



Identifiers: 'Czechoslovakia. 

A system of drainage of liquid wastes and a 
method of Liquidation of radioactive wastes in the 
Nuclear Research Institute are briefly described. 
The radioactivity of waste waters discharged into 
the river is controlled discontinuously. The gross 
beta-gamma activity is determined in samples. The 
control also includes a continuous measurement of 
the activity of chemical wastes discharged 
separately. Both methods are adequate in view of 
the isotopes that might be present in a given mix- 
ture. In the period of 1963 to 1971 , more than 2000 
samples were measured. The values obtained were 
very low, which shows a good function of the 
liquidation station. No effect on the activity of the 
river Vltava, into which the wastes were 
discharged, was found. Therefore, a measurable 
increase in the exposition by ionizing radiation 
could not occur in the inhabitants using the Vltava 
water. The continuous measurement showed 
several times an accidental uncontrolled discharge 
of the activity into the chemical drainage and into 
the river. However, it was found that the max- 
imum permissible concentrations for drinking 
water could not be exceeded in the river Vltava, 
which was also proved. (Houser-ORNL) 
W73-07926 



INTERACTION OF YELLOW ORGANIC ACIDS 
WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE IN FRESH- 
WATER, 

Michigan State Univ., Hickory Comers. W. K. 

Kellogg Biological Station. 

A. Otsuki, and R. G. Wetzel. 

Available from NTTS, Springfield, Va., as COO- 

1599-63; $3.00 in paper copy, $1.45 in microfiche. 

Report COO-1599-63, 1972. 8 p, 2 fig, 1 1 ref. AEC- 

AT(11-1)-1599. 

Descriptors: 'Path of pollutants, 'Humic acids, 
'Sorption, 'Calcium carbonate, Chemical 
precipitation, Trace metals, Iron, Carbon cycle, 
Lakes, Hardness (Water), Carbon radioisotopes, 
Tracers, Radioactivity techniques, Hydrogen ion 
concentration. Balance of nature. 

In connection with determination of the organic 
carbon budget of a small hard water lake, experi- 
ments were conducted to determine yellow-acid 
removal during calcium carbonate precipitation. 
(Yellow acids are a major part of the soluble humic 
substances in natural waters.) The results in- 
dicated substantial removal of yellow acids and 
probably of complexed trace metals such as iron 
by this pathway. It appeared likely that yellow 
acids were incorporated into crystals both by sur- 
face absorption and into crystal nuclei during rapid 
growth. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07931 



ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY, ISPRA, 
1970, 

European Atomic Energy Community, Ispra (Ita- 
ly). Joint Nuclear Research Center. 
M. de Bortoli, and P. Gaglione. 
Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as EUR- 
4805e; $3.00 in paper copy, $1.45 in microfiche. 
Report EUR-4805e, 1972. 46 p, 8 fig, 23 tab, 2 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Fallout, 'Nuclear wastes, 'Europe, 
'Food chains, Public health, Path of pollutants, 
Rivers, Sediments, lakes, Milk, Freshwater fish, 
Potable water, Air pollution, Rainfall, Strontium 
radioisotopes, Absorption. 
Identifiers: Cesium radioisotopes. 

The abnormally low rainfall for 1970 as compared 
with 1969 may account for lower deposition by fal- 
lout although the radioactivity of the air was 
higher. In accord with the greater discharge from 
the Ispra center, Csl37 increased in downstream 
sediments. In the water of four lakes, Csl37 in- 
creased, but Sr90 decreased. In lake fish and in 
offsite vegetation, Sr90 and Csl37 were the same 
as in 1969, but were about 10% lower in milk. 
(Bopp-ORNL) 



W73-07933 



A WATER-QUALITY SIMULATION MODEL 
FOR WELL MIXED ESTUARIES AND 
COASTAL SEAS: VOL. H, COMPUTATION 
PROCEDURES, 

New York City-Rand Inst., N.Y. 

J. J. Leendertse, and E. C. Gritton. 

Report R-708-NYC, July 1971 . 53 p, 13 fig, 8 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Mathematical models, 'Water quali- 
ty, 'Estuarine environment, 'New York, Evalua- 
tion, Assessment, Discharge (Water), Effluents, 
Water quality control, Systems analysis, Research 
and development, Biological properties, 
Biochemistry, Water properties, Computer pro- 
grams, Mixing, Shallow water. 
Identifiers: 'Jamaica Bay (Long Island). 

This and companion volumes describe methods 
used and difficulties encountered in designing a 
simulation model to study the effects of combined 
sewage overflows and other discharges on Jamaica 
Bay, Long Island. Basics are reported in Volume 
1 ; preliminary results in Volume 3. This report 
(Volume 2) describes the design philosophy used 
in further development, including the addition of a 
biochemical and biological reaction model. Tidal 
flow and dispersion, and transport of constituents, 
are approximated by a system of partial dif- 
ferential equations. The model simulates changes 
in boundaries that occur in shallow areas of estua- 
ries as a result of the changing tide level. 
Procedures used to make time-dependent bounda- 
ry changes have been revised and are outlined. Ex- 
amples are given of input and output from a com- 
puter program. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07935 



ENVIRONMENTAL MONITOR NG REPORT 
FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE JANUARY- 
DECEMBER 1971. 

National Environmental Research Center, Las 
Vegas, Nev. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as NERC- 
LV-539-1, $3.00 per copy, $1.45 microfiche. Re- 
port No. NERC-LV-539-1 , Sept. 1972. 91 p, 7 fig, 7 
tab. 

Descriptors: 'Monitoring, 'Surveys, 'Radioactivi- 
ty, 'Testing, 'Assay, 'Evaluation, 'Air pollution, 
•Water pollution, Soil contamination. Water pollu- 
tion sources, Path of pollutants, Public health. 
Milk, Data collections, Analytical techniques, 
Sampling, Regulation. 
Identifiers: 'Nevada Test Site. 

Surveillance of the Nevada Test Site environs dur- 
ing 1971 showed that the concentrations of 
radioactivity and levels of radiation in the environ- 
ment were within the Radiation Protection Stan- 
dards of the Atomic Energy Commission. The sur- 
veillance data show that most of the environmen- 
tal radioactivity in the NTS environs was due to 
naturally occurring radionuclides and world-wide 
fallout. Increases in gross beta concentrations in 
air and increases in Sr89, Sr90, and Csl37 in milk 
during the late spring and early summer were at- 
tributed to the seasonal trend of world-wide fal- 
lout. Increases in the gross beta concentrations 
and measurements of fresh fission products in the 
air during November at many of the Air Surveil- 
lance Network Stations were attributed to the 
nuclear detonation on November 18, 1971, by the 
People's Republic of China. (Houser-ORNL) 
W73-07936 



STUDIES ON THE RADIOACTIVE CON- 
TAMINATION OF THE SEA, ANNUAL RE- 
PORT, 1971. 

Comitato Nazionale per l'Energia Nucleare, La 
Spezia (Italy). Laboratorio per lo Studio della Con- 
taminazione Radioatti va de Mare. 



P 
i 



51 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group SB — Sources of Pollution 



Available from NHS, Springfield, Va , H BUI 
4865e; $3.00 per copy; $1.45 microfiche Report 
F.UR-4856e, Aug. 1972. 162 p, 47 fig. 28 lab, 59 rcf , 
3 annex. 

Descriptors: 'Environment, 'Fallout, 'Water pol 
lution, 'Water pollution sources, 'Hcology, 
♦Ecosystems, Radioecology, Fish, Microorgan- 
ism, Food chains, Gastropods, Sea water, Algae, 
Sampling, Analytical techniques, Radioisotopes, 
Strontium, Cesium, Tritium, Iodine, Assay, l*ublic 
health. 
Identifiers: 'Mediterranean Sea. 

The eighth Annual Report of the CNEN- 
FURATOM Contract of Association is presented 
The program laid down in this contract calls for 
studies of the factors which influence the uptake, 
accumulation and loss of radioisotopes by dif- 
ferent inorganic and organic constituents of the 
marine environment. The program is divided into 
two parts: (a) the investigation of relevant 
radioecological and ecological factors in nature 
and under laboratory conditions; (b) the investiga- 
tion of the outfall area off-shore of the CNFN- 
TRISAIA Centre in the Gulf of Taranto (fuel 
reprocessing plant). The task of carrying out this 
program has been divided into six groups: Chemis- 
try, Botany, Zooplankton, Fisheries Biology, 
Microbiology and Special Developments. Results 
obtained in 1971 are presented. (Houser-ORNL) 
W73-07942 



RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN 
PROGRESS, BIOMEDICAL AND ENVIRON- 
MENTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM. 

Division of Biomedical and Environmental 
Research (AEC), Washington, D.C. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as TID- 
4060, Second Edition; $6.00 paper copy, $1.45 
microfiche. Report TTD-4060, Second Edition, 
December 1972. 364 p. 

Descriptors: 'Research and development, 'Pro- 
jects, 'Radioecology, 'Radioactivity, Radioactivi- 
ty techniques, Radioactivity effects. Nuclear 
wastes, Radioisotopes, Absorption, Marine biolo- 
gy, Estuarine environment, Freshwater, Soil- 
water-plant relationships, Analytical techniques, 
Sedimentation, Oceanography, Environmental ef- 
fects, Path of pollutants. 

Summaries of 1473 projects are presented in the 
form furnished by the investigators to the Science 
Information Exchange of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. In addition to listing by category, indexing is 
by contractor, investigator, and subject. The 
categories dealing with radionuclides in the en- 
vironment include (numbers of summaries in 
parentheses): terrestrial systems (70), soils and 
soil-plant relations (56), freshwater systems (45), 
transport in soil, food and man (17), analytical 
procedures (8), radionuclide uptake in marine 
systems (23), sedimentation and chemical interac- 
tions (17), circulation and mixing (11), and other 
oceanographic studies (8). (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07943 



CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF ALPHA 
AND BETA RADIOACTTVITY OF WATER IN 
VIEW OF MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE CONCEN- 
TRATIONS FOR THE PUBLIC, 

Commissariat a I'Energie Atomique, Saclay 

(France). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W73-07945 



RADIONUCLIDE CYCLING IN TERRESTRIAL 
ENVIRONMENTS, 

Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. 

R. C. Dahlman, E. A. Bondietti, and F. S. 

Brinkley. 



Availablclion, NHS Springfield. Va . asOKNI. 
4848, $3.00 paper copy, $1 45 BSitTttfll hi l«i In 
vironmenLaJ Sciences Division Annual 1'iogict* 
Report for Period F.ridmg September 30, IV72. 
ORNI. 4848, I -cbruary 1973, p 1-8, 3 fig, I Lab. 4 
..I 

Descriptors 'Nuclear wattes, 'kadiun ology. 
•Soil water-plant relationships, 'VjiJ uueroorgan 
isms, Soil fungi, Soil bacteria. Analytical 
techniques, Cadmium, Fallout, /.in, I MCMHg, 
Litter, Sulfur, Soil contamination, Radiochemical 
analysis, Plant physiology, Root /one, leaves, 
Foliar application. Food chains. Path of pollu 
lants, Insects, Birds, I uresis, I nice elements. 
Cycling nutrients, X-ray diffraction, Waste water 
(Pollution), Algae, Cobalt radioisotope* 

Co60 uptake by millet plants was several orders of 
magnitude less from soil contaminated for 25 years 
as compared to soil contaminated about 6 months 
By density gradient cenlnfugalion analysis, a 
large part of the Co60 (as well as Ku 106 and Sbl25) 
was shown to be in roots, 33% through lainout and 
leaf drop. Soil microbial activity decreased mobili- 
ty of Zn, Cd and S, but not that of N. By microbial 
action, leaching of cadmium nitrate from soil was 
increased; leaching from sand was decreased 
Algae and detritus absorbed cadmium oxide more 
readily than cadmium nitrate Radioecological stu 
dies were made of Cd turnover in arthropods and 
in birds. Effects of sodium on clay aggregation 
were studied by x-ray diffraction. Pu was deter- 
mined in soil by a rapid amine-chelation method. 
The adenosine triphosphate in fungal mass was 
correlated with other growth-rate parameters 
(Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07946 



APPLIED AQUATIC STUDIES, 

Oak Ridge National Lab. , Tenn. 
B. G. Blaylock, C. P. Allen, and M. Frank. 
Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as ORNL- 
4848; $3.00 paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. In: En- 
vironmental Sciences Division Annual Progress 
Report for Period Ending September 30, 1972, 
ORNL-4848, February 1973, p 79-85, 2 fig, 2 lab, 
Href. 

Descriptors: 'Path of pollutants, 'Radioactivity, 
'Radioisotopes, 'Nuclear wastes, Sediments, Ab- 
sorption, Freshwater fish, Tritium, Radioactivity 
effects. Water pollution effects. Fish eggs, 
Chromium, Toxicity, Hatching, Chlorination, 
Water treatment, Chromosomes, Larvae, 
Radioecology, Water pollution sources, Sewage 
treatment, Waste water (Pollution), Soil con- 
tamination, Cobalt radioisotopes, Catfishes, Pota- 
ble water. 
Identifiers: Cesium radioisotopes. 

The maximum gamma activity (62-86% Csl37) is 
now found at a depth of 16-? ' cm in the sediment 
of a holding pond as a result of a decrease in the 
radioactivity of waste-water discharges. Biological 
half-lives for elimination of tritium from fish kept 
in the pond for 36 days were: for tritium in body 
water, 0.2 hr and 0.9 hr; for tritium in tissue, 8.7 
days. Natural populations of insect larvae (C. ten- 
tans) in the pond were unchanged in chromosomal 
ploymorphism (1960-1973). After exposure to 1500 
rads of Co60 irradiation, some catfish survived for 
98 days at 15 C, for 32 days at 25 C; none for 8 
days at 30 C. Contamination of water with 1-10 
ppm Cr greatly increased the time to hatching of 
fish eggs. An attempt is being made to study the 
production of chlorinated organics during purifica- 
tion of natural waters by a CI -36 tracer-gas chro- 
matographic method which was successful in a 
study of the chlorination of primary sewage ef- 
fluent. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07948 



HYDROLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS AND THE 
SIGNIFICANCE OF U-234/U-238 DIS- 



H/l II Ihkll M IN IHK i. HOt Mi V.AIJJLS 

i mai nxA 

HoUtUKI I - 

j KiestfsM 

Available from 1,'mv MicrofiJii, Aaa At 

n u,*xi no «jo p»[~ 

rfiche It, \> Ijittertauoti July IV7|^B 
fig. 2 lab. 35 rcf 

llevcnptort 'Radioisotope*. 'Uranium. ' \am 
cai technique*. 'Assay 'Water aM*) 
'Ground water 'Aquifers *Surfacc waSSf)JJJJJ_ 
r ainum radioisotope*. Radioactive tracers Sa, 

* lexa* 
Identifiers Trinity aquifer 

Forty vii uranium tsuloptc analyse* were n 
. ilpha spectrometry on waters from (he c 
I nruiy aquifer at well at upon turf ace »__ 
central I exat Most of the surface waters haw 
234/U-238 alpha activity ratios cluttering I 
I I 5 and I 40 The subsurface water* ex 
treme itotoptc fractionation being enriched u 
234 between several hundred and twelve I 
percent The uranium content of the 
water is lest than surface water, the 
falling around 0.02 and 04 parts per I 
most extreme fractionation occur* 
downdip from the recharge area From 
activity ratio decreases downdip a* a functioi 
the haJflifc of L' 234 There it a tone*; 
though non- uniform, decrease in the total I 
content downdip The Trinity aquifer afford 
closed system to an isotope dilution study that, 
l/es natural U-234/U-238 disequilibrium 
hydrotogic tracer Rates of water flow to dens 
0.7 to 3.0 fl/y, are consistent with the trai — 
bility value* of the aquifer rock*. Lab 
leaching of uranium from the toil* and 
sand yield U-234/L-238 activity ratio* tj 
very similar to uranium isolopic coaiposiuooi 
surface water* No extreme fracltonauoa » 
found in the solid phases (Houser-ORNL) 
W73-07949 



FALLOUT PROGRAM QUARTERLY SUM* 

RY REPORT, SEPTEMBER 1, 1972 

DECEMBER 1, 1972, 

New York Operations Office (AEC), N.Y He 

and Safety Lab. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W73-O7950 



APPENDIX TO QUARTERLY SUMMARY I 
PORT, SEPT. 1, 1972, THROUGH DEC. 1, M 
HEALTH AND SAFETY LABORATORY, P/ 
LOUT PROGRAM, 

New York Operations Office (AEC), N.Y. He 

and Safety Lab. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W73-07951 



RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS FROM NUCLL 
POWERPLANTS (BETRIEBLICHE ABLETTt 
GEN RADIOAKTTVER STOFFE AUS KEB 
TECHNISCHEN ANLAGEN). 

Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein e. 

Cologne (West Germany). Institut fuer Reakl 

sicherheit 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W73-07952 



ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY 
GREENLAND IN 1971, 

Danish Atomic Energy Commission. Ris< 

Health Physics Dept. 

A. Aarkrog, and J. Lippert. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as Ru 

267. $3.00 per copy, $1.45 microfiche. Report r- 

RISO-267, July 1972. 18 p, 4 fig, 1 1 tab, 4 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Measurement, 'Fallout, 'Radio; 
tivity, 'Assay, 'Strontium, 'Cesium, Sea wat 



52 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Sources of Pollution — Group 5B 



don (Atmospheric), Vegetation, Potable 
Environment, Potable water, Food chains, 
Toxicity, Public health, Human pathology, 

fiers: 'Greenland. 

jjinnents of fall-out radioactivity in Green- 
on 1971 are reported. Sr-90 (and Cs-137 in 
s instances) was determined in samples of 
citation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and 
tag water. Estimates of the mean contents of 
land Cs-137 in the human diet in Greenland in 
de given. Also reported is the mean level of 
Hum in human bone in Greenland. (Houser- 

y 

?i7953 



LK RIVER NUCLEAR LABORATORIES 
::RESS REPORT APRIL 1 TO JUNE 30, 
I BIOLOGY AND HEALTH PHYSICS DIVI- 
ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 

ICH AND HEALTH PHYSICS BRANCH, 
»ic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River (On- 
t Chalk River Nuclear Labs, 
rimary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
17955 



IMB1A RIVER EFFECTS IN THE 
TD2AST PACD7IC: PHYSICAL STUDIES. 
jiRT OF PROGRESS, JUNE 1971 
|)UGH JUNE 1972. 
ington Univ., Seattle. Dept. of Oceanog- 

• 

runary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

17956 



ONUCLIDE DISTRIBUTION IN SOIL 
ILE OF THE LITHOSPHERE AS A CON- 
ENCE OF WASTE DISPOSAL AT THE 
ONAL REACTOR TESTING STATION. 

Operations Office (AEC), Idaho Falls. 

ible from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as IDO- 
, $3.00 paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. Report 
DO-10049, Oct. 1972. 80 p, 18 fig, 27 tab, 34 
append. 

iptors: 'Radioactive waste disposal, *Water 
ion, *Water pollution sources, *Soil con- 
ation, *Assay, Cobalt, Strontium, Plutoni- 
Lake bed, Ponds, Leaching, Migration, 
ment, Distribution patterns. 

istribution of radionuclides in the soil result- 
om disposal of liquid and solid waste at the 
nal Reactor Testing Station (NRTS) was stu- 
The situation involving liquid waste is ap- 
d by: (a) mathematical models using parame- 
letermined in the laboratory; (b) physical 
Is using soil samples and simulated waste 
3n; and (c) sampling of soil and water where 
is being discharged. In case of strontium-90, 
ita indicate that the sorption capacity of the 
il deposits between the disposal pond bot- 
uid the basalt bedrock has been reached. The 
: or cesium were erratic but the most pes- 
ic interpretation indicates that the capacity 
alluvium has not been reached. The amount 
balt-60 estimated to be in the alluvium is 
r than that reported to have been discharged, 
ischarge estimates do not take into account 
lore frequent usage of unsheathed cobalt 
for neutron flux measurements during the 
listory of the reactors. Cobalt-60 retention in 
iil is attributed to reactions other than ion- 
nge. A hypothetical evaluation is included of 
vironmental problems remaining after active 
lion of a disposal site has been discontinued, 
oncluded that disposal sites can be used for 
purposes with certain restrictions. (Houser- 

17958 



DETERMINATION OF TRACE METALS AND 
FLUORIDE IN MINERALOGICAL AND 
BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES FROM THE MARINE 
ENVIRONMENT, 

Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W73-07959 



RADIOACTIVITY AND WATER SUPPLIES, 

Interuniversitair Reactor Institutt, Delft (Nether- 
lands). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W73-07960 



EVENT-RELATED HYDROLOGY AND 

RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AT THE CAN- 
NTJCIN SITE, AMCHTTKA ISLAND, ALASKA, 

Nevada Univ., Reno. Desert Research Inst. 

P. R. Fenske. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as NVO- 

1253-1 ; $3.00 paper copy, $1 .45 microfiche. Report 

NVO-1253-1 , 1972. 37 p, 17 fig, 21 ref . 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear wastes, 'Nuclear explo- 
sions, 'Tritium, 'Alaska, Path of pollutants, Frac- 
ture permeability, Permeability, Oceans, Saline 
water-freshwater interfaces, Water properties. 
Retention, Retardance, Conductivity, Fluctua- 
tions, Radioisotopes, Absorption, Groundwater 
movement, Darcys Law, Ion uptake, Soil con- 
tamination effects, Analog models, Aquifer 
characteristics. 

Evaluation of possible ground-water contamina- 
tion from the Cannikin site involved consideration 
of thermal effects in the rubble chimney, ground- 
water transit time along probable flow paths, and 
the rate of dilution of fresh-water seepage with sea 
water. Measurements of temperature and pressure 
in test holes and water analyses were used to 
locate the freshwater-saltwater interface. The 
hydraulic conductivity was estimated from the 
response in test holes to barometric and tidal fluc- 
tuations. Electrical analogue simulation of the 
hydraulic conductivity of fracture networks gave a 
residence time of 14,000 years for the underlying 
saline aquifer. The transit time through the fresh- 
water lens to the sea is about 3000-4000 years - 
such that tritium is eliminated by radioactive 
delay. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07961 



TERRESTRIAL AND FRESHWATER 

RADIOECOLOGY, A SELECTED BIBLIOG- 
RAPHY, SUPPLEMENT 8, 

Washington State Univ., Pullman. Dept. of Zoolo- 
gy- 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-07962 



CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE 
MIGRATION OF RU106 IN SOILS, 
Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Cadarache 
(France). Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires. 
J. P. Amy. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as RFP- 
Trans-113; $3.00 in paper copy, $1.45 cents in 
microfiche. Report RFP-Trans-1 13, 1972. 4 p. 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear wastes, 'Irrigation water, 
'Soil contamination, 'Radioisotopes, Sorption, 
Permeability, Soil types. Soil chemical properties, 
Hydrogen ion concentration, Physicochemical 
properties, Hydrolysis, Ion transport, Ion 
exchange, Leaching, Movement, Absorption, Path 
of pollutants. 

Rul06 mobility was studied in agricultural soils ir- 
rigated with Rhine water at one time contaminated 
by nuclear wastes. Its many chemical forms make 
the behavior of Ru complex. Nitrodinitrato com- 
plexes which exhibit mainly cationic charac- 
teristics resemble Cs, but an anionic component 



which increases with increasing acidity is less 
readily adsorbed. Minimum mobility is found for 
soil that is calcareous, clayey, of low permeability 
and rich in organic matter. Artifical augmentation 
of the alkalinity of an acid soil augments sorption. 
(Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07963 



DISTRIBUTION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN OR- 
GANISMS OF MARINE FAUNA. APPLICATION 
OF CRITICAL CONCENTRATION FACTORS, 

A. Ya. Zesenko. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as Part of 
AEC-tr-7299, $6.00 in paper copy, $1.45 
microfiche. In: Marine Radioecology, p 105-146, 
Trans, from Morskaya Radioekologiya, 1970. 

Descriptors: 'Bioindicators, 'Fallout, 'Nuclear 
wastes, 'Marine animals, Path of pollutants, 
Estuarine environment, Animal metabolism, 
Radioecology, Salt water, Oceans, Mollusks, 
Marine fish. Crabs, Radioisotopes, Absorption, 
Crustaceans, Trace elements. Tracers. 

A series of studies is reviewed on uptake of 
radionuclides (AgllO, Zn65, Y91, Cel44, Zr95, 
Nb95, P32, S31, Rul06, Cul06) by organs of 
marine organisms (fish, mussels, grass crabs). 
Gills, byssus, shell, and chitinous skin 
(crustaceans) are indicators of uptake of certain 
radionuclides (AgllO, Csl37, Zn65, Sr90, Y91, 
Cel44, Zr95, Nb95, Rul06). Filtration by marine 
mollusks is of slight effectiveness for uptake of 
Y91 , Cel44, Zr95, Nb95, or Rul06. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07966 



ACCUMULATION OF RADIONUCLIDES BY 
ROE AND LARVAE OF BLACK SEA FISH, 

V. N. Ivanov. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as Part of 
AEC-tr-7299; $6.00 in paper copy, $145 in 
microfiche. In: Marine Radioecology, Translation 
from Marskaya Radioekologiya, 1970, p 147-157, 3 
fig, 1 tab, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Radioisotopes, 'Absorption, 'Lar- 
val growth stage, 'Marine fish, Food chains, 
Public health, Path of pollutants. Laboratory tests, 
Nuclear wastes. Fallout, Hatching, Water pollu- 
tion effects, Strontium radioisotopes. 
Identifiers: Zirconium radioisotopes, Cesium 
radioisotopes, Yttrium radioisotopes, Ruthenium 
radioisotopes. 

Radionuclide concentration factor ranges for 
several species (1A) for newly hatched larvae and 
(b) for eggs before hatching are - Zr: a, 34-43; b, 
14-35. Cs: a, 10; b, 9. Sr: a, 1 .3-1 .7; b, 0.*4.4. Y: a, 
0.5-11; b, 57-233. Ce: a, 1-4; b, 22^95. Ru: a, 0.5- 
3.6; b, 12-21. More-limited data are given forC, P, 
S, Mn, Fe, Co, and W. Concentration factors for 
older larvae were several-fold higher than for 
newly hatched larvae with Zr, Cs, Sr, Ce, Y, and 
Ru. Absorption on the exterior of the egg mem- 
brane is believed to account for the relatively high 
uptake of Y and Ce. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07967 



EFFECT OF INCORPORATED 

RADIONUCLIDES ON CHROMOSOME AP- 
PARATUS OF OCENA FISH, 

V. G. Tsytsugina. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as AEC-tr- 
7299; $6.00 in paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. In: 
Marine Radioecology, p 157-165. Translation from 
Morskaya Radioekologiya, 1970, 1 fig, 4 tab, 18 
ref. 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear wastes, 'Marine fish, 'Lar- 
val growth stage, 'Chromosomes, Cytological stu- 
dies, Water pollution effects, Radioactivity ef- 
fects, Fallout, Hatching, Radioisotopes, Absorp- 
tion, Strontium radioisotopes. Carbon 
radioisotopes. 
Identifiers: Yttrium radioisotopes. 






53 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5B — Sources of Pollution 



Ruff and flounder embryo from eggs reared in sea 
water containing above 10 nanofiiiics/ liter M9 
and 180 nanoCuries/liter of C14 showed increased 
chromosome breaks relative to controls. That in- 
creasing the radioactivity several orders of mag- 
nitude produced little or no additional effect is ex- 
plained by the relatively high sensitivity of the nu 
tial growth stage, by effects from nonviable aber- 
rations, and perhaps by acceleration of mutation 
processes in exposed cells. Increased chromosome 
breaks in 1 -day-old flounder larvae resulted from 
hatching in seawater containing 0.3 nanoCurie/liter 
Y91. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07968 



RADIOECOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE 

DANUBE RIVER AND ADJOINING PART OF 

THE BLACK SEA, 

V. I. Timoshchuk, and I. A. Sokolova. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as AEC-tr- 

7299; $6.00 paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. In: 

Marine Radioecology, p 174-185, Translation from 

Morskaya Radioekologiya, 1970, 5 fig, 1 tab, 16 

ref. 

Descriptors: 'Estuarine environment, 'Marine 
fish, 'Strontium radioisotopes, 'Absorption, Path 
of pollutants, Fallout, Nuclear wastes, 
Radioecology, Oceans, Freshwater fish, Mussels, 
Fish migration, Geomorphology, Climatology, Eu- 
rope, On-site data collections. Food chains, Sea 
water, Water analysis. 

The geomorphology and climatology are reviewed 
of the Danube River, its coastal regions, and the 
northwestern part of the Black Sea. Sr90 concen- 
tration (in units of picoCuries/liter) was measured 
in April 1966, 1967, at the delta head (2.40, 1.75 
units) and 50 miles offshore, where the value (0.6- 
0.8 unit) is typical of the Black Sea. Concentration 
factors for Sr90 uptake were: Danube fish (carp, 
rudd), 43-102; semimigratory fish (pike-perch, 
common carp), 12-26; migratory fish and herring, 
7; mussels, including the shell, 50-617. (Bopp- 
ORNL) 
W73-07969 



SR IN WATER OF THE CASPIAN AND AZOV 

SEAS, 

V. I. Timoshchuk. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as Part of 

AEC-tr-7299; $3.00 in paper copy; $1.45 in 

microfiche. In: Marine Radioecology, Translation 

of Morskaya Radioekologiya, 1970, p 185-196. 8 

fig, 2 tab, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Strontium radioisotopes, 'Absorp- 
tion, 'Marine fish, 'Nuclear wastes, Fallout, Path 
of pollutants, Food chains, Strontium, Estuarine 
environment, Migration, Fish behavior, Public 
health, Saline water fish, Salinity, Leaching, Salt 
balance, Water pollution effects, Sedimentary 
rocks, Chemical precipitation, Evaporation, In- 
flow, Mixing. 

Identifiers: USSR, Sea of Azov, Black Sea, Caspi- 
an Sea. 

Leaching of shoreline rocks gives high Sr concen- 
trations (21-25 mg/liter) in certain regions of the 
Caspian Sea relative to regions diluted by river 
discharges (0.5-2.5 mg/liter). Sr in the Sea of Azov 
(3.1-6.1 mg/liter) is affected by exchange with the 
Sivash Bay where evaporation gives high Sr con- 
centrations (26 mg/liter). Concentration factors for 
Sr90 measured in 1966 were higher for semimigra- 
tory fish (roach, 40; carp, 33) than for migratory 
fish (kutum, 2.5). (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07970 



SR90 IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS OF THE 

BLACK SEA, 

V. P. Parchevskii, L. G. Kulebakina, I. A. 

Sokolova, and A. A. Bachurin. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as Part of 

AEC-tr-7299; $6.00 paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. 



In: Marine Radioecology , p 19*, 221, 'translation 
Of Morskaya Radioekologiya, 1970 21 lab, 40 ref 

Deftcnp' 'Strontium radioisotope*. 

•Radioecology, 'Estuarine environment, 'Marine 
algae, Fallout, Nuclear wastes, Path of pollulanU. 
Absorption, Marine pinto, Marine fish. Marine 
animals, Mollusks, Crustaceans. Europe. Plant 
physiology, Crabs, Radioactivity techniques, 
Marine biology, Foreign research. Oceans, Water 
analysis, Basic data collections, On-site data Ml 
lections, Seasonal, l-ood chains, Sea water. Water 
analysis. 

Studies in 1965-1966 showed low vanabdity in 
Sr90 uptake within the same species Of the total 
Sr90 in plant communities and in water in the 
vicinity, the percentage absorbed by the plants 
varied according to species (Cysto&eira brown 
alga, 30%; Carallia red alga, 23%; Padera brown 
alga, 17%; Zostera flowering plant, 1 1%, other al 
gae, 1%; Cystoseira biocoenosis that includes 
animals and other plants, 40%). For Cystoseira 
samples in Sept. 1964 and Dec. 1965, Sr90 concen- 
tration was about twice as high in the stem as in 
the branches; but in July 1965 there was no dif- 
ference (a seasonal effect). Sr/Ca atomic ratios 
were nearly the same in organisms from related 
taxonomic groups and agreed with values obtained 
by others. Isotopic exchange between Sr90 and Sr 
was nearly complete. (Bopp-ORN I .) 
W73-07971 



MN, CU AND ZN IN WATER AND ORGANISMS 
OF THE SEA OF AZOV, 

L. I. Rozhanskaya. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as Part of 

AEC-tr-7299; $6.00 paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. 

In: Marine Radioecology, p 222-255, Translation 

of Morskaya Radioekologiya, 1970. 9 fig, 9 tab, 50 

ref. 

Descriptors: 'Trace elements, 'Absorption, 
'Radioecology, 'Marine algae, Marine fish, 
Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, Strontium 

radioisotopes, Copper, Zinc, Path of pollutants. 
Marine plants, Reduction (Chemical), Oxygen de- 
mand, Seasonal, Trace elements, Manganese, 
Estuarine environment, Fallout, Biomass, On-site 
data collections, Europe. 

Results are compared with similar studies in other 
seas. Mn in near-bottom water varied with season 
and location and was inversely related to the ox- 
ygen content The average Cu/Zn ratio was 0.39. 
Phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthic organ- 
isms had generally higher concent ation factors for 
trace elements (Mn, 200-10,000; Cu, 250-3,000; 
Zn, 500-7,000) than fish (Mn, 30400; Cu, 150-700; 
Zn, 700-1 ,800). Migration of Sr90 in coastal zones 
is affected by absorption into the macrophyte 
biomass. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07972 



RADIOECOLOGY OF CENTRAL AMERICAN 

SEAS, 

G. G. Polikarpov, Yu. P. Zaitsev, V. P. 
Parchevskii, A. A. Bachurin, and I. A. Sokolova. 
Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as Part of 
AEC-tr-7299; $3.00 in paper copy, $1.45 in 
microfiche. In: Marine Radioecology, p 256-288, 
Translation of Morskaya Radioekologiya, 1970. 20 
fig, 14 tab, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Radioisotopes, 'Absorption, 
'Marine biology, 'Radioecology, Nuclear wastes, 
Path of pollutants, Strontium radioisotopes, Atlan- 
tic Ocean, Marine algae, Kelp, Plankton nets, 
Benthic flora, Zooplankton, Vertical migration, 
Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, Fallout. 
Identifiers: Caribbean Sea, Cerium radioisotopes, 
Ruthenium radioisotopes, Cesium radioisotopes, 
Sargassum. 




Plankton and beothje algae (collected turn 
( anooean during Aprd through August 15*65) t 
analysed by gamma spectroscopy JV pm» 
radionuclide* present in tiic uiacropLyUr Sm 
sum iiaiam were < t\U <95%; Mn54 (J 
kulO», (3 I*), arid Sr90 '0 3%*. in the 
brown alga Padina vsckevsiae ( el 44 'Rulto 
Mn'4 were absent; A nguuVant part of 
radioactivity in the water and org 
upper layers of the Sargasso sea it in 
Macrophyles 170% of the Cel44, 40% 

- 7% of the Sr90. 3% of the ( »I3 
perunenU in aquaria, concentration fa 
determined for several species of algae (JQI 

- 700 RulOA. 140-520. ' 
15), for individual organs of rimer opto jrltoi 
zooplankton, and for other marine organ 
Rales of radionuclide uptake were tnemt 
(Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07973 

RADIOHIOMK.K Al RESEARCH IN OCE 
AND GENERALIZATIONS IN MAR 
RADIOECOLOGY, 

V P Parchevskii. I. A Sokolova, G 
Polikarpov, and A. A. Bachurin 
Available from NTIS. Springfield, Va . as Pa 
AEC-tr-7299, $3.00 in paper copy, J1.4! 
microfiche In: Marine Radioecology, p 292- 
Translation of Morskaya Radioekologiya, I* 
fig, 10 tab. 15 ref 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear wastes, 'Fallout, 'M» 
biology, 'Marine fish. Strontium radioisoto 
Absorption, Path of pollutants. Sea water. Ft 
water, Water properties. Alkalinity, Carr 
Radioisotopes, Radioactivity, Food chi 
Foreign research, On-site investigations, Pi 
health, Stable isotopes, Nutrient requiremt 
Water pollution sources, Mollusks. 

When isotopic or non-isotopic carriers remain • 
slant, radionuclide uptake by aquatic organise 
given by concentration factors (ratio of radi 
tivity of organism to that of an equal weigh 
water) which are independent of the riii.lir— t 
concentration in the water in the range 1 
micromoies/liter. Sr90 uptake by related or 
isms is about 2-fold higher in the Black Sea thf 
most other oceans or seas which have Iowa 
content Uptake of Csl37, Sr90, and S35 is al 
an order of magnitude higher in fresh water thi 
sea water, corresponding to the higher carrier I 
tent of sea water. Data obtained during 1961- 
on Sr90 in marine organisms (in units of pice 
ries/kg) is reviewed. Values for various speck 
fish ranged from 1 to 10. Pollution by oik 
wastes caused higher values for brown algae it 
Irish Sea (10-600) than in most other seas 
oceans (1-3). (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07974 



SOME ASPECTS OF THE QUANTTTAT 
ECOLOGY OF MERCURY, 

Swedish Water and Air Pollution Research I 

Stockholm. 

T. Fagerstrom, and A. Jernelov. 

Water Research, Vol 6, No 10, p 1193-1202, 

toberl972.5fig,26ref. 

Descriptors: 'Mercury, 'Path of polhiU 
'Ecosystems, Aquatic environment, 'Model 
dies, Heavy metals, Chelation, Organic ma 
Oxidation, Oxidation-reduction potential, j 
minerals, Physicochemical properties, Envi 
mental effects, Reduction (Chemical). 
Identifiers: Transformation, 'Organomer 
compounds, 'Mercury compounds, Mercuric 
fide, Metal complexes, Methylmercury, Dime 
mercury, Fate of pollutants, Biotransformai 
Transport. 

The principal ways of transformation of mer 
in aquatic ecosystem are discussed. The mer 
transformations include: (1) formation of HgS 



54 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Sources of Pollution — Group 5B 



sion of HgS, (3) formation and oxidation of 
itary Hg, (4) formation of complexes 
n divalent mercury and organic substances 
t release of Hg therefrom, (5) formation of 
y-inorganic material complexes of the sil- 
d ferro-manganese-type, (6) release of solu- 
•rcury from complexes, and (7) formation 
gradation of methylmercury and dimethyl- 
•y. The quantitative influences on these 
ses of some physico-chemical and biologi- 
tors are demonstrated from field investiga- 
und laboratory experiments. A dynamic 
for the transport of methylmercury in a sim- 
hmnic food-chain is outlined. (Holoman- 
e) 
5013 



►GICAL EFFECTS AND PHYSICAL PRO- 
ES IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT OF 
ATIC CHLORINATED BY-PRODUCTS 
VINYL CHLORIDE PRODUCTION, 

h Water and Air Pollution Research Lab., 

>rg- 

mary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

1014 



SRIAL CHEMORECEPTION: AN IMPOR- 
ECOLOGICAL PHENOMENON FN- 
SD BY HYDROCARBONS, 

d Univ., Cambridge, Mass. Lab. of Applied 

iology. 

mary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

1016 



-OAD OF INFECTIOUS MICRO-ORGA- 
IN THE WASTE WATER OF TWO 
I AFRICAN HOSPITALS, 

il Inst, for Water Research, Pretoria (South 

L Grabow, and E. M. Nupen. 

Research, Vol 6, No 12, p 1557-1563, 

berl972.2tab,30ref. 

(tors: *Sewage effluents, Waste water (Pol- 
Hospitals, 'Municipal wastes, Water pol- 
ources, *Worms, * Animal parasites, *Bac- 
Viruses, *Pathogenic bacteria, Enteric bac- 
iampling, Microorganisms, E. coli, Sal- 
i, Coltforms, Shigella, Pseudomonas, 
bacteria, Invertebrates, Clostridium, 
ampling, Nematodes. 

era: Enterovirus, Eggs, Reovirus, 
)rms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ascaris, 
Flatworms Platyhelminthes, Trichuris, 
lium perfringens, Staphylococci, Sal- 
isp. 

of microorganisms including infectious 
i, viruses and parasite ova in the waste 
f two hospitals were compared with those 
ewage. One of these is an isolation hospital 
ingent disinfection procedures. Grab sam- 
re taken at hourly intervals over 24-hour 
, and individual samples were immediately 
to 4C and pooled. The waste water of each 
I and the city's sewage effluent were sam- 
nultaneously. Prior to analysis, samples 
imogenized in a mixer for 4 min at a speed 

setting of 4. Some of the bacterial counts 
i total conforms, Clostridium perfringens, 
ellae, fecal streptococci, Pseudomonas 
Dsa, confirmed E. coli I; the viral counts 
f entero- and reoviruses, and those of 

ova were for Ascaris, Taenia, Trichuris, 
ator or Ancylostoma. Counts of all the or- 
j tested, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 
iver in the waste water of this hospital than 
ewage effluent of the town in which it is 

The other hospital is a general hospital 
s stringent disinfection procedures. Counts 
e organisms were slightly higher in the 
ater of this hospital than in the sewage ef- 
f the city in which it is located. The results 
1 indicated that under normal conditions 



the waste water of hospitals needs no treatment 
before disposal into city sewers. The disposal of 
primary treated hospital effluents into streams or 
their use for irrigation should, however, be con- 
sidered with care. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08024 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WATER OF 
STREAMS OF POLISH HIGH TATRA MOUN- 
TAINS, PARTICULARLY WITH REGARD TO 
THE SUCHA WODA STREAM, 

Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow. Zaklad 
Biologii Wod. 

Acta Hydrobio, Vol 13, No 4, p 379-391, 1971. D- 

lus. 

Identifiers: *Chemical composition, Climate, 

*Mountain streams, Pollution, Streams, Sucha, 

*Tatra mountains, Woda. 

The chemical composition of water depends on the 
geological structure of the drainage area, hyp- 
sometric differences, and the climate related with 
them. Owing to this, trophically varying types of 
waters develop within very short basins. Attention 
is also drawn to the local pollution of pure high- 
mountain streams in the region of shelter-houses 
and settlements-Copyright 1972, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-08026 



WATER QUALITY MONITORING IN DIS- 
TRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A PROGRESS RE- 
PORT, 

National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, 

Mich. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W73-08027 



HETEROTROPHIC NITRJFICATION FN SAM- 
PLES OF NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS, 

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. Lab. of Soil 

Microbiology. 

W. Verstraete, and M. Alexander. 

Environmental Science and Technology, Vol 7, 

No 1 , p 39-42, January 1973. 1 fig, 6 tab, 14 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Nitrification, *Ecosystems, 
*Aquatic bacteria, *Aquatic environment. 
Nitrogen compounds, Sewage sludge, Freshwater, 
Nitrites, Rivers, Aquatic soils. Cultures. 
Identifiers: Enrichment, Arthrobacter, 

Heterotrophic bacteria, Hydroxylamine, 1- 
Nitrosoenthanol, Hydroxamic acid. 

Since studies of axenic cultures of a nitrifying 
stain of Arthrobacter revealed that hydrox- 
ylamine, hydroxaic acid, 1-nitrosoethanol, nitrate, 
and nitrite were excreted, an investigation was 
begun to determine whether this or physiologically 
related species could bring about the same type of 
nitrification in natural environments. Products of 
the reaction and their persistence in samples taken 
from several different ecosystems were also deter- 
mined. Samples (200 ml) of different aquatic en- 
vironments (sewage, river water, lake water, soil) 
were enriched with sodium acetate and ammonium 
sulfate to concentrations of 3.0 mg Cml and 1.0 
N/ml and incubated on a rotary shaker (120 rpm). 
Hydroxylamine, 1-nitrosethanol, nitrite, and 
nitrate were formed in samples of sewage, river 
water, lake water, and soils amended with am- 
monium and acetate. A carbon source was needed 
for the occurrence of this pattern of nitrification, 
which is apparently heterotrophic. Of the carbon 
sources tested, only acetate and succinate sup- 
ported this newly described kind of nitrification. 
The data suggest that the active microorganisms 
nitrify at neutral pH values under conditions 
which do not promote abundant growth of other 
heterotrophs, but in environments that allowed 
luxuriant microbial proliferation, these microor- 
ganisms competed successfully and nitrified only 
at alkaline pH values. Hydroxylamine was rapidly 



inactivated in sewage and in soil, whereas 1- 
nitrosoethanol was quite persistent in aqueous 
solutions but disappeared rapidly from soil. 
(Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08029 



MIREX RESIDUES IN WILD POPULATIONS 
OF THE EDIBLE RED CRAWFISH (PROCAM- 
BARUS CLARKI), 

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Gulf- 
port, Miss. Plant Protection and Quarantine Pro- 
grams. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05 A. 
W73-08030 



METABOLISM OF DDT BY FRESH WATER 
DIATOMS, 

Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg. DepL of Entomology. 
S. Miyazaki, and A. J. Thorsteinson. 
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and 
Toxicology, Vol 8, No 2, p 81-83, August, 1972. 1 
tab, 13ref. 

Descriptors: *Diatoms, 'Metabolism, •Absorp- 
tion, *DDT, *DDE, Path of pollutants, Pesticide 
residues, Pesticides, Chlorinated hydrocarbon 
pesticides, Chromatography, Cultures, Radioac- 
tivity techniques, Biodegradation. 
Identifiers: Biotransformation, Thin layer chro- 
matography, Bioaccumulation, Chlorinated 
hydrocarbons, Nitzschia, Culture media. 
Metabolites, C-14, Recovery, Biological samples. 

Ten diatom cultures were isolated from a sample 
of ditch water by adding 5 ml of sample to War- 
ner's agar. After incubation and additional cultur- 
ing, pure cultures were exposed for 2 weeks to 
0.71 ppm C-14 labeled DDT dissolved in benzene. 
After the 2-week period glacial acetic acid was 
added to the flasks and the mixture immediately 
extracted 3 times. The medium was then filtered 
and the cells were extracted 3 times with acetone. 
Thin-layer chromatography was used to separate 
DDT from metabolites. On the basis of these tests, 
Nitzschia sp, and an unidentified diatom were 
selected for further studies. The procedure was re- 
peated in 4 replicates of each culture and a control 
without diatom inoculation. The results showed 
DDE to be the only metabolite produced by either 
culture. The unidentified diatom culture degraded 
more DDT to DDE than the Nitzschia species but 
most of the DDT added to the media remained 
unchanged in both cultures. The fact that the total 
radioactivity recovered from the diatom culture 
media was less than from the control suggests that 
some of the DDT or its metabolite (s) were bound 
intracellularly, or were otherwise not extractable 
by the solvent system used. Evaporation of DDT 
from the chromatogram may also account for 
some loss of radioactivity. The results suggest that 
some species of freshwater diatoms may be sig- 
nificant in the degradation of DDT to the non-in- 
secticidal metabolite, DDE in nature. (Little-Bat- 
telle) 
W73-O8036 



RAPED BIODEGRADATION OF NTA BY A 
NOVEL BACTERIAL MUTANT, 

Department of the Environment, Burlington (On- 
tario). Centre for Inland Waters. 
P. T. S. Wong, D. Liu, and B. J. Dutka. 
Water Research, Vol 6, No 12, p 1577-1584, 
December 1972. 3 fig, 3 tab, 8 ref. 

Descriptors: *Nitrilotriacetic acid, 'Isolation, 
•Microbial degradation, *Sewage bacteria, 
Hydrogen ion concentration, Temperature, En- 
vironmental effects, Growth rates, Organic acids, 
Biodegradation, Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet 
radiation, Microorganisms. 

Identifiers: *Mutants, *Substrate utilization, 
NTA-metal complexes, Iminodiacetic acid, 
Glycine, Degradation rates, Acclimatization, Mu- 
tagenization. 



P 

a 

i 

r 



55 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5B — Sources of Pollution 



A bacterial mutant was isolated from sewage after 
ultraviolet mutagenization and penicillin selection 
during a study which was initiated to explore the 
possibility of isolating a potent bacterium which 
could degrade NTA rapidly. Bacterial flora from 
sewage after u.v. mutageni/ation and penicillin 
selection were plated onto NTA -agar plates. Colo- 
nies which developed after 5 days incubation at 20 
degrees C, were picked off and purified by re- 
peated transfers onto fresh agar medium. One cul- 
ture of Gram-negative short rod bacteria was 
found to grow most rapidly in 0.5 percent NTA 
broth. The following conclusions were reached 
concerning the mutant bacterium: (1) This mutant 
was able to grow without acclimatization in NTA 
concentrations as high as 2.5 percent as sole car- 
bon, nitrogen and energy source. (2) The mutant 
could degrade NTA at a wide range of tempera- 
tures from 4 degrees to 37 degrees C with the op- 
timal temperature at 20 degrees C. (3) The optimal 
pH of NTA degradation was pH 7. (4) The mutant 
could grow on NTA as well as its intermediate 
products (glycine, iminodiacetic acid). (5) The bac- 
teria were capable of utilizing NTA present in lake 
water and sewage. (6) The rate of NTA degrada- 
tion was very rapid. Almost all the NTA was 
degraded after 4 days incubation at an initial con- 
centration of 0.2 percent NTA. (7) The NTA-metal 
complexes had no obvious effect on the bacterial 
degradation of NTA. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08046 



ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN 
WATER, SEDIMENT, ALGAE, AND FISH, 
HAW Afl - 1970-71, 

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Dept. of Agricultural 

Biochemistry. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W73-08047 



ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN 

COMMERCIALLY CAUGHT FISH IN CANADA 

-1970, 

Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Winnipeg 

(Manitoba). Freshwater Inst. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W73-08048 



CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN LAKE ERIE FISH - 
1970-71, 

Food and Drug Administration, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W73-08049 



PROCEEDING 1971 TECHNICAL CON- 
FERENCE ON ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC 
NORTHWEST. 

Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as COM-71-01115, $6.00 in paper 
copy, $1.45 in microfiche. OSU Sea Grant Circular 
No 42, 1971. Nath, J.N.; Slotta, L.S. (editors) 343 
p, 104 fig, 11 tab, 119 ref. 

Descriptors: *Estuaries, *Water quality, *Model 
studies, Water pollution sources, Water manage- 
ment (Administrative), Water resources develop- 
ment, Conference, Bays, Estuarine environment, 
Estuarine fisheries, Aquatic environment, Mathe- 
matical models, Numerical analysis, Physical 
models, Hydrological models, Benthos, Data col- 
lections. 

Identifiers: 'Pacific Northwest, Hydro-ecology, 
Infrared imagery, Bellingham Harbor, Umpqua 
estuary, Grays Harbor, Tillamook estuary, San 
Diego Bay, San Francisco Bay, Tidal currents, 
New York Bay, Dredging, Dye dispersion, Saline 
intrusion, Schrewsbury River, Navesink River, 
Waste loadings, Yaquina River, Coos Bay, Stom- 
mel's model, Salinity profile, Up welling, 
Thomann's Model, Oxygen deficiency, Flushing 
rate, Tidal Prism Models. 



The theme of the 1971 Icclinical Conference oo 
l.tluaries of the Pacific Northwest was manage- 
ment and planning for water quality mi the Pacific 
Northwest estuaries Some of the topic* presented 
included theme-related model studies 'The Poten- 
tial of Physical Models U> Investigate I'.sluanne 
Water Quality Problems', 'Applications of Some 
Numerical Models to Pacific Northwest l-.stua 
nes', and 'Mathematical Modeling of Estuarine 
Benthal Systems'. Other papers dealt with data 
acquisition techniques or results of experimenta- 
tion done on waste disposal in the estuaries In 
eluded among these were: 'Remote Sensing 
Acquisition of Tracer Dye and Infrared Imagery 
Information and Interpretation for Industrial 
Discharge Management', 'Studies of Sediment 
Transport in the Columbia River', and 'A Study of 
Sediments from Bellingham Harbor as Related to 
Marine Disposal'. Topics concerned with some of 
the ecological, legal, and historical aspects of the 
estuaries and their management include IxrgaJ 
Protection of the Pacific Northwest Estuaries', 
'Hydro- Ecological Problems of Marinas on Puget 
Sound', 'Historical Changes in Estuarine Topog- 
raphy with Questions on Future Management Poll 
cies', 'Effects of Institutional Constraints and 
Resources Planning on Growth in and Near Estua 
ries', and 'Recent Federal Policies Affecting 
Marine Science and Engineering Developments' 
(Mackan-Battelle) 
W73-08051 



POLLUTION OF SUBSURFACE WATER BY 
SANITARY LANDFILLS, VOLUME 1, 
Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, Pa. 
A. A. Fungaroli. 

Available from Sup Doc, GPO, Washington, D.C. 
20402, Price $1.50. Environmental Protection 
Agency Interim report SW-12 rg, 1971. 186 p, 61 
fig, 1 1 tab, 1 5 ref, 5 append. EPA Grant 000162. 

Descriptors: 'Landfills, 'Garbage dumps, 'Model 
studies, 'Leachate, Laboratory tests, On-site 
tests, Water pollution sources, Path of pollutants, 
Computer programs. Mathematical models, 
Lysimeters. 

The behavior of sanitary landfills in southeastern 
Pennsylvania and a large portion of the region 
between Washington, D.C, and Boston was stu- 
died using a lysimeter and a field test. The labora- 
tory facility was operated under controlled condi- 
tions, while the field facility was operated under 
natural conditions. The lysimeter functioned as a 
closed system representative of the center of a 
large sanitary landfill, the depth of which was 
small in comparison to its areal extent. Tempera- 
tures, gases, and leachate quality were collected 
on a routine basis. The laboratory landfill behavior 
pattern is representative of young low-compaction 
density refuse. Within ten days of its initiation, 
refuse temperatures reached 150 deg F at the 
center, and stabilized at approximately 80 deg F 
after 60 days. The refuse was initially in the aero- 
bic state, and after 60 days an anaerobic condition 
became dominant. The lysimeter began to produce 
leachate almost immediately, even though the 
refuse had a very low moisture content. At field 
capacity, net infiltration and leachate quantities 
were approximately equal. A computer program is 
given for model studies. First appearance of 
leachate is dependent on site conditions, including 
surface grading, vegetation, and soil. The early 
leachate is highly polluted, acidic pH of 5.5, and 
carries many dissolved and suspended solids. (See 
also W72-06103) (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08073 



PREDICTED EFFECTS OF PROPOSED 
NAVIGATION IMPROVEMENTS ON RE- 
SH)ENCE TIME AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN OF 
THE SALT WEDGE IN THE DUWAMISH 
RIVER ESTUARY, KING COUNTY, WASHING- 
TON, 

Geological Survey, Tacoma, Wash. 
W. L. Haushild, and J. D. Stoner. 



1 



■ , open die report IV73 1). 
fig, 2 ref 

Descriptors 'Saline water inl/usMXi 'Ettuar 
'Washington, 'Ijistolved oxygen *' 

Navigation Water cuculaUoa, 
pollutant*. Dredging, Stratified flow. Salute \ 
freshwater interface*. Mathematical 
Simulation analyst* 
Identifiers 'Duwamish River (WakhJ 

A model of the circulation and quality of wall 
the Duwamikh River estuary predicts the i 
of a proposed widening and deepening 
way* on reudence tunc and dissolved 
the estuary's salt wedge f-or a low nver < 
penod in August 1970, use of the model ; 
estimated residence tune of wedge water to I 
days in the present waterway* estuary Mi ' 
day* in the wider and deeper proposed watersv; 
estuary lor June to September IV70 and for ! 
estuary about 4 miles upstream from it* raoa 
distolved-oxygen value* in the wedge of 
proposed waterways estuary would be at nal 
I 4 milligrams per liter lower and would M 
4 milligram per liter lower than the pic* 
values Extrapolation to low dissolved -o»y| 
values suggests that 4 mile* upstream of the e»ti 
ry mouth oxygen would be completely deptei 
from the proposed waterway* estuary a*x 
whereas there still would be 0.2 milligram of < 
ygen per liter of water in the present estuary. ( 
napp-L'SCS) 
W73-O80M 



PH AND SOLUBLE CU, NI AND ZN LN EAS 
ERN KENTUCKY COAL MINfc SPO 
MATERIALS, 

Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Dept. of Agronomy 
H. F. Massey. 

Soil Science, Vol 1 14. No 3, p 217-221, Septemr. 
1972.1 fig, 2 tab, 18 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Leaching, 'Mine warn 
'Hydrogen ion concentration, 'Water po0ar> 
control, 'Path of pollutants, Trace elemea 
Heavy metals, Zinc, Copper, Nickel, Acid n 
water, Coal mine wastes. Manganese, Water pi 
lution sources, Mine acids, Coal mines. 

The concentrations of Fe, AJ and Mn in t 
leachate of spoil bank materials are found to be I 
lated to the pH of the leachate. Liming of sp> 
materials should reduce the concentration* 
these ions in solution, but the multiplicity off* 
tors involved prevents direct calculation of thep 
effect. The effects of liming on solution conceotr 
tions of Zn, Cu and Ni can be roughly estnafk 
from pH measurements on the basis of stub 
with 4 spoil materials. More accurate esUmat 
could be obtained by making a few determinaoo 
on each spoil material. Of the 3 elements studie 
Ni appeared to be most likely to remain in the k 
solution in toxic amounts once the pH has been* 
justed to a point which would otherwise I 
satisfactory for plant growth. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08088 



HUMAN WASTE POLLUTION IN UNITE 
STATES FORESTS. 

Environmental Protection Center, Inc., 1 
glewood, Calif. 

Project Report 721 , August 27, 1972. 21 p, 4 fig, 
tab, 9 ref, 3 append. 

Descriptors: 'Water pollution sources, 'Recre. 
tion wastes, 'Sewage, 'Camping, 'Was 
disposal, Environmental effects, Groundwate 
Leaching, Cesspools, Water pollution contro 
Reviews, Evaluation. 

Population pressure and the increased use ( 
United States Forests for recreation coupled wi 
archaic methods of m anaging human waste I 
those environments have led to widespread deter 



56 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Sources of Pollution — Group 5B 



on of water resources and increased exposure 
sease. This report quantifies this problem and 
fered to educate and inform those who are in- 
ited in arresting the general degradation of our 
ronment. In 1970 a record 172,554,500 visitor 
were recorded in the 187,000,000 acres of 
sts managed by the Forest Service. In that 
; year the Service operated 66,024 toilets to 
mmodate these visitors. Of these faculties 
52 or better than 63% were primitive pit and 
t privy toilets. The privy and vault toilet are 
greatest source of human excrement con- 
nation in the pristine forest. In many areas 
: toilets are located near water supplies and 
mis, continually leaching their contents into 
environment. Action should be taken to 
;dy this situation. As an immediate first step, 
uate sanitation systems should be set up in all 
> where pollution is known to be taking place, 
i, long-range plans should be made. 
xlard-USGS) 
-08134 



AN HYDROLOGY-A SELECTED 

TOGRAPHY WITH ABSTRACTS, 

ogical Survey, Washington, D.C. 
>rimary bibliographic entry see Field 04C. 
08164 



*ER QUALITY ASPECTS OF THE STATE 
WASHINGTON, PART B, 

lington State Univ., Pullman. 

irimary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

48178 



ICITY OF CHEMICALS IN PAPER FACTO- 
IFFLUENTS, 

narks Fiskeri- og Havundersogelser, Charlot- 

nd (Denmark). 

irimary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

08235 



.IZING METAL CONCENTRATION RELA- 
JSHIPS IN THE EASTERN OYSTER (CRAS- 
rREA VIRGINICA) TO DETECT HEAVY 
AL POLLUTION, 

nia Inst, of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, 
irimary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
08237 



KOPOSAL FOR THE APPLICATION OF 

lOD'S MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO THE 

(EGRADATION OF MINERAL OH. IN 

URAL WATERS, 

xnico di Torino (Italy). Institute di Chimica 

itriale. 

isoli, and W. Numann. 

r Research, Vol 7, No 3, p 409-418, March 

4 fig, Href. 

riptors: 'Biodegradation, *Evaporation, 
icasting, Water pollution, Mathematical 
Is, Microbial degradation, Oxygen, Anaero- 
onditions, Oily water, Solvent extractions, 
r pollution control. 

ifiers: *Monod's model, 'Mineral oil, 
rocarbons, Aghajari oil, Sample preparation, 
red analysis, Substrate utilization 

study was designed to obtain a set of results 
vould serve as a means of: (1) investigating 
Jossibility of employing the formula of 
•d's model in the interpretation of mineral oil 
gradation; (2) evaluating the coefficients or 
ants used in the formula in terms of their in- 
:e on the course of biodegradation; and (3) 
mining the part played by evaporation and re- 
lation in the overall process of oil removal 
mparison with the biological process, and the 
t of the possible onset of anaerobic 
imena. Oil emulsions were prepared using 
iari oil and two series of experiments were 



run in half-filled and in completely filled bottles. 
The oily water was extracted with CC14, and in- 
frared analyses and the (1958) API 733 method 
were used to determine hydrocarbon content; ox- 
ygen determination was made using the Winkler 
method; and bacterial counts were made after fil- 
tration on a Sartorius 14005 membrane containing 
a nutritive substrate. It can be concluded from the 
results that 2 mechanisms are primarily involved in 
forecasting natural hydrocarbon pollution 
phenomena: evaporation and biodegradation. 
Evaporation is very important in perfectly still 
water and may be a primary factor when mixing 
takes place. Biodegradation is always involved in 
the natural elimination of mineral oil. Monod's 
model gives a good approximation for the 
forecasting of its course, provided it is recognized 
that certain oil components, which are in fact ox- 
idized much more slowly, must be treated as non- 
biodegradable. It seems safe to assert that anaero- 
bic conditions will arise when initial hydrocarbons 
levels are around 20 ppm, except in cases where 
the water is already markedly oxygen-deficient 
and all forms of aeration are excluded. (Holoman- 
Battelle) 
W73-08238 



CELL REPLICATION AND BIOMASS IN THE 
ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Sanitary Engineer- 
ing. 

R. E. Speece, R. S. Engelbrecht, and D. R. 
Aukamp. 

Water Research, Vol 7, No 3, p 361-374, March 
1973. 11 fig, 6 tab, 8 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Activated sludge, 'Biomass, 
'Microorganisms, Suspended solids. Growth 
kinetics, Methodology, Organic loading, Organic 
matter, Sewage bacteria, Bioindicators, Waste 
water treatment. 

Identifiers: 'Substrate utilization, 'Cell replica- 
tion, Deoxyribonucleic acid, Substrates, Optical 
density, Nucleic acids. 

Because of the inherent difficulty in enumerating 
cell numbers in a flocculent suspension, deox- 
yribonucleic acid (DNA) was chosen as an indica- 
tor of cell numbers in the activated sludge process. 
A direct relationship between the concentration of 
DNA in the sludge and plate count was found with 
a dispersed growth of mixed culture microorgan- 
isms. Therefore, it was assumed that a direct rela- 
tionship existed between cell numbers and DNA 
concentration in the sludge in a flocculent suspen- 
sion of mixed culture microorganisms as found in 
activated sludge. An increase in DNA was there- 
fore assumed to be an indication of cell replica- 
tion. An increase in biomass before an increase in 
DNA indicated a storage of substrate in some form 
and not replication of organisms. The average in- 
crease in the weight per cell was determined by 
dividing the weight of biomass just prior to an in- 
crease in DNA by the initial weight of organisms 
present. Storage was a function of the loading rate 
to which the organisms were acclimated. A sludge 
acclimated to a loading rate of 2.0 per day in- 
creased 270 percent in biomass before replication. 
Sludges acclimated to lower loading rates showed 
an extended time lag before cell replication oc- 
curred, while higher loading rates maintained the 
sludges in a more active state having shorter time 
lags before replication occurred. Increased 
frequency of feeding also resulted in less time be- 
fore replication occurred. Replication commenced 
as long as 4 h after the external substrate was ex- 
hausted and the maximum biomass was reached in 
the F/M equal 0.4 system. Thus, in the contact sta- 
bilization process, cell replication would be ex- 
pected in the stabilization tank with only substrate 
storage taking place in the contact tank, due to low 
loading rates used. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08243 



NITROGEN FLXATION BY A BLUE-GREEN 
EPIPHYTE ON PELAGIC SARGASSUM, 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Mass. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08246 



MARINE WASTE DISPOSAL - A COMPREHEN- 
SIVE ENVIRONMENTAL APPROACH TO 
PLANNING, 

D. P. Norris, L. E. Birke, Jr., R. T. Cockburn, and 

D. S. Parker. 

Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol 

45, No 1, p 52-70, January 1973. 12 fig, 4 tab, 12 

ref. 

Descriptors: 'Bioassay, 'Toxicity, 'Pacific 
Ocean, Worms, Sticklebacks, 'Sewage, 'Scul- 
pins, Sea basses, Crabs, Shrimp, Snails, Clams, 
Mussels, 'Estuaries, Dispersion, On-site studies, 
Plankton, Benthos, Currents (Water), Mixing, 
Tracers, Water temperature, Salinity, Dissolved 
oxygen, Instrumentation, Waste disposal, Waste 
water (Pollution), Dyes, Aquatic drift, Tides, Sedi- 
ments, Suspended solids, Water pollution sources, 
Water pollution effects, Outfall sewers, Aerial 
photography, Chlorides, Population, Sewage 
disposal. 

Identifiers: 'Species diversity, Polychaetes, Tu- 
bifex, Three-spined stickleback, Cymatogaster ag- 
gregata, Hyperprosodon argenteum, Citharichthys 
sordidus, Ophiodon elongatus, Scorpaena guttata, 
Sebastodes, Gasterosteus aculeatus, Pagurus 
samuelis, Hemigrapsis oregonensis, K men La 
analoga, Crago, Callianassa cahiomiensis, Tegula 
funebralis. 

The city of San Francisco undertook a comprehen- 
sive study of the marine environment (San Fran- 
cisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean) to determine 
where and in what quantities it is feasible to 
dispose of the city's dry- and wet-weather waste- 
water effluents. The first phase of the study 
defined oceanographic characteristics of potential 
discharge sites and the fate of the discharges. This 
included determination of mass water movement, 
drift of particulate matter on the water surface, 
dispersion characteristics, and water charac- 
teristics by aerial photography, shipboard instru- 
mentation, in situ equipment, and tracer studies. 
The second phase of the study was an ecological 
study which included plankton studies, benthic 
studies, diving studies of near-shore areas, inter- 
tidal studies, in situ bioassays with fish, static and 
continuous-flow bioassay with fish and macroin- 
vertebrates, microcosm studies, stickleback blood 
studies, and biostimulation studies. The results of 
the two phases indicated that marine disposal is 
feasible and that the marine environment can be 
adequately protected by discharging chlorinated 
primary effluent through one or more submarine 
outfalls with properly designed diffuser systems. 
The study indicated that additional treatment is 
not necessary to protect the marine ecosystem. 
(Little-Battelle) 
W73-08247 



EUTROPHICATION AND LOUGH NEAGH, 

New Univ. of Ulster, Coleraine (Northern Ire- 
land). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08252 



ROLE OF PHOSPHORUS IN EUTROPHICA- 
TION AND DIFFUSE SOURCE CONTROL, 

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Water Chemistry Pro- 
gram. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08255 ' 



MIREX AND DDT RESIDUES IN WJIDLDTE 
AND MISCELLANEOUS SAMPLES IN MISSIS- 
SIPPI - 1970, 

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Dept. of 
Biochemistry. 



P 

s 

1 

r 



57 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5B — Sources of Pollution 



For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W73-08267 



CAUSES OK MASSIVE INFECTION OF PINK 
SALMON WITH SAPROLEGNIA IN THE 
RIVERS OF ITURUP (ETOROFU) ISLAND, (IN 
RUSSIAN), 

V. N. Ivankov. 

Uch Zap Dal'nevost Univ., Vol 15, No 3, p 124- 
126, 1971. 

Identifiers: Crustaceans, Infection, Islands, *Itu- 
rup (Etorofu) Island (USSR), Massive, *Pink sal- 
mon, Salmon, 'Saprolegnia, USSR. 

Infection of pink salmon with Saprolegnia was 
especially strong in 1963. Saprolegnia grew in 
areas where parasitic crustaceans were attached. 
In the rivers most of the fish were free from the 
parasites except those in infected areas. Some of 
the fish recovered in marine water.-Copyright 
1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08271 



ROTENONE AND ITS USE IN ERADICATION 
OF UNDESIRABLE FISH FROM PONDS, 
Freshwater Fisheries Research Station, Chandpur 
(Bangladesh). 
K. A. Haque. 

Pak J Sci Ind Res. Vol 14, No 4/5, p 385-387, 1971. 
Identifiers: Crustaceans, Fish, Frogs, *Ponds, 
*Rotenone, Snakes, 'Bangladesh 

Rotenone, its origin and use are described. Results 
of application of the chemical to 3 ponds of the 
Fish Seed Multiplication Farm at Jamalpur, 
Mymensingh, for eradication of undesirable spe- 
cies are given. Rotenone takes time to reach the 
deep bottom of ponds in absence of any effective 
agitation of water. Snakes, frogs and crustaceans 
are not readily affected by this plant derivative as 
they can escape the action through terrestrial 
respiration. A List of fishes and other aquatic or- 
ganisms in order of their susceptibility to rotenone 
is presented. A concentration of 1 ppm at summer 
temperature, around 30 deg C in this region, was 
adequate to kill fishes.-Copyright 1972, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08279 



OIL SPILLS CONTROL MANUAL FOR FHiE 
DEPARTMENTS, 

Alpine Geophysical Associates, Inc., Norwood, 

NJ. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-08288 



THE INFLUENCE OF LOG HANDLING ON 
WATER QUALITY, 

Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 
F. D. Schaumburg. 

Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP1 .23/2:73-085, $1.25; microfiche from NTIS as 
PB-219 824, $1.45. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Technology Series Report EPA-R2-73- 
085, February 1973. 105 p, 33 fig, 20 tab, 39 ref, 4 
append. EPA Project 12100 EBG. 

Descriptors: *Bark, 'Leachate, Toxicity, Water 
pollution, Oxygen demand, Biochemical oxygen 
demand, *Lumbering, Northwest US, Organic 
matter, Leaching, 'Water storage. 
Identifiers: Forest industry pollution, Logging 
wastes, Bark sinkage, Bark deposits, *Log 
storage, *Benthic deposits. 

The water storage of logs is widely practiced in the 
Pacific Northwest. An investigation has been 
made to determine the effect of this practice on 
water quality. Soluble organic matter and some in- 
organics leach from logs floating in water and from 
logs held in sprinkled land decks. The character 
and quantity of leachate from Douglas fir, pon- 
derosa pine and hemlock logs have been ex- 



amined. Measurements including BOD, ' OO 'I 
4.2gm/ft2 per week), PBI, solids and toxicity (so 
kill to 20% Tl.m 96) have shown that in most situa 
tions the contribution of soluble leachates to hold 
ing water is not a significant water pollution 
problem. The most significant problem associated 
with water storage appears to be the loss of bark 
from logs during dumping, raft transport and raft 
storage. Bark losses from 6.2% to 21.7% were 
measured during logging and raft transport. 
Dislodged bark can float until it becomes water 
logged and sinks, forming benthic deposits Float 
ing bark is aesthetically displeasing and could in- 
terfere with other beneficial uses of a lake, stream 
or estuary. Benthic deposits exert a small, but 
measurable oxygen demand and may influence the 
biology of the benthic /.one Implementation of 
corrective measures by the timber industry to 
reduce bark losses could make the water storage 
of logs a practice which is compatible with a high 
quality environment. (F.PA) 
W73-08294 



MIGRATION AND METABOLISM IN A TEM- 
PERATE STREAM ECOSYSTEM, 

North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Dept. of Zoolo- 
gy- 

A. S. Hall. 

Ecology, Vol 53, No 4, p 585-604, Summer 1972. 9 
fig, 3 tab, 99 ref. OWRR B-007-NC (5). 

Descriptors: Ecological distribution, 'Energy 
budget, 'Respiration, 'Fish migration, Fish 
behavior, Metabolism, 'Cycling nutrients, 
'Phosphorus, 'North Carolina, Water pollution 
sources, Water pollution effects. 
Identifiers: 'New Hope Creek (NC), Morgan 
Creek (NC), Orange County (NC), Durham Coun- 
ty (NC), 'Cape Fear River (NC). 

Fish migration, total stream metabolism, and 
phosphorus were studied in New Hope Creek, 
N.C., from April 1968 to June 1970. Upstream and 
downstream movement of fish was monitored 
using weirs with traps. Most of the 27 species had 
a consistent pattern of larger fish moving upstream 
and smaller fish moving downstream. Diurnal ox- 
ygen series were run to measure the metabolism of 
the aquatic community. Gross photosynthesis 
ranged from 0.21 to almost 9 g 02 m-2 day-1, and 
community respiration from 0.4 to 13 g 02 m-2 
day-1 (mean of 290 and 479 g 02 m-2 yr-1). Both 
were highest in the spring. Production per volume 
and respiration per volume were always much 
larger near the headwaters than farther 
downstream, apparently due to the dilution effect 
of the deeper water downstream. Migration may 
maintain young fish in areas of high productivity. 
Other effects of migration may include: prey con- 
trol, reco Ionization of defaunated regions, genetic 
exchange, and mineral distribution. An energy dia- 
gram was drawn comparing energies of isolation, 
leaf inputs, currents, total community respiration, 
fish populations, and migrations. About 1% of the 
total respiration of the stream was from fish popu- 
lations, and over 1 year about 0.04% of the total 
energy used by the ecosystem was used for the 
process of migration. Each Calorie invested by a 
fish population in migration returns at least 3 Calo- 
ries. Analysis of phosphorus entering and leaving 
the watershed indicated that flows were small rela- 
tive to storages and that this generally undisturbed 
ecosystem is in approximate phosphorus balance. 
Upstream migrating fish were important in main- 
taining phosphorus reserves in the headwaters. 
(McJunkin-North Carolina) 
W73-08303 



INFECTION BY ICHTHYOPHTHHUUS MUL- 
THTLnS OF FISH IN UGANDA, 

Make re re Univ., Kampala (Uganda). Dept. of 

Zoology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W73-08330 



ON THE ECOLOGY Hi an aIA.1 
DIGENI IK TREMATODE PKO< IOM KSH* 

IKM IS IKttM A I.AMH I IKkANf H HOT 

S< KOHK ■ I ARIA PLANA, 

lor primary bibliographic entry see Field 0SC 

W73-0833I 



IMF HH.d <>i Vlllll M AI.KYI.hENZB* 
St LPHONATE ON THE OKAINA' 
WATER THROUGH SAM) 
Westfield Coll , Ixiodoo (England) Dept. o 
Zoology. 

lor primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 
W73-08342 



TIME-OE-TRAVEL STUDY, BATTEN KIU 
FROM 0.6 MILE EAST OE VERMONT-NEV 
YORK BORDER TO (LARKS MILLS, NEV 
YORK, 

Geological Survey, Albany, NY. 

H L Shindel 

New York Department of Environmental Cosier 

vation Report of Investigation Kl 12, 1973 I8p, I' 

fig, 4 tab, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: Travel time, Time Lag, 'Stream 
flow, 'New York, 'Path of pollutants, Dy< 
releases, Tracers, Fluorescent dye, Dispersion. 
Identifiers: 'Batten Kill (NY). 

Time of travel was determined for the 1ft ft air 
reach of Batten Kill between BM 543 bridge, 0.( 
mile east of the New York-Vermont border, and 
(larks Mills, New York, using Rhodamine B and 
Rhodamine WT dyes. Cumulative peak time of 
travel for the peak concentration flow of about 
46% duration was 47 hours and for a flow of ap- 
proximately 89% duration was 101 hours Rela- 
tionships between peak, centroid, leading, and 
trailing-edge times of travel and discharge through 
the subreaches are shown graphically. Tune-of- 
travel data for each subreach as well as cumulative 
time graphs for the entire reach for different 
discharges are given. Dye dispersion and peak- 
analysis information are also given. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W73-08368 



AN INVENTORY AND SENSITIVITY ANALY- 
SIS OF DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR AN OX- 
YGEN MANAGEMENT MODEL OF THE CAB- 
SON RIVER, 

Nevada Univ., Reno. DepL of Civil Engineering. 
R. G. Orcutt, and J. G. Gonzales. 
Cooperative Report Series Publication No EN-1. 
Civil Engineering Department, College of En- 
gineering, University of Nevada Reno, and En- 
gineering Report No 47 in cooperation with the 
Center for Water Resources Research, Desert 
Research Institute, Reno, September, 1972. 53 p. 
1 8 fig, 3 tab, 36 ref, 4 append. 

Descriptors: Water resources development, Water 
quality, Management, Rivers, Wastes, 'Oxygen. 
'Simulation analysis, 'Low flow augmentation, 
'Dissolved oxygen, 'Waste assimilative capacity. 
Streamflow, Waste dilution, Computer programs. 
Benthos, Sewage, Organic matter, Water pollution 
control, Mathematical models, Systems analysis. 
'Nevada. 

Identifiers: 'Carson River Basin (Nev.), 'Sen- 
sitivity analysis, Residual waste loads, Data 
requirements. 

The rapid expansion of population in Nevada has 
compounded the problem of increased waste 
discharge. Extensive water use has resulted in a 
decrease in streamflows, causing an increase in 
the ratio of wastes to dilution water and reducing 
the assimilative capacity of streams. It is impor- 
tant to know the assimilative characteristics of a 
river so that a rational plan for wastewater recla- 
mation and utilization can be developed. Using 
simulation and sensitivity analysis, an assessment 
has been made of the need for developing more 



58 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Effects of Pollution — Group 5C 



:ific data on the capacity of the Carson River 
assimilate biodegradable wastes. To provide 
assessment, the effects of different degrees of 
flow augmentation and residual waste loads on 
oxygen levels of the River were estimated. 
nits indicate that the oxygen levels in the Car- 
River would appear to be most sensitive to dis- 
ed oxygen levels of entering waste water and 
be dilution effect of low flow augmentation, 
lputed oxygen levels are less sensitive to as- 
ed benthal deposits and increased sewage 
ing and relatively insensitive to the organic 
rentrations of entering wastes and to reasona- 
variations of the physical features of the low 
' model chosen to simulate the Carson River. 
1-ComeU) 
1-08382 



DELING LEAD POLLUTION IN A 
FERSHED-ECOSYSTEM, 

ois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Forestry. 
,. Rolfe, A. Chaker, J. Melin, and B. B. Ewing. 
nal of Environmental Systems, Vol 2, No 4, p 
349, December, 1972. 6 fig, 2 tab, 4 ref. 

:riptors: *Lead, Pollutants, Ecosystems, 
tersheds (Basins), 'Stimulation analysis, *D- 
s, Atmosphere, Heavy metals, Streams, Soils, 
water, Surface waters, Gasoline, Aquatic en- 
tunent, Terrestrial habitats, Estimating, Data 
:ctions, Computer programs, Mathematical 
els, Systems analysis, *Path of pollutants. 
tifiers: 'Champaign County (111.), *Pollutant 
sport, Seasonal variation, Spatial distribution. 

entry in progress is an interdisciplinary study 
hich understanding and modeling the move- 
ts and effects of heavy metals in the environ- 
t are objectives. A model is presented which 
iates the movements and predicts the accu- 
ition points of lead in a 76-square mile water- 
1-ecosystem in Champaign County, Illinois, 
isport processes, seasonal variation, and spa- 
ocation are considered. A stochastic variation 
ilized in the model to account for variability 
elated to location or season. The model is con- 
illy refined and tested by correlating it with 
data from the ecosystem. Lead outputs and 
ements within the stream portion of the 
rshed are constantly monitored at five loca- 
> within the watershed, allowing comparisons 
een units of different land use. The model in- 
es components of both aquatic and terrestrial 
ystems and represents the ecosystem by a net- 
i of nodes and branches where the nodes 
ssent the ecosystem components in a general 
e and the branches indicate possible transport 
nanisms between nodes. Results of a two-year 
lation using a network of 36 nodes and 121 
ches are presented. The model is valuable for 
itudy of pollutant transport and accumulation 
osys terns, and for evaluating various alterna- 
of lead pollution control. (Bell-Cornell) 
-08384 



DEES OF THE MECHANISM OF ACTION 
'USICOCCIN, THE FUNGAL TOXIN THAT 
[JCES WILTING, AND ITS INTERACTION 
H ABSCISIC ACID, 

aster Univ., Bailrigg (England). Dept. of 

>gical Sciences. 

. Squire, and T. A. Mansfield. 

ta (Berl). Vol 105, No 1 , p 71-78, 1972. Ulus. 

tifiers: *Abscisic-Acid, Cells, 'Commelina- 

nunis, Fungal toxins, *Fusicoccin, Hydroly- 

sotopes, Plasmolysis, Potassium, Starch, Sto- 

1 Toxins, Wilting. 

ted epidermal strips of Commelina communis 
incubated in a medium containing the ions 
ired for stomatal opening. Fusicoccin stimu- 
opening, accompanied by K entry into the 
i cells, and hydrolysis of the starch in their 
oplasts. Abscisic acid alone inhibited K entry 
starch hydrolysis, but these effects could be 



almost entirely overcome by fusicoccin. Attempts 
were made to measure the solute potential of the 
guard cells under the various treatments. Abscisic 
acid clearly increased their solute potential, but no 
absolute measurements could be made in the 
presence of fusicoccin owing to a failure of plas- 
molysis even with mannitol solutions of solute 
potential as low as -35 bars. Experiments using 
isotopically labelled mannitol indicated a massive 
uptake into the epidermis in the presence of 
fusicoccin. The effectiveness of this toxin under 
natural conditions may depend on its ability to 
counteract effects of abscisic acid, the stress hor- 
mone that induces stomatal closure.— Copyright 
1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-084O8 



PRELIMINARY RESEARCH ON THE 
PSYCHROPHTLIC UPOLYTIC BACTERIA OF 
THE SOEL AND WATER, (IN FRENCH), 

Ottawa Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Biology. 

C. Breuil, and A. M. Gounot. 

Can J Microbiol. Vol 18, No 9, p 1445-1451. 1972. 

(English summary). 

Identifiers: *Bacteria, 'Lipolytic populations, *P- 

seudomonas, Psychrophilic microorganisms, 

Soils, Winter. 

Different soil extract media and other media were 
assayed for a comparative evaluation of both total 
and lipolytic populations of bacteria taken from 
soil and water samples during winter. By incubat- 
ing at a low temperature, psychrophilic microor- 
ganisms were counted and isolated. Gram-negative 
bacteria, especially Pseud omonas species, were 
the most numerous.-Copyright 1973, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08423 



n>ENTD7ICATION OF AMAZON RIVER 
WATER AT BARBARDOS, WEST INDIES, BY 
SALINITY AND SHJCATE MEASUREMENTS, 

McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). Marine 
Sciences Centre. 
D. M. Steven, and A. L. Brooks. 
Mar Biol (Berl). Vol 14, No 4, p 345-348. 1972. D- 
lus. 

Identifiers: Amazon River, 'Barbados (West In- 
dies), Identification, Measurements, Rivers, 
♦Salinity, 'Silicates, West-Indies. 

Salinity and silicate concentrations were studied at 
about fortnightly intervals for 21 mo. at a station 
near Barbados, W. Indies; latitude 13 deg 15 min 
N, longitude 59 deg 42 min W. A sensitive inverse 
correlation was found to exist at 5 and 25 m, but 
not at greater depths. Salinity near the surface 
varied between 33.5 and 36.0%, and silicate 
between a little less than 1 and 4 micrograms at/1. 
Low salinity water, rich in silicate, was found 
from Feb. to July; salinity increased and silicate 
decreased from Sept. to Dec. It is argued that the 
low salinity water at Barbados can be identified 
with the areas of reduced salinity found by Ryther 
et al. (1967) about latitude 8 deg to 10 deg N, lon- 
gitude 50 deg to 55 deg W, and that this water 
originates from the Amazon River. Local 
precipitation does not seem to be a significant fac- 
tor. -Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08430 



WATER POLLUTION IN SUEZ BAY, 

Red Sea Inst, of Oceanography and Fisheries, Al 

Ghurdaqah (Egypt). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-08432 



SALICYLANILIDE I, AN EFFECTIVE NON-PE- 
RSISTENT CANDIDATE PISCICIDE, 

Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, La 

Crosse, Wis. Fish Control Lab. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W73-08434 



59 



DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW ENGLAND SALT 
MARSH, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 
W73-08443 



ECOLOGY OF ARBOVIRUSES IN A MARY- 
LAND FRESHWATER SWAMP: H. BLOOD 
FEEDING PATTERNS OF POTENTIAL 
MOSQUITO VECTORS, 

Walter Reed Army Inst, of Research, Washington, 

DC. 

J. W. Leduc, W. Suyemoto, B. F. Eldridge, and E. 

S. Saugstad. 

AmJEpidemiol. Vol 96, No 2, p 123-128. 1972. 

Identifiers: Aedes-Atlanticus, Aedes-Canadensis, 

'Arboviruses, Birds, Blood, Culex-Salinarius, Cu- 

liseta-Melanura, Ecology, Mammals, 'Maryland, 

'Mosquito vectors, Psorophora-Ferox, 'Swamps, 

Vectors, Water pollution effects. 

Blood engorged mosquito specimens from the 
Pocomoke Cypress Swamp, Maryland, were col- 
lected from May through Nov., 1969. Five 
mosquito species (Aedes atlanticus, A. canaden- 
sis, Culex salinarius, Culiseta melanura and 
Psorophora ferox) were examined by capillary 
type precipitin tests of engorged material and by 
comparisons of human biting collections and col- 
lections of mosquitoes attracted to caged animals. 
A. atlanticus and P. ferox had similar feeding pat- 
terns, both most frequently feeding on syl vatic 
mammals, while C. salinarius appeared to feed 
mostly on domestic mammals adjacent to the 
swamp. A. canadensis was an omnivorus feeder, 
while C. melanura fed almost exclusively on birds. 
The potential of these mosquitoes as vectors of ar- 
boviruses known to be present in the swamp is 
discussed. (See also W73-08446)~Copyright 1973, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08447 

5C. Effects of Pollution 



WATER QUALITY CHANGES IN AN IM- 
POUNDMENT AS A CONSEQUENCE OF AR- 
TD7ICIAL DESTRATIFICATION, 

North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. School of 
Public Health. 

C. M. Weiss, and B. W. Breedlove. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 390, $6.75 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. North Carolina Water 
Resources Research Institute, Report No. 80, 
January 1973. 216 p, 108 fig, 28 tab, 22 ref. OWRR 
B-O07-NC(6). 14-01-0001-1933. 

Descriptors: 'Water quality control, *De stratifica- 
tion, 'North Carolina, Impoundments, Reservoir 
operation, Lakes, Epilimnion, 'Hypolimnion, 
'Diptera, Oxygen requirements, Aeration, Dis- 
tribution patterns, Water temperature. 
Identifiers: 'University Lake (N.C.). 

DestratificaUon of a water supply impoundment 
was studied over a three year period. Prior to 
destratification, baseline information on physical, 
chemical and biological parameters was 
established. Destratification was accomplished by 
the use of the 'Air-aqua' system which creates ver- 
tical circulation in a body of water by the release 
of small bubbles from hoses laid on the lake bot- 
tom. Effectiveness of destratification distinctly 
evident in temperature distribution in the epilim- 
nion and hypolimnion. Deep waters of the 
hypolimnion did not lose oxygen to the point of 
becoming anaerobic, as they had under stratified 
conditions. However, quantity of oxygen present 
showed a limited degree of aeration from the 
transport of surface water downward, and showed 
rapid rate of deoxygenation characteristic of the 
hypolimnion of University Lake. Striking changes 
in numbers and population characteristics of the 
phytoplanktonic organisms clearly evident in each 
of the two years of destratification. Benthic forms, 
particularly the Chironomidae, shifted from spe- 




Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5C — Effects of Pollution 



cies tolerant of micro-aerophylic conditions to 
those requiring higher levels of oxygen. Total 
period of observation was too short to establish 
clear changes in characteristics of fish popula- 
tions, but it was evident that due to the behavior of 
fish relative to the air bubbles, the number of fish 
caught per man hour increased. Overall distribu- 
tion of organic material occurred in the lake as the 
body of water became more homogeneous. During 
the summer months, this resulted in an increase in 
chlorine demand at the water treatment plant 
which uses University Lake as a water supply. 
W73-07818 



LAKES OF BELORUSSIA (BELORUSSKOYE 
POOZER'YE), 

Belorussian State Univ., Minsk (USSR). Labora- 

toriya Ozerovedeniya. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02H. 

W73-07907 



RESULTS FROM MULTI-TRACE-ELEMENT 
NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSES OF 
MARINE BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS, 

California Univ., Irvine. Dept. of Chemistry. 
V. P. Guinn, and R. Kishore. 
Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as CONF- 
721010-10; $3.00 paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. Re- 
port CONF-721010-10, Oct 1972. 5 p, 6 ref . 

Descriptors: *Marine biology, *Trace elements, 
*Neutron activation analysis, *Analytical 
techniques, Gamma rays, Spectroscopy, Mercury, 
Zinc, Marine animals, Mammals, Marine fish, 
Kelps, Pacific Ocean, Public health, Food chains, 
Fish physiology, Animal physiology. 
Identifiers: Selenium. 

In Pacific Ocean Marine mammals and large fish, 
much higher levels of Se and Zn were found in 
liver than in muscle tissue. With the mammals the 
same was the case for Hg; however, with the fish 
the level of Hg was about the same in both liver 
and muscle tissue. There was appreciable variation 
between different specimens of the same species 
and size, and even within a given tissue of a single 
specimen - such that it is important that large num- 
bers of samples are analyzed. Levels as low as 0.01 
ppm Hg, 0.02 ppm Se, and 0.2 ppm Zn could be de- 
tected using Ge (Li) gamma spectrometry. (Bopp- 
ORNL) 
W73-07927 



THE ECOLOGY OF THE PLANKTON OK IHK 
CHESAPEAKE BAY ESTUARY, PROGKKS.S 
REPORT DEC 1970-AUG 1972, 
Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. 
W. R. Taylor, V. Grant, J. J. McCarthy, G. 
MacKiernan, and S. S. Storms. 
Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as COO- 
3279-3; $3.00 in paper copy, $1.45 in microfiche. 
Report COO-3279-3, August 1972. 95 p, 12 fig, 7 
tab, 82 ref. AEC-AT (1 l-U-3279. 

Descriptors: 'Primary productivity, 'Estuarine 
environment, *Water pollution effects, 
'Copepods, Organic matter, Carbon, Silts, 
Reviews, Nutrient removal, Photosynthesis, 
Light, Temperature, Sampling, Seasonal, Vertical 
migration, Ecological distribution, Dominant or- 
ganisms, Limiting factors, Environmental effects, 
•Chesapeake Bay, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, 
Nutrient requirements, Marine algae. 

The present hypothesis is that primary productivi- 
ty is controlled by light and temperature, and that 
nutrient concentration is not limiting during most 
of the year. The upper Chesapeake Bay is in- 
fluenced by the Susquehanna-River silt load. The 
midbay showed a midsummer peak. The lower bay 
showed spring and late summer peaks. Dissolved 
organic carbon was calculated from oxidations at 
150 and 950 degrees centigrade. Samples of two 
copepods were collected over the entire bay, and 
concurrently, environmental parameters were 
measured. Also the distribution and some aspects 
of the behavior responses were studied of a 
cladoceran which is of ecological importance. 
Feeding and assimilation rates of the two 
copepods are being correlated with environmental 
parameters. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07932 



STUDIES ON THE RADIOACTIVE CON- 
TAMINATION OF THE SEA, ANNUAL RE- 
PORT, 1971. 

Comitato Nazionale per l'Energia Nucleare, La 

Spezia (Italy). Laboratorio per lo Studio della Con- 

taminazione Radioattiva de Mare. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-07942 



APPLIED AQUATIC STUDIES, 

Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-07948 



hffluents and natural waters were monitored la 
radionuclide v A method for determination of kn 
levels of liable cobalt was developed Stud* 
were initiated on radioacUve and slaMe Sr in tafci 
sediment, on the tritium input to a Lake via growi 
water, and of the role of tritium retention by m 
on the evaporation of uiualed water fiat 
ecosystems. Uptake of phosphate and feme too 
by aquatic plants occurred through the roots, era 
in floating species with submerged absorbea 
leaves. Phosphate enrichment of a lake gave or 
change in carbon production. Toxicity of orgaiic 
coolant contaminated lake water was measured b 
the feeding behavior of waterfkas on P32-LabeBe< 
yeast. Many-century-old hydrological and cf 
matological conditions were studied by analysis o 
ice cores for 018, D, and T. Monitoring method 
were developed for T and I in air (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07955 



DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES ARIS 
ING IN THE UNITED KINGDOM FROM TBI 
PEACEFUL USES OF ATOMIC ENERGY, 

National Radiological Protection Board, Harwd 

(England). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05E. 

W73-07957 



TERRESTRIAL AND FRESHWATH 

RADIOECOLOGY, A SELECTED BIBLiOG 
RAPHY, SUPPLEMENT 8, 

Washington State Univ., Pullman. DepL of Zookt 

gy 

A. W. Klement, Jr., and V. Schultz. 
Available from NTIS as TTD-3910 (Suppl. 8); $3.0 
paper copy; $1.45 microfiche. Report TTD-391i 
(Suppl. 8), 1972. 146 p, 1733 ref. 

Descriptors: •Bibliographies, •Radioecology 
•Terrestrial habitats, 'Fresh water, Bracks! 
water, Radioactivity effects, Radioacth* 
techniques, Radioisotopes, Tracers, Trackim 
techniques, Wildlife. 

The many sources (see also W72-04452) for lb 
eighth supplement include Vol. 25 of Nuclea 
Science Abstracts. References are arrange) 
alphabetically by first author, and 24 bibliogra 
phies are listed separately. Indexing is omittn 
since it was not felt it could be accomplish^ 
adequately from the titles and brief abstract 
which were on hand. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07962 



NUCLEAR POWER, 

Princeton Univ., N. J. Center of International Stu- 
dies. 

G. Garvey. 

In: Energy, Ecology, Economy, by Gerald Gar- 
vey, W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., New 
York. 1972. p 135-155. 2 fig, 1 tab, 11 ref. 

Descriptors: *Nuclear powerplants, •Radioactivi- 
ty effects, 'Water pollution effects, *Food chains, 
Feasibility studies, Cost analysis, Hazards, 
Safety, Waste disposal, Nuclear wastes, Public 
health, Toxicity, Economic prediction, Future 
planning (Projected), Risks, Evaluation, Path of 
pollutants, Insurance, Costs, Compensation. 

Nuclear-power hazards are reviewed including 
those from mining and processing U, and from 
concentration of fission products in food chains. 
Using the conservative linear extrapolation of ef- 
fects (increased susceptibility to disease and 
genetic effects) to a low-dose level, the cost in 
medical care per person per year in the 1980's will 
be about $2.40, with lethal effects resulting in a 
very small minority of cases. It is considered that 
although insurance cannot be obtained for all fu- 
ture contingencies, the cost for insurance against 
the trivially small hazard of disastrous accidents 
should be relatiely small. (Bopp-ORNL 
W73-07928 



APPENDIX TO QUARTERLY SUMMARY RE- 
PORT, SEPT. 1, 1972, THROUGH DEC. 1, 1972. 
HEALTH AND SAFETY LABORATORY, FAL- 
LOUT PROGRAM, 

New York Operations Office (AEC), N.Y. Health 

and Safety Lab. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W73-07951 



CHALK RIVER NUCLEAR LABORATORIES 
PROGRESS REPORT APRIL 1 TO JUNE 30, 
1972, BIOLOGY AND HEALTH PHYSICS DIVI- 
SION, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 
BRANCH AND HEALTH PHYSICS BRANCH, 
Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River (On- 
tario). Chalk River Nuclear Labs. 
C. A. Mawson, and G. Cowper. 
Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as AECL- 
4272; $3.00 paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. Report 
AECL-4272, September 1972. p 33-65. 3 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear wastes, *Path of pollutants, 
•Canada, 'Tritium, Lakes, Lake sediments, 
Paleoc lima to logy, Paleohydrology, Glaciers, 
Water pollution effects, Absorption, Carbon 
radioisotopes, Tracers, Aquatic insects, Iron, 
Cobalt, Iodine radioisotopes, Strontium 
radioisotopes, Strontium, Phosphates, Primary 
productivity, Monitoring, Radioactivity 

techniques. 



DISTRIBUTION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN OB 
GANISMS OF MARINE FAUNA. APPUCATIOf 
OF CRITICAL CONCENTRATION FACTORS, 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W73-07966 



ACCUMULATION OF RADIONUCLIDES V\ 
ROE AND LARVAE OF BLACK SEA FISH, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-07967 



EFFECT OF INCORPORATEI 

RADIONUCLIDES ON CHROMOSOME AP 
PARATUS OF OCENA FISH, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W73-07968 



EFFECTS OF MERCURY POLLUTION Of 
HALIBUT AND THE ALASKAN FISHERY. 

Hearing— Subcomm. on Oceans and Atmosphere- 
Comm. on Commerce, United States Senate, 91 
Cong, 1st Sess, October 8, 1971. 49 p. 

Descriptors: 'Mercury, 'Water pollution sources 
'Alaska, 'Fish toxins, 'Fish conservation, Fish 
Commercial fish, Saline water fish, Fisheries 
Public health, Legal aspects, Fish populations 
Water pollution effects, Pollutants, Legislation. 



60 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Effects of Pollution — Group 5C 



I ntifiers: 'Congressional hearing, Coastal 
i ters, Mercury pollution, Halibut fishing. 

is hearing took testimony on the effects that 
i rcury pollution has had upon the halibut fishing 
ustry and the environment. Included is 
timony from witnesses such as the manager of 
ward Fisheries, an advisor on international 
leries, office of the Governor, a member of the 
iska State Legislature, and the president of the 
iibut Association of North America. The hear- 

transcript is accompanied by additional arti- 
s, letters and statements; included among these 
i report claiming the concern over mercury in 
i is unwarranted, a letter and resolution from 

general manager of the Santa Clara County 
tod Control Water District and a record of the 
lference which preceded the subcommittee 
iring. (Smith-Adams-Florida) 
'3-07986 



ME ASPECTS OF THE QUANTITATIVE 
OLOGY OF MERCURY, 

edish Water and Air Pollution Research Lab., 

•ckholm. 

r primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

3-08013 



^LOGICAL EFFECTS AND PHYSICAL PRO- 
RTIES IN THE MARINE ENVmONMENT OF 
IPHATIC CHLORINATED BY-PRODUCTS 
OM VINYL CHLORIDE PRODUCTION, 

edish Water and Air Pollution Research Lab., 

teborg. 

lemelov, R. Rosenberg, and S. Jensen. 

iter Research, Vol 6, No 10, p 1181-1191, Oc- 

erl972.7fig,4tab,12ref. 

scriptors: Physical properties, *Bioassay, 
)od chains, *Marine environment, Water pollu- 
i effects, *Animal physiology, *CytoIogical 
[ties, Shrimp, Mussels, Absorption, Adsorp- 
>, Animal behavior, Invertebrates, Mollusks, 
ption, Marine fish, Organic compounds, 
persion, Gas chromatography, Crustaceans, 
aelids, Animal growth, Reproduction, 
tching. 

ntifiers: *Bioaccumulation, Pollutant effects, 
X-tar, Biological effects, Excretion, Aliphatic 
Irocarbons, Plaice, Cod (Fish), Halflife, Barna- 
i, Starfish, Polychaetes, Leander adspersus, 
talus edulis, Pleuronectes platessa, Pandalus 
ealis, Gadus morhua. Liver, Muscle, Animal 
ues, Vinyl chloride, North Sea, Norwegian 
, Macroinvertebrates, Balanus balanoides, 
riura texurata, Mitosis, Allium cepa, 
iryotrocha labronica. 

C-tar, a mixture of short-chained aliphatic 
rocarbons formed as a byproduct of vinyl 
>ride production, has been dumped into the 
th and Norwegian Seas. A study was con- 
ted to determine the behavior of some com- 
ents of the EDC-tar in the marine environ- 
it. Results are presented for physical proper- 
, biological accumulation from water and food 
excretion in fish, as well as some biological ef- 
s (e.g. genetic effects and sensitivity of some 
inisms during different stages of their life cy- 

Dumped into the sea, EDC-tar has a tendency 
isperse and to adhere to particles. The accumu- 
»n in marine animals via EDC-contaminated 
rater is rapid and an accumulation factor of 
) was estimated for shrimps (Leander adsper- 

exposed to 0.01 ppm EDC-tar for 48 h. Accu- 
ation via water has been found to be higher 
i via a food chain. On the other hand, accumu- 
m of the low molecular compounds of the 
Z-tar is highest via water, whereas the high 
ecular compounds show the highest accumula- 

via a food chain. Accumulation in cod fed 
i EDC-contaminated shrimp was higher in liver 
i in muscle. Excretion was rapid when feeding 
discontinued. (Holoman-Battelle) 
1-08014 



EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES ON OX- 
IDATION POND PERFORMANCE, 

M. Moshe, N. Betzer, and Y. Kott. 
Water Research, Vol 6, No 10, p 1165-1171, Oc- 
tober 1972. 1 fig, 4 tab, 12 ref . 

Descriptors: *Bioassay, *Heavy metals, •Oxida- 
tion lagoons, Toxicity, 'Industrial wastes, Cad- 
mium, Copper, Nickel, Zinc, Chromium, Aquatic 
algae, Laboratory tests, Water pollution effects, 
Inhibition, Growth rates, Cations, Dissolved ox- 
ygen, Chlorophyta, Biochemical oxygen demand, 
Hydrogen ion concentration. Domestic wastes, 
Sewage, Sewage bacteria, Coliforms. 
Identifiers: Chlorella sorokiniana, Pollutant ef- 
fects, Most probable number test, Algal counts. 

Cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, and hexavalent 
chromium ions were tested in a bench-bioassay ex- 
periment for toxicity limits and possible applica- 
tion to experimental oxidation ponds. Domestic 
sewage was placed into test tubes where predeter- 
mined concentrations of metal ions were added 
together with known initial concentrations of 
Chlorella sorokiniana. The test tubes were incu- 
bated under controlled illumination (1500 lx) at 29 
C. Before and after incubation coliform counts 
(MPN) were carried out according to Standard 
Methods (1965). Algal counts were performed 
using a haemocytometer. Experimental ponds of 
50-70 1 volume were fed with diiuied domestic 
sewage (BOD equal 200 mg/1). Predetermined 
quantities of metal salts had been previously 
added to give the desired concentration of metal 
ions in the inflowing sewage. At the final stage of 
the study, an aquarium of 80 1 capacity was 
operated as experimental pond. To this pond a 
mixture of metal ions (Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn) was 
introduced, beginning with 3 mg/1 and increasing 
to 12 mg/1 of each ion. Samples taken from the 
ponds were subjected to the following tests: pH, 
dissolved oxygen, BOD, MPN, algal count and 
determination of metal ion concentration. The 
samples were taken from the influent, effluent and 
bottom sludge. It was found that the metal ions are 
toxic, inhibiting Chlorella growth. However, when 
added at concentrations of 0.5-1.5 mg/1 to influent 
of oxidation ponds, the ponds continued to 
operate normally. Higher concentrations of 3 and 6 
mg/1 did not effect adversely pond performance - 
not even a concentration of 6 mg/1 of each ion (a 
total metal ion concentration of 30 mg/1). A mix- 
ture of 60 mg/1 metal ions brought about a decrease 
in algal numbers and caused a sharp drop in dis- 
solved oxygen concentration. It is believed that 
since high pH causes metal ions to precipitate, ox- 
idation ponds operating normally above pH 8.0 
will tolerate metal ions in sewage containing indus- 
trial wastes for a long time before sludge accumu- 
lation will affect pond performance. (Holoman- 
Battelle) 
W73-08015 



BACTEiUAL CKEMOUEC2PTION: AN IMPOR- 
TANT ECOLOGICAL PHENOMENON IN- 
HIBITED BY HYDROCARBONS, 

Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. Lab. of Applied 
Microbiology. 

R. Mitchell, S. Fogel, and I. Chet 
Water Research, Vol 6, No 10, p 1137-1140, Oc- 
tober 1972. 4 tab, 7 ref . 

Descriptors: *rvi'arine bacteria, *i\Jarine algae, 
Predation, 'Organic compounds, 'Oil pollution, 
Water pollution effects, 'Microbial degradation, 
Diatoms, Inhibition, Phenols, Chrysophyta, 
Biodegradation, Phytoplankton, Enteric bacteria, 
Carbohydrates, Amino acids, Attractants, Artifi- 
cial substrates. 

Identifiers: *Chemoreception, Substrates, 
Chemotaxis, Toluene, Crude oil, Skeletonema 
costatum, Glucose, Ribose, Proline, Serine, 
Adenine. 

Motile marine bacteria have been shown to display 
chenioreception, with each microorganism ex- 
hibiting a highly specific response, and are at- 



tracted to a wide range of organic compounds. 
Chemoreception is also involved in the 
biodegradation of phytoplankton and enteric bac- 
teria by bacterial predators. Marine bacteria were 
isolated from seawater samples on seawater 
nutrient agar. The predators were isolated by en- 
richment culture on an artificial seawater medium 
containing the microbial prey as sole C source. 
Bacterial chemotaxis was detected using this 
method: A 5-micron capillary tube sealed at one 
end and containing the test chemical was placed in 
a suspension of test bacteria placed in seawater on 
a microscope slide. Bacterial attraction was ob- 
served microscopically. Quantitative data were 
obtained by plating the contents of the capillary 
tube on seawater nutrient agar. Nutrients, in very 
low concentrations, were detected very rapidly. 
Most carbohydrates and amino acids stimulated 
chemotaxis at concentrations as low as 0.01 
microM. The isolated bacterial predators were 
capable of degrading the diatom, Skeletonema 
costatum. The addition of specific aromatic 
hydrocarbons (phenol, toluene, crude oil) to sea- 
water totally inhibited the chemotactic response of 
all bacteria without immobilization. The ecological 
implications of this type of sublethal effect on the 
self-purifying capacity of the sea and on the 
behavior of marine animals are discussed. 
(Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-O8016 



DEACTIVATION ASSAYS OF ENTEROVIRUSES 
AND SALMONELLA FN FRESH AND 
DIGESTED WASTE WATER SLUDGES BY 
PASTEURIZATION, 

J. M. Foliguet, and F. Doncoeur. 

Water Research, Vol 6, No 11, p 1399-1407, 

November 1972. 5 fig, 4 tab, 4 ref. 

Descriptors: *Sludge treatment, *Disinfection, 
Enteric bacteria, Salmonella, Sewage sludge, 
Sewage bacteria, Cultures, Waste water treat- 
ment. 

Identifiers: *Poliovirus, *Coxsackievirus, •Sal- 
monella paratyphi, *Pasteurization, Inacti vation. 

To determine the effectiveness of a pasteurization 
process for inactivating enteroviruses and Sal- 
monella, three types of fresh sludge, three types of 
digested sludge, and pure cultures of poliovirus, 
Coxsackievirus, Salmonella paratyphi B were sub- 
jected to the treatment The pasteurization 
procedures consisted of homogenization for 30 
minutes, heating from 6-15 C to 80 C in less than 10 
minutes, and maintenance at 80 C for 10 minutes. 
After treatment the samples were rapidly cooled to 
minus 70 C and stored at minus 25 C until use. Cul- 
turing procedures are described by which the sam- 
ples were assayed. The results showed that the 
treatment provides relatively thorough inactiva- 
tion of the pathogenic germs, thereby reducing the 
infection risk of the sludges. The samples cannot, 
however, be considered to be entirely sterile since 
they contain spomlated germs. (Little-Battelle) 
W73-O8017 



BACTERIAL AND ALGAL CHLOROPHYLL FN 
TWO SALT LAKES IN VICTORIA, AUS- 
TRALIA, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W73-O8018 



THE EFFECTS OF FLUORIDE ON ESTUARINE 
ORGANISMS, 

National Inst for Water Research, Pretoria (South 

Africa). 

J. Hemens, and R. J. Warwick. 

Water Research, Vol 6, No 11, p 1301-1308, 

November 1972. 2 tab, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: Bioassay, *Toxicity, *Fluorides, In- 
dustrial wastes, "Crabs, 'Mullets, 'Mussels, Al- 
gae, Water pollution effects, Shrimp, Grasses, 
Diatoms. 



61 




Field 05-WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5C— Effects of Pollution 



Identifiers: *Eel grass, *Prawns, Bioaccumula- 
tion, South Africa, Mhalatuzi River, 'Richards 
Bay (So Afr), Aluminum smelters, Mugil cepha- 
lus, Ambassis safgha, Therapon jarbua, Penaeus 
monodon, Pema perna, Palaemon pacificus 
Tylodiplax blephariskios, Mud crabs, Zostera. 

Experiments to determine the possible effects of 
fluoride discharged in the effluent from an alu- 
minum smelter on the fauna and flora of the 
receiving estuary in Zululand, South Africa 
showed no toxic effects on three species of fish 
(juvenile mullet, Ambassis safgha, and Therapon 
jarbua) and two species of penaeid prawns 
(Penaeus indicus and Penaeus monodon) during 96 
h exposure at concentrations up to 100 mg F per 
liter. The brown mussel Perna perna showed 
evidence of toxic effects after 5 days exposure at a 
concentration of 7.2 mg per liter. Long-term (72 
days) exposure in recirculated outdoor laboratory 
estuary models without external food supply and 
with 2.0 percent salinity and 52 mg F per liter 
showed physical deterioration and increased mor- 
tality in the mullet Mugil cephalus and the crab 
Tylodiplax blephariskios and the reproductive 
processes of the shrimp Palaemon pacificus ap- 
peared to be adversely affected. Eel grass and 
algae grown in the models showed no evidence of 
fluoride accumulation but all the introduced 
animals accumulated fluoride, the highest concen- 
tration of 7743 microns F per g ash being reached 
in the mullet compared to 148.1 in the control 
system It was concluded that fluoride was accu- 
mulated mainly from the water and not via the 
food materials. (Little-Battelle) 
W73-08019 



Descriptors: 'Marine algae, •Chiorophyta 
Growth rates, Cultures, Plant growth, 
Photosynthesis, Biomass. 

Identifiers: 'Growth kinetics, 'Ulva lactuca, Con- 
tinuous cultures, Macrophytes. 

Continuous culture experiments were run with the 
benthic macrophyte Ulva lactuca. Using oxygen 
evolution as a monitor of photosynthesis and dry 
weight determination for biomass synthesis 
growth rates and stoichiometric growth constants 
were evaluated. The data showed that the ratio of 
oxygen production to algal mass synthesis is rela- 
tively mdependent of nutrient concentration and 
growth rate, but is affected by light intensity. The 
data also showed that the amount of oxygen 
evolved per unit of algal material was almost a fac- 
tor of 10 higher than is predicted from car- 
bohydrate synthesis. It appears that Ulva is capa- 
ble of synthesizing compounds with carbon oxida- 
tion states of plus 1 or plus 2, thus estimates of 
biomass synthesis may be in error when the 
average algal material is assumed to be car- 
bohydrate. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08028 



WUtMARY PRODUCTIVITY OF A SHALLOW 
EUTROPHIC WATER DURING AN 

APHANKOMENONFLOSAQUAE-BLOOM, 

Rijksfaculteit der Landbouwwetenschappen, 
Ghent (Belgium). 
J. De Maeseneer. 

Meded Fac Landbouwwet Rijksuniv Gent Vol 36 
No4 p 1441-1448. 1971. Ulus. English summary ' 
Identifiers: Aphanizomenon-Flos- Aquae, 'Belgi- 
um, Blooms, Eutrophic waters, Gent, 'Primarv 
productivity, Shallow water. 

Measurements of the primary productivity were 
made following the Gran-method in the 'Nationale 
Watersportbaan Georges Nachez,' a shallow 
eutrophic water at Gent during an A. flos-aquae 
water-bloom period in the autumn of 1971 The 
results obtained show that the gross primary 
productivity is very high and must approach or 
surpass the maximum productivity stated by 
Meemann-Nielsen. A linear relationship on 
logarithmic (primary productionHinear (depth) 
paper was obtained in only 1 case. By extrapola- 
tion it can be concluded that the primary produc- 
tion in the superficial layer is about 8 mg 
C/m3/day. -Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts 
Inc. ' 

W73-08020 



INSECTICIDE TOLERANCES OF TWO CRAY- 
FISH POPULATIONS (PROCAMBARUS ACU- 
TUS) IN SOUTH-CENTRAL TEXAS 

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of 

Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences 

D. W. Albaugh. 

Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and 

T ^ C wT',y°l 8, No 6> P 334 " 338 > December, 
1972. 1 tab, 12ref. 

Descriptors: *Bioassay, 'Crayfish, *DDT Re- 
sistance, 'Pesticide toxicity, Water pollution ef- 
fects, Crustaceans, Invertebrates, Insecticides 
Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides Or- 
ganophosphorus pesticides, Phosphothioate pesti- 
cides, Aquatic animals, Texas 
Identifiers: 'Toxaphene, 'Methyl parathion 
Procambarus acutus, Macroinvertebrates 
Decapods, Arthropods. 

Five consecutive bioassays were carried out on 
Procambarus acutus to determine levels of 
tolerance to DDT, toxaphene, and methyl 
parathion, and to compare the tolerance of 
specimens from an area of intensive insecticide 
use with that of specimens from an area where use 
was minimal. Equal numbers of male and female 
specimens were subjected to each insecticide 
treatment and crayfish from both areas were 
tested at 3-5 concentrations of each pesticide in 
each bioassay. The 48-hr LC50 values for DDT 
methyl parathion, and toxaphene were 2 4 14' 
and 1.5 times greater, respectively, for animals 
trom tie area of high use than for those from the 
area of low insecticide use. For crayfish from the 
clean area DDT and methyl parathion had similar 
.tt; but ae LC5 ° for toxaphene was more 
u,^ ™£™ es « reater - (Holoman-Battelle) 
W /3-08032 



r«c U ?^l INrECTIOI,S MICRO-ORGA- 
NISMS IN THE WASTE WATER OF TWO 
SOUTH AFRICAN HOSPITALS 

National Inst, for Water Research, Pretoria (South 
Africa). 

w^, r , p r n,ary bibliographic entry see Field 05B 

W73-08024 



GROWTH RATE DETERMINATIONS OF THE 
MACROPHYTE ULVA IN CONTINUOUS CUL- 

Mkr'obiolo' 1 ''' " Cambridge> Mass - Lab - of Applied 
T. D. Waite, L. A. Spielman, and R. Mitchell 
Environmental Science and Technology, Vol 6 
No 13, p 1096-1 100, December 1972. 6 fi|, 1 tab 12 



METABOLISM OF DDT BY FRESH WATFR 
DIATOMS, "usan waihk 

Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg. Dept. of Entomology 
™I ?" mary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 



SF S OF ox ATHnN SYSTEMIC FUNGI- 
M™f °^ AR I I T 0l,S BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS, 

Montana State Urn v., Bozeman. Dept. of Botany 

and Microbiology. 

D. E. Mathre. 

Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and 

fct 8 b:'.8 V ref. 8 * N ° 5 ' P 3M - 316 ' N ° V — 

Descriptors: 'Toxicity, 'Enteric bacteria, Fungi- 
?£ Va ™o r ella Growth rates, Metabolism, 
Molds, Photosynthesis, Inhibition, Slime. 



Identifiers: 'Carboxin, 'Oxycarboxju, Proteu. 
vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomomu, aeru- 
ginosa Nocardia rubra, l^actobacillui casta 
Azotobacterchroococcum, Slreptomyces, Sartma" 
lutea, Mycobacterium phJei. 

Several bacteria, a slime mold, and Chlorelia pyre- 
noidosa were exposed to carboxin (5,6-dihydro-2- 
methyl-1 ,4-oaxatiiiin-3-carboxaiiiJidej and 1U ox- 
idized products to determine their toxic effects In 
Uie presence of .0001 M carboxin, the following 
bacteria were inhibited in growth from 0-10 oa- 
cent: Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus Pseu- 
domonas aeruginosa, Nocardia rubra, Lactobacil- 
lus casei, and Azotobacter chroococcum Strepto- 
myces sp., Sarcina lutea, and Mycobacterium 
phlei was inhibited from 10-20 percent The 
metabolism of C-14-acetate was somewhat more 
sensitive to .0001 M carboxin in that the release of 
C-1402 was inhibited by 34 percent in P. vulgaris 
and 37 percent in S. leutea. The development of 
sporangia by the slime mold D. discoideum was 
not affected by .0001 M carboxin, F83 1 , or oxycar- 
boxin. Metabolism of C-14-acetate by Chlorelia 
cells was not inhibited by .0001 M carboxin F831 
or oxycarboxM. However, photosynthesis was in^ 
ted ,. b Ll 2 Percent with .0001 M carboxin but 
telle? 1 M F831 orox y carbo * i '> (Little-Bat- 

W73-08045 



RAPID BIODEGRADATION OF NTA BY A 
NOVEL BACTERIAL MUTANT, 

Department of the Environment, Burlington (On- 
tario). Centre for Inland Waters. 
S^/^S! 21 * bibliographic entry see Field 05B 

W73-08046 



THE LITTORAL MICROPHYTIC VEGETA. 
T I T ON Kn° F LAKE OHWD «N SERBO-CRO- 

A I IAIN), 

Hidrobioloski Zavod, Ochrida (Yugoslavia) 
I. Cado. 

Acta Bot Croat 30: p 85-94. 1971. DJus. English 
summary. ■ ^ 

Identifiers: Bangia, Oadophora, Gloeocapsa, 
Lake Ohnd, Littoral, Microcoleus, Microphytic 
vegetation, Rivularia, Schizothrix, Scytonema 
'Vegetation, Yugoslavia, Zonation. 






Under the modified Mediterranean climatic condi- 
tions the predominant calcareous structure of the 
massifs of the Lake basin and the features of the 
shore with its numerous karstic, surface and 
sublacustrine sources, a classic littoral zone has 
been differentiated in Lake Ohrid with its more 
characteristic fades: residue facies, sandy-shore 
tacies, pebble-stone and stone facies, and rock fa- 
cies. The most numerous within the lithophytic as- 
sociation are the representatives of the following 
groups; Cyanophyta, BacillariophyceaeT 

Chiorophyta, Rhodophyta, Bryophyta, Lichenes 
and bacteria. Forms of a wide ecological range 
which can endure frequent thermal excesses, long 
speiJs of dry weather and intensive insolation 
predominate. The lithophytic vegetation in the lit- 
toral zone is stratified. Supralittoral, eulittoral and 
lnirahttoral zones were distinguished The 
supralittoral could be defined as the Gloeocapsa- 
icytonema zone, the eulittoral as the Microcoleus- 
icrnzothnx-Rivularia zone on the one hand and as 
the Bangia-Cladophora zone on the other. The in- 
irahttoral is characterized by an increased number 
ot forms and by an increased quotient in relation 
to Cyanophyta and other groups.-Copyright 1972, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc 
W73-08061 



R? EFFf^rrf™^^ m PAPER FACTO - 

Danmarks Fiskeri- og Havundersogelser, Chariot- 
tenlund (Denmark). v^uoiiut 

B. Norup. 

Water Research, Vol 6, No 12, p 1585-1588, 
December 1972. 2 fig, 20 ref. 



62 



,;:';•- -,-• . g£8j 




••'■-.•■•.■'..:' 


Be 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Effects of Pollution — Group 5C 



Descriptors: 'Effluents, *Pulp and paper industry, 
Water pollution effects, Industrial wastes, 'Tox- 
icity, Fish, Freshwater fish, Resistance, Bioassay, 
Laboratory tests, Mercury, Fish physiology. 
Identifiers: 'Pentachlorophenol, 'Lebistes reticu- 
latus, Sodium pentachlorophenolate, Guppy, 
Slimicides, Phenols, Chlorinated hydrocarbons, 
Sodium pentachlorophenate, Mercury com- 
pounds, Median survival time. 

Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a common toxic sub- 
stance discharged from pulp and paper factories, 
was compared with mercuric compounds, and its 
effect on fish resistance was investigated at 
sublethal PCP-levels. Female guppies (Lebistes 
retuculatus), acclimated for at least 5 days at 24 
plus or minus O.SC, were placed in aerated glass 
tanks in groups of 5-10 per mg Na-PCP. The re- 
sistance of the guppy to the sodium salt, Na-PCP, 
has been shown to increase after acclimation to 
sublethal levels (1 ppm). The mean survival time of 
the guppy placed in 5 ppm Na-PCP after acclima- 
tion changed significantly from 65 min to 104 min. 
Such resistance may lead to increased tolerance of 
accumulated PCP in the organism where severe 
metabolic distortions, delayed sexual maturity and 
increased mortality may result. The guppy has 
been shown to have the fastest reaction and the 
greatest tolerance among fish. It has been demon- 
strated by this research that PCP is as toxic to fish 
as the dangerous, previously used slimicides con- 
taining mercury, and less efficient as a controllant 
of slime organisms and that the use of PCP should 
be restricted in a manner similar to mercuric com- 
pounds to ensure the survival of fish life 
downstream from paper manufacturing processes. 
(Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08235 



TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING METALLIC 
SALT EFFECTS UPON THE INDIGENOUS 
HETEROTROPHIC MICROFLORA OF A 
NATURAL WATER, 

Simon Fraser Univ. Bumaby (British Columbia). 

Dept of Biological Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W73-08236 



CHANGES IN THE MICROBIAL POPULA- 
TIONS OF A RESERVOIR TREATED WITH 
THE HERBICIDE PARAQUAT, 
University of Wales Inst of Science and Tech., 
Cardiff. 

I. C. Fry, M. P. Brooker, and P. L. Thomas. 
Water Research, Vol 7, No 3, p 395-407, March 
1973. 7 fig, 2 tab, 33 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Microbial degradation, 'Paraquat, 
Aquatic microorganisms, Water pollution effects, 
'Pesticide toxicity, 'Viability, 'Resistance, 
Chemical analysis, Mud, Aquatic algae, Enzymes, 
Herbicides, Pond weeds, Chlorophyta, Water 
sampling, Aquatic weed control, Soil analysis, 
Aquatic soils, Standing crops, Hydrogen ion con- 
centration. 

Identifiers: Angiosperms, Amylase, Protease, Cel- 
lulase, Chara globularis, Myriophyllum spicatum, 
Potamogeton pectinatus, Heterotrophic bacteria, 
Culture media, Organic carbon, Macrophytes, Es- 
gram. 

A freshwater fishing reservoir was treated with 
paraquat for the control of weeds and the response 
of microbial populations studied. Estimates of the 
standing crop of macrophytes (P. pectinatus, M. 
spicatum, and C. globularis) were made periodi- 
cally by determining the organic carbon content. A 
paraquat formulation (Esgram was sprayed evenly 
over the reservoir. Water, weed and mud were 
sampled frequently after each spraying and 
analyzed. Water samples taken in sterile bottles 
and mud samples taken from the surface of the 
mud were used in the microbial determinations. 
Counts of (1) viable heterotrophic microorgan- 
isms, (2) amlyase producers, and (3) viable 
protease and cellulase producers were made on 



CPS medium using different method of develop- 
ment. Viable paraquat resistant microorganisms 
were enumerated with the addition of 50 micro- 
grams/ml paraquat, as Esgram, to the complete 
CPS medium. Submerged angiosperms were 
completely eradicated by the application of 1.0 
mg/1 paraquat, but the subsequent growth of the 
macrophytic alga, Chara sp., was resistant to a 
second application of the herbicide. Some changes 
in the microbial populations of the reservoir over 
the period of study were consistent with the move- 
ment of paraquat within the system and others 
with the death of the plants. Numbers of arbitrari- 
ly classified 'paraquat resistant' micro-organisms 
increased in the water and mud immediately after 
both herbicide applications, and after the first ap- 
plication a reduction in total viable heterotroph 
counts was observed. Accompanying the death of 
the angiosperms were increases in the counts of vi- 
able heterotrophs and some exoenzyme producers 
in the mud and water but after the second applica- 
tion of paraquat, when there was no plant death, 
these micro-organisms showed little response. 
(Holoman-B attelle) 
W73-08239 



NUTRIENT STUDIES IN TEXAS IMPOUND- 
MENTS, 

Union Carbide Corp., Tonawanda, N.Y. Linde 

Div. 

V. H. Huang, J. R. Mase, and E. G. Fruh. 

Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol 

45, No 1, p 105-118, January 1973. 10 fig, 11 tab, 6 

ref. 

Descriptors: 'Limiting factors, 'Nutrients, 
'Photosynthesis, 'Bioassay, 'On-site tests, 
'Cyanophyta, 'Nitrogen fixation, 'Dominant or- 
ganisms, 'Chlorophyta, Carbon, Nitrogen, 
Phosphorus, Iron, Growth rates, Texas, 
Colorado River, Chlorella, Diatoms, Succession, 
Anabaena. 

Identifiers: Acetylene reduction, Lake Livingston, 
Lake Travis, Trinity River, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, 
Oscillatoria phomidium 

The objective was to determine the limiting 
nutrients in two distinctly different reservoirs in 
Texas, Lake Livingston on the Trinity River and 
Lake Travis on the Colorado River. The former is 
laden with relatively high organic and inorganic 
nutrient concentrations; the other has a low 
nutrient loading. Phytoplankton and water quality 
samples were collected and returned to the labora- 
tory for nutrient enrichment tests as well as C-14 
and nitrogen fixation tests. The latter two tests 
were also conducted in situ. Enrichment tests were 
conducted with natural populations and with in- 
oculations of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Growth rates 
were determined every 2 days by optical density 
measurements. C-14 tests were made with scintil- 
lation counts of laboratory and in situ samples 
with and without added nutrients. Nitrogen fixa- 
tion was determined by the acetylene reduction 
method. The results showed that in the high- 
nutrient system, nitrogen was the limiting nutrient 
in summer; blue-green nitrogen-fixing algae 
became dominant in the late summer and from 
laboratory tests seem to be regulated by the availa- 
ble phosphorus. In the low-nutrient system, 
nitrogen, phosphorus, or iron could limit 
phytoplankton growth at different times of the 
year. With phosphorus enrichment of this system, 
algae with nitrogen-fixing capabilities could- 
develop. (Little-Battelle) 
W73-08241 



NITROGEN FTXATION BY A BLUE-GREEN 
EPIPHYTE ON PELAGIC SARGASSUM, 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Mass. 
E. J. Carpenter. 

Science, Vol 178, No 4066, p 1207-1209, December 
15, 1972. 2 tab, 16 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Nitrogen fixation, 'Nitrogen cycle, 
Cyanophyta, Sea water. 



Identifiers: 'Dichothrix fucicola, 'Sargasso Sea, 
Acetylene reduction, Enrichment. 

Nitrogen fixation by Dichotrix fucicola, an 
epiphyte on pelagic Sargassum, was measured by 
acetylene reduction in May and June, 1972, in the 
western Sargasso Sea and the Gulf Stream. This is 
the first report of nitrogen fixation by a hetero- 
cyst-bearing blue-green alga in the open ocean, 
and also the first observation of nitrogen fixation 
in the genus Dichothrix. Cellular carbon-nitrogen 
ratios suggested that the Dichothrix was nitrogen- 
starved. In dense aggregations of Sargassum, such 
as rafts or windrows, the enrichment of surface 
seawater with combined nitrogen from nitrogen 
fixation may be pronounced. (Little-Battelle) 
W73-08246 



LOWER PH LIMIT FOR THE EXISTENCE OF 
BLUE-GREEN ALGAE: EVOLUTIONARY AND 
ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS, 

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept of Bacteriology. 
T. D. Brock. 

Science, Vol 179, No 4072, p 480483, February 2, 
1973.1 tab, 25 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Hydrogen ion concentration, 
'Cyanophyta, 'Limiting factors, 'Plant growth, 
Cultures, Lakes, Algal control. 

Observations on a wide variety of acidic environ- 
ments, both natural and man-made, reveal that 
blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) are completely ab- 
sent from habitats in which the pH is less than 4 or 
5, whereas eukaryotic algae flourish. By using en- 
richment culture with inocula from habitats of 
various pH values, the absence of blue-green algae 
at low pH was confirmed. The ecological implica- 
tions of the conclusions are clear. Blue-green algal 
blooms should never occur in acid lakes, and the 
pollution of lakes and streams with acid mine 
drainage should eliminate blue-green algae from 
these waters. Since even in mildly acidic waters 
(pH 5 to 6) blue-green algae are uncommon, mild 
acidification of lakes may control or eliminate 
blue-green algal blooms. (Little-Battelle) 
W73-08248 



BLUE-GREEN ALGAE: WHY THEY BECOME 
DOMINANT, 

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Limnological 

Research Center. 

J. Shapiro. 

Science, Vol 179, No 4071, p 382-384, January 26, 

1973. 1 fig, 1 tab, 5 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Chlorophyta, 'Cyanophyta, Limit- 
ing factors, 'Carbon dioxide, 'Hydrogen ion con- 
centration, 'Nitrogen, 'Phosphorus, 'Dominant 
organisms, Bioassay, Nitrates, Phosphates, Com- 
petition, Succession, On-site investigations, 
Lakes, 'Minnesota. 
Identifiers: 'Lake Emily (Minn). 

Mixed populations of algae were subjected to a 
variety of treatments including high concentra- 
tions of nitrogen plus phosphorus, high concentra- 
tions of C02 and high or low pH (5-6) to test the 
hypothesis that blue-green algae become dominant 
because they are more efficient at obtaining C02 
from low concentrations than green algae. The 
algae were put in plastic bags suspended from a 
raft in Lake Emily, Minnesota. Although initially 
the populations consisted of blue-green algae, 
samples subjected to C02 plus nutrients were 
dominated by green algae. Somewhat similar 
results occurred with lowered pH and nutrients. It 
appears that the addition of free C02 or lowering 
the pH make more C02 available to green algae 
and allow them to become dominant Since green 
algae are more desirable than blue-greens, injec- 
tion of C02 in lakes may be a way of controlling 
blue-greens where nutrient sources cannot be con- 
trolled. (Little-Battelle) 
W73-08249 






63 



Fi.ld 05-WATER QUAUTY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5C Effect* of Pollution 



EXPERIENCE WITH ALGAL BLOOMS AND 
^REMOVAL OF PHOSPHORUS FROM 

M. A. Simmond8. 

Water Research, Vol 7, New 1/2, p 255-264. Janua- 
ry/February 1973. 6 tab, 3 ref. 

pescriptors: 'Algae, •Hydrogen ion concentra- 
tion, 'Alkalinity, 'Carbon dioxide, Limiting fac- 
tors Growth rates. Waste water treatment, Ab- 
^JstrSia ent8 ' Phos P horU8 - Phosphates, 

Identifiers: 'Phosphorus removal. 

Based upon observations of algal blooms in water 
treatment plants during the period 1930-1940 when 
phosphate occurred primarily from natural 
sources, the conclusion is made that the 
mechanism which triggers algal blooms may be 
neither nutrient concentration nor the concentra- 
tion of organic matter. Instead the pH, alkalinity 
h£E?£?^ equilibrium condition is a major 
SfST- ii t ,° n,y m PP m( >tmg, but also in maintain- 
ing algal blooms. The mechanism involved is the 
X^T ° f bicarbon ates to carbonates at hig£ 
pH and the consequent release of carbon dioxrte 
which ,s utilized by algae. Use of algaef or remo v 

Kwe^cin s r r f sewage s,ud « e is ££S. 

>ugae were capable of removing large amounts of 
Phosphate, but were memoes* dSt to 
W73-0825r SCWage - ( Litt, e-Battelle) 

EUTOOPHICATION AND LOUGH NEAGH 

New Univ. of Ulster, Coleraine ( N 5ffi Ire- 

R. B. Wood, and C. E. Gibson. 

Water Research, Vol 7, Nos 1/2, p 173-187 Janua 

ry/February 1973. 5 fig, 5 tab, 27 ref. 

Jphnlif.! "-' ^"^PW^tion, Water quality 
Phosphorus, 'Limiting factors, 'Diatoms Prima- 
r^productivity, Industrial wastes, MuSal 
wastes Cyanophyta, Lakes, Nitrates 
pW?^ Ni ? 0gen ' Nutrients, ChlorophS' 
Ph^oplankton Zooplankton, Algae, Midgefln- 
vertebrates.Chrysophyta.Isopods. ^ ' 

Identifiers: 'Lough Neagh, Chlorophyll a 
Macroinvertebrates, 'frdand, Oscfflatoria' 
Cyclops spp Diaptomus spp, DiaptoTufA^ 
to, Glyptotendipes paripes, Glyptotendipes 
Chironomus anthracinus, Procladius spp! Ks 
T^J? ^ C ? me,,sis ' CycloteUa^Iku 
S»T^- floccu,osa . Melosira italica 
Step^odiscns astraea> stephanodisc^s 



Identifiers: 'Crysul I^k e (Mich), Synedra nan. 
Fragilana crotonensu, .Synedra radian,' 
Achnanthes, Synechocy.ti. aquatihi,' 

Khodomonas minuta. Cyclotella ocellata Crvn-' 
tomonas ovata^ Cyclotella stelligera, Pedlastrum 
boryanum.EDTA.Nitzschia. «u*»iruin 

An in situ nutrient enrichment experiment ww 
conducted w which mixed treatment* of nitrate 
phosphate and HDTA were applied to natural lake' 
phytoplankton communities. Change, in commu 
nity productivity and species composition in 
response to the treatments revealed strong interac 
tions among the components of the treatment mix 
ture. On the community level, phosphate exerted a 
stimulatory effect that was reduced by EDTA 
enhanced by nitrate, and enhanced even more by 
nitrate and EDTA together. Examination of 1 5 m 
dividual species revealed that the treatment ef- 
fects were highly variable from species to species 
beven of the 15 species were stimulated by the 
nutrient treatments, and the growth patterns of 5 
of these accounted for essentially all of the fea- 
tures of the productivity response patterns. The 
eight other species either failed to respond to any 
U-eatment or declined in response to containment 
all ^ a r enU: , Pho8 P hate was ^e key substance m 
al I of the positive treatment effects, and its omis- 
son from the treatment mixture essentiallv 
ebmmated all growth responses. (HScSff" 

g^wSoWSdo P p^S! ORUS m "" 

BiXc^tien^T 08 ^ <****>■ ^ °< 
C. E. R Pitcairn, and H. A. Hawkes. 
Water Research^ Vol 7, Nos 1/2, p 159-171 , Janua- 
ry/Febrauary 1973. 7 fig, 8 tab, 1 3 ref . 

Descriptors: 'Phosphorus, 'Growth rates, 'Bioas- 
say, 'Eutrophication, 'Limiting factors 

S^ hora • Wa £ r , poUution eff ^- nSSS: 

Standing crops, Chlorophyta, Algae, Nutrients 

Phosphates, Sewage, Cultured s. a Ti.,?^i 

methods, Rivers, Acetic algae ' StaUst,cal 
Identifiers: 'Culture media, 'England. 



l^kci 'Im.Wu* factor,, 'Wale, poCZai 

Absorption, Analytical te<iL»gue, 7^ 
waste, , Wale, poJJu ^ hu ^^ H ^ ' "° 
Identifier, f>rthopfao»pfaaU:,. Hobduj,** 

Many lake, and some .treauu and ertuane, I 

input of aquaUc plan, nutrient, ttomlJmZ 
^U4 source, 7he key eleme* ofteaT2 
hmiung aquatic plan, population, u pfcoLfiS 
Ine attempt to control phephoru, inpuTtoVSfi 
water, a* Lh e overall approach /or co^troC^ 
cestive fertilisation u technically KwZl «! 
economically feauble for many natiirai watet 
However a much better understanding of lie rekv 
bomhip between the phc*pooru7m£« *. 2 
and the excessive growth, of aquaUc plant, w*tf. 
the lake must be developed Tni, devdopme^ 
require a combmed bwtogicid and chemical J 

r,,?^ ^ f •*•"«« "* role of Pho»phoni,X 
eutrophication for a ,pec.f.c wateTbodyTfcJ 
biological approach wUI u^ tnw content enzT 
matic and kmetic uptake analyw, of photphonii 
umitauon, a, well a, b.o« M y, of %££££ 
availabUi y m order to determme tSeTmSI 

nTT 'X 3 , b ° dy ° f waler ^ cnemicaT^f 
proach wJl utilize amounu of each of the form, Z 
phosphorus present m the lake and the rate, of m- 
£r^5 of Phosphorus between the*t *££ 

oh^K "^ ** ^^ wate " ^h^e con™ 
Phosphorus from treatment of domestic watte 
water input and removal of phoqAoru, TroTdt 
tergenu will no. result m signifK^n, unproveme* 
m wier quality. This u because theie waten 
..IT!. £ P^Phoru, from diffuse source? 
such a, urban and rural stormwater drainage tf* 
atmosphere and ground waters. In these iasUnai 
't may be necessary to initiate in-lake conuxSrf 

fuSss^,** -**- °< — or I^H 

W73-08255 



IN PRIMARY AQUATIC 



EST™?"* 01 b,ol °8 ical and chemical charac- 

Sr LV° f L K° Ugh NCagh O" 1 ""* With tho^of 

otter lakes shows that Lough Neagh is among the 
most eutrophic of the world's major Sfces 

£rte B JSS B L t °. be the ke * facto r which 
iZah v KTO^of algae. It is estimated that 
Lough Neagh receives 300 tons of P per year 70- 
80 percent of which is probably from u^aS uv 

^^"rTmi^T™. 'hytoplankton 

Water Research, Vol 7, Nos 1/2, p 189-195 Janua- 
ry/February 1973. 2 fig, 3 tab, 8 rtf . 

Descriptors: 'Nitrates, 'Phosphates, 'Growth 



An exammauon of river survey date showed 
standing crops of Cladophora to be correlated witt 
phosphorus concentration. In general river water 

produced only modest growths of Clactophora 

wat^conSrr 15 ^ "PP^nented river 
water confirmed the importance of phosphorus bv 

STL « g T? h °. f C^ophonTm wS u^ 
stream of sewage discharges could be increased to 
downstream levels by addition of pho^hlrus 

SehteSSS?' m Synthetic media containing 
levels of phosphorus from 1 to 7 ing/1 indicatedno 
suimficant growth increase above! m^ PH but a 

w£ ,C ^ t e r m J a UCti0n "f *, 1 °« p KnaZai a 
water the maximum level of phosphorus for 
8™** wasfound to vary, being 2.5 SmL 3 2 
mg ; NJ N03 and 0.95 mg P/l ^25 mg% NO3 A 
3 x 4 factorial experiment utilizing synthetic 
TA con / ,rmea > interaction berwSn nTtrogen 
and phosphorus. The highest level of N03 (77^ 

levii e ST C nt gr p/ , n 1h K at , the ,0WeSt P hos P h0 ^ 
1. J "^ P/I) but at higher levels of 
Phosphorus, growth was reduced^* mZrtence 
of such interactions is discussed hrieftr tfSS 
&£&£%*"*" - -trien^trfpS. 
W73-08254 

ROLE OF PHOSPHORUS IN EUTROPHTrA 
TION AND DIFFUSE SOURCE CONTrSl 

H^sconsm Univ., Madison. WiteSBr, Pro- 

G. F.Lee. 

Water Research, Vol 7, Nos 1/2 ntn i-m r» 

ry/February 1973. 1 tab, 22 ref ' P 12 *' JanUa - 



PHOSPHORUS 
PLANTS, 

University ColL of North Wale,, Menai Bndge 
Marine Science Labs. ™*' 

G. E. Fogg 

^FTb^| 7 h 3.r5 ref > . NOS,/2 - P77 - 9 '- Jan - 

Descriptors^'Algae, 'Phosphate,, 'Limiting fac- 
tors, "Growth rates, 'Absorption, Nutrient, 
Cyanophyta, Metabolism,^ ChlorophS' 

C^sophyta, Rhodophyta, Diatoms, PhosXS 
Nutrient requirement, Aquatic planu 
Identrfiers: Orthophosphates, BlotransformatioiL 

nho^ ° f ^ re^onships between algae and 
&^ Sb0W / that "*** s P eci es caTabsort 
orthophosphate from solutions containing S 
Aar. 1 ppm P and, when phosphorut^derkieT 
most species are capable of producmg powerful' 

bte^n°, r ex k traceU, i lar PhosphatasesThkh e^ 
ble them to obtain phosphate from a great variety 

m^SSf* ^ ° T ^ Dic Phosphorus cc^pounS 
mcluding synthetic detergents. In the prMencTof 

£ TZPT'ZT H^ f * " able P to1ccun in rf 
late a store of polyphosphate which suffices for 

™S CyC,C 1 ° f ^ division « ^ absTncfoU 
further supply. As a result of excretion of 
£"« at ^rtain stages of the ItfeTyck aod 
extracellular phosphatase activity there is ranid 
recycling of phosphorus so that aja^c™ vfeVSv 
^^ h . eVen u When ^ conception f f^ 
Phosphate m the water is low. Behavioral pattern? 

Saf T^^ty. There is eWdence 
that planktomc blue-green algae possess a 
buoyance contix>l mechanism operatinTv^ u «r 
gas vacuoles that may enable them todescend at 
mght to phosphate-rich water at the bottomof the 
Photic zone and rise nearer the surface in ue 
mormng. Because of these compliclti^ns no clear 
relationships between the amount of algal^owtt 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Effects of Pollution — Group 5C 



nd the concentration of phosphate in an aquatic 
nvironment is to be expected. Because different 
pedes have different requirements for and 
iterances towards phosphate, the prevailing con- 
entration of this ion in a water body may play an 
nportant part in determining the composition of 
le flora it contains. Various simple methods for 
etermining whether phosphate is limiting the 
rowth of algae are now available and results ob- 
tined with these, together with knowledge of the 
linimnm phosphorus requirements of algae and 
stimates of the phosphorus budget, may enable 
redictions to be made of algal crops in a given 
aler body. (Little-Battelle) 
/73-08258 



HOSPHORUS IN MARINE ZOOPLANKTON, 

larine Biological Association of the United King- 

om, Plymouth (England). Lab. 

I. D. S. Corner. 

Vater Research, Vol 7, Nos 1/2, p 93-110, Janua- 

y/February 1973. 4 fig, 9 tab, 58 ref . 

tescriptors: *Copepods, *Food habits, *Food 
bains, 'Phosphorus, 'Absorption, 'Metabolism, 
lankton, Zooplankton, Algae, Sea water, Cycling 
utrients, Nutrients, Primary productivity, 
1 rowth rates. 

lentifiers: 'Exretion, Calarus, Macroinver- 
ibrates, Feces, Mobilization, Biotransformation. 

i the euphotic zone, phosphorus compounds dis- 
olved in sea water are utilized by growing plants, 
lany of which are subsequently eaten by her- 
ivorous zooplankton and the dietary phosphorus 
ivested partly in growth and egg production, 
artly released in insoluble form as faecal pellets 
nd partly metabolized. The fraction metabolized 
; excreted back into the sea water mainly as inor- 
anic phosphate, which is again available as a 
utrient for the plants. Quantitative aspects of this 
irclic process are reviewed with particular 
sference to the Calanoid copepods, animals of 
sntral importance to the marine food web in 
sveral sea areas. Most of the studies made so far 
ave been concerned with animals feeding on algal 
iets. However, it is necessary to know more 
xmt the nutrition and metabolism of carnivorous 
wplankton; and there is also a need for further 
ork on the nutritive value of detritus. Much work 
is been done on the percentage assimilation of 
letary phosphorus by zooplankton, and the 
dues obtained are generally high. However, 
lere is a need for further assimilation studies 
ling particularly large algal cells, as well as 
icrozooplankton, as the diets; and more informa- 
nt is needed concerning the assimilation of dif- 
irent phosphorus fractions and individual 
losphorus compounds present in the food. There 
ive been several investigations of the levels of 
>luble phosphorus compounds excreted by 
toplankton. However, the precise way in which 
ese substances, particularly 'organic' 
losphorus compounds, are released by the 
limals deserves more investigation as does the 
temical nature of these 'organic' phosphorus 
impounds and their possible use as nutrients by 
tytoplankton. The successful culturing of several 
lecies of zooplankton in the laboratory will pave 
e way for further studies of the factors affecting 
e gross growth efficiency of these animals in 
rms of phosphorus; and the data obtained could 
i useful in the formulation of mathematical 
odels related to the production of zooplankton in 
e sea. There is also a need for work of a more 
ochemical nature, particularly the use of artifi- 
al diets in investigations of zooplankton nutrition 
id the development of methods for studying 
losphorus metabolism at the tissue and cellular 
vel. (Little-Battelle) 
73-08259 



IFFLE ZOOBENTHOS IN STREAMS RECEIV- 
IG ACID MINE DRAINAGE, 

ttsburgh Univ., Pa. Graduate School of Public 
ealth. 



M. Koryak, M. A. Shapiro, and J. L. Sykora. 
Water Research, Vol 6, No 10, p 1239-1247 Oc- 
tober, 1972. 4 fig, 16 ref. 

Descriptors: *Benthic fauna, *Mine drainage, 
*Acid streams, *Invertebrates, 'Aquatic animals, 
♦Coals, Water pollution effects, Amphipoda, 
Oligochaetes, Biomass, Bioindicators, Aquatic in- 
sects, Larvae, Bottom sampling, Chemical analy- 
sis, Water analysis, Water velocity, Crustaceans, 
Annelids, Surface waters, Dissolved oxygen, 
Depth, Iron, Midges, Diptera, Water beetles, 
Mayflies, Stoneflies, Hydrogen ion concentration, 
Biochemical oxygen demand, Acidity. 
Identifiers: *Receiving waters, Macroinver- 
tebrates, Turtle Creek, Haymaker Creek, Trafford 
Road Run, Beyers Creek, Lyons Run, Atomic ab- 
sorption spectrophotometry, Surber sampler, Rif- 
fles, Tendipes gr. riparius, Scuds, Ulothrix tener- 
rima, Psychoda, Antocha. 

The bottom fauna of a stream polluted by acid 
mine drainage was studied using the standard 
methods of sample collecting. In localities im- 
mediately influenced by mine drainage where very 
low pH values and high acidities prevail, the effect 
of acid mine wastes on the ecology and composi- 
tion of the benthic fauna is, in general, similar to 
the effect of organic pollution. In these areas high 
numbers of individuals comprised of a few species 
were found. In the zones of ctive neutralization 
where iron hydroxides are deposited, species 
diversity slightly increases but the biomass is very 
low. The most numerous invertebrates in the 
stream section exhibiting high acidity and low pH 
are midge larvae, especially Tendipes gr. riparius. 
The number of insect groups present increases 
steadily with progressive neutralization until 
Crustaces (Amphipoda) and Oligochaeta appear, 
indicating considerable improvement in water 
quality. The supply of desirable benthic fish food 
(Tendipes ssp.) is very high in the parts of the 
stream where low pH, high acidity, and high fer- 
rous iron concentrations prevail. Unfortunately, 
fish cannot survice under these conditions to util- 
ize this abundant food supply. On the other hand, 
in the less drastically diminishes the total biomass 
of benthic organisms and therefore severely limits 
fish populations, (Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08268 



CAUSES OF MASSIVE INFECTION OF PDVK 
SALMON WITH SAPROLEGNIA IN THE 
RIVERS OF rrURUP (ETOROFU) ISLAND, (IN 
RUSSIAN), 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W73-08271 



SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF GENERAL 
METABOLISM IN CARP YEARLINGS DURING 
RETAINER RAISING IN WARM WATER, (IN 
RUSSIAN), 

L. A. Komeeva, and A. N. Komeev. 
Tr Vses Nauchno-Issled Inst Prudovogo Rybn 
Khoz. Vol 17, p 220-224, 1971. English summary. 
Identifiers: *Carp, 'Metabolism, Retainer, Warm 
water, Yearlings, 'Respiration. 

The intensity of respiration in yearling carp raised 
in net retainers without forced washing through in 
cooling waters of a thermal electric power station 
was studied. The level of metabolism in carp dur- 
ing rearing in retainers was lower than that usually 
observed in pond fish. Conditions of rearing, such 
as compactness of the retainer and daily diet, af- 
fected the level of respiration in the fish. The 02 
consumption was directly related to the compact- 
ness of the retainer and inversely related to the 
amount of daily ration. --Copyright 1972, Biologi- 
cal Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08276 



THE INFLUENCE OF LOG HANDLING ON 
WATER QUALITY, 

Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept of Civil En- 
gineering. 



For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W73-08294 



MIGRATION AND METABOLISM IN A TEM- 
PERATE STREAM ECOSYSTEM, 

North Carolina Univ., Chapel HilL Dept of Zoolo- 
gy- 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W73-O8303 



INFEC TION BY ICHTHYOPHTHDUUS MUL- 
TTFHJIS OF FISH IN UGANDA, 

Makerere Univ., Kampala (Uganda). Dept. of 

Zoology. 

I. Paperna. 

Prog Fish-Cult Vol 34, No 3, p 162-164. 1972. D- 

lus. 

Identifiers: Carp, *Fish diseases, 

*Ichthyophthirius multif iliis, Infection, 'Uganda. 

Infection by I. multifiliis of fish in Uganda is re- 
ported for the first time from tropical Africa. In- 
fection developed in fish from local fish ponds 7 
days after being introduced into aquariums and 1 
small outdoor pool. Many species of native fish 
were susceptible to infection while carp were 
fairly refractory. The possible sources of this in- 
fection are discussed. --Copyright 1973, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-O8330 



ON THE ECOLOGY OF AN ADULT 

DIGENETIC TREMATODE PROCTOECES SUB- 

TENUIS FROM A LAMELLTBRANCH HOST 

SCROBICULARIA PLANA, 

I. C. White. 

J Mar Biol Assoc U K. Vol 52, No 2, p 457-467. 

1972. Dlus. 

Identifiers: Digenetic, Ecology, Host, 'Lamel- 

libranch, Proctoeces subtenuis, Scrobicularia 

plana, *Trematodes, Thames estuary. 

P. subtenuis (L inton), an adult digenetic tre- 
matode parasitic within the kidney region of the 
lamellib ranch S. plana (da Costa) was found only 
in specimens of the host collected from localities 
along the north coast of the Thames estuary, 
although the lamellibranch was common in 
neighboring areas. An investigation of the S. plana 
from 8 locations along the north coast of the 
Thames estuary revealed that the abundance of 
the parasite was far from uniform with S. plana 
collected from certain localities being heavily in- 
fected whereas those collected from short 
distances away (one mile or less) were often only 
rarely infected. This pattern was repeated in each 
of the 3 yr of study. The investigation of a heavily 
infected population of S. plana over the period of 
study demonstrated that the parasite was very suc- 
cessful. From a level of infection of 2-3 P. sub- 
tenuis per host in 1967 an increase occurred to a 
level of infection in 1969/70 at which over 95% of 
all S. plana collected were infected and with an 
average of 4-5 P. subtenuis per host. As many as 14 
P. subtenuis were recovered from a single host and 
it was demonstrated that the number of P. sub- 
tenuis per S. plana increased pari passu with the 
size of the host As well as living parasities, dead 
but preserved P. subtenuis were found in the kid- 
ney region of some hosts but their significance is 
obscure.-Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W73-08331 



EFFECT OF DRY SEASON DROUGHT ON UP- 
TAKE OF RADIOACTIVE PHOSPHORUS BY 
SURFACE ROOTS OF THE OIL PALM (ELAEIS 
GUINEENSIS JACQ.), 

University of the West Indies, St Augustine 

(Trinidad). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 021. 

W73-08334 



I 



24K 



65 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5C — Effects of Pollution 



MICROFLORA OF THE NEUSTON AND ITS 
ROLE IN WATER BODIES, 

Polskie Towarzystwo Przyrodnikow im. Koper- 

nika, Warsaw. 

S. Niewolak. 

Wszcchswiat.4p91-93. 1971. 

Identifiers: *Microflora, AJgae, Bacteria, 

•Neuston, Protozoa. 

A significant role is played in the life of aquatic or- 
ganisms by the surface water film of inland water 
bodies. This surface biocenosis is called neuston 
and is characterized by the presence of numerous 
bacteria, algae and protozoa. The surface 
microflora species found in the Ilawa Lakes are 
described, as also a number of microflora species 
found by other authors in the Black Sea. Results of 
chemical analyses of organic matter found in the 
surface water layer are given. The importance of 
the water-air phase in the development of surface 
water aquatic organisms is described. Biology of 
the surface water film is also discussed -Copy- 
right 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc 
W73-08335 



EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND MINERAL FER- 
TILIZER ON THE HYDROCHEMICAL 
SYSTEM OF RICE PADDIES STOCKED WITH 

S?™„ W ™£! 1 W^ EXPOSED UNDER 

WATER VAPOR (IN RUSSIAN), 

Z. F. Sorokina. 

Tr Vses Nauchno-Issled Inst Prudovogo Rvbn 

poz. 20: p 3-17. 1971. English summary. 

Identifiers: *Fertilizers, *Fish fanning, Humus 

Paddies, *Rice M, Vapor, Weeds. 

Rice paddies were fertilized with different doses 
of mineral and organic fertilizers. The best results 
in fish and nee productivity were obtained with su- 
perphosphate in a dose of 180 kg active sub- 
stance/ha. High doses of N fertilizer (180 kg of ac- 
tive substance/ha) had a negative effect After 
raising fish for 2 yr on 'resting' (fallow) rice pad- 
dies the soil fertility increased, the content of or- 
ganic matter increased by 30% and the humus con- 
tent increased 2 times. The weediness of the rice 
fields decreased to 3-4% of the original amount - 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc 
W73-08339 



THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUB- 
STANCES THAT INDUCE THE REDDENING 
OF LAKE TOVEL: HL STUDY OF A RE- 
MARKABLE PHENOMENON OF PRK-REDDE- 
NING (IN ITALIAN), 
V. Gerosa. 

Studi Trentini Sci Nat Sez B Biol, Vol 47 No 2 d 
107-132, 1970, DJus, English summary. 
Identifiers: *Water pollution effects, Chemical 
properties, •Glenodinium sanguineum, Lakes, 
♦Reddening, *Lake Tovel, *Cartenogenesis. 

Initial carotenogenesis in the presence of large 
quantities of Glenodinium sanguineum and its rela- 
tionship to the pre-reddening of Lake Tovel during 
the summer months is discussed.-Copyricht 1972 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08344 



EFFECTS OF FLOODING AND GASEOUS 
COMPOSITION OF THE ROOT ENVIRON- 
MENT ON GROWTH OF CORN/ aJNVUlON - 

Elinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Agronomy. 

Tin-P^?? blbli °graphic entry see Field 03F. 

W73-08346 



Identifiers: Changja, •Chlorophyll. Disi/ib<. 
Hwajinpo, •Korea, I.akes, Seasonality, I r optic 
type, Vertical stratification, Yongrang 
•Phytoplankton, •Productivity 

The productivity of summer phytoplankton com- 
munities in Lake Hwajinpo, l^nkt Yongrang and 
Lake Changja was studies by measuring vertical 
variation of chlorophyll a I^akes were classified 
on the basis of the amount of thlorphyll in the 
water. In Lake Changja, the seasonal changes of 
stratification of chlorophyll were studies In I .ake 
Hwajinpo, the productive structure of the 
phytoplankton community in summer was found 
to be L- shaped and of the mesotrophic type In 
Lake Yongrang, the productive structure of the 
phytoplankton community in summer was also L- 
shaped and of the mesotrophic type. And max 
imum chlorophyll layer was near the lake bottom 
below the compensation depth. In I^ake Changja, 
the structure of phytoplankton community in 
summer was reversed L-shaped and of the 
eutrophic type, with the maximum chlorophyll 
layer just below the surface. The vertical distribu 
tion of chlorophyll amounts as a measure of the 
productive structure almost always formed a 
stratified distribution except in Sept. and some 
times in May, in Lake Changja. In Sept 
homogeneous distribution was observed -Copy 
right 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc 
W73-08402 



STUDIES ON THE PRODUCTIVE STRUCTURE 
™ SOME LAKES IN KOREA, (IN KOREAN), 

Seoul National Univ. (Republic of Korea). Dept 

of Botany. r ' 

K.B.Uhm. 

Korean J Bot. Vol 14, No 1, p 15-23, 1971. DJus 

English summary. 



SEASONAL CHANGES IN PHYTOPLANKTON 
FfS^SF* CHEMISTRY OF MOUNTAIN 
LAKE, VHtGINIA, 

Chana Univ., Legon. Volta Basin Research Pro- 
ject. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02H 
W73-08404 



THE EFFECT OF KRAFT PULP MILL EF- 
FLUENTS ON THE GROWTH OF ZALERION 

MARrnuM, 

Simon Fraser Univ., Bumaby (British Columbia) 
Dept. of Biological Sciences. 
L. M. Chnichland, and M. McClaren. 
Can J Bot. Vol 50, No 6, p 1269-1273 1972 
Identifiers: Effluents, Growth, Kraft mill ef- 
fluents, Nutrients, *Pulp wastes, •Zalerion- 
Mantimum, 'Aquatic fungi. 

Growth of the marine fungus Z. maritimum was 
measured in Kraft pulp mill effluents. The ef- 
fluents used were caustic effluent, acidic effluent 
and acidic effluent adjusted to pH 8. The effluent 
and the seawater control flasks were supple- 
mented, in some instances, with basal nutrients 
Two concentrations of effluent, 50% (50% ef- 
fluent, 50% seawater) and 100%, were used. When 
basal nutrients were added, dry weight was signifi- 
cantly greater (95% probability level) in 100% 
caustic effluent than in 50% caustic effluent or 
seawater alone. Without basal nutrients growth 
was lower in 100% caustic effluent than in sea- 
water or 50% effluent. This suggests that growth 
of Z. maritimum would not be stimulated by Kraft 
effluent under field conditions. Unlike the caustic 
effluent, the acidic effluent inhibited growth of Z 
mantimum. With added nutrients, growth was 
lower in 50% and 100% acidic effluent than in sea- 
water. When the acidic effluent solutions were ad- 
justed to pH 8, growth was lower than in the sea- 
water medium. -Copyright 1973, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-08426 



A YEARS' STUDY OF THE DRIFTING ORGAN- 

EZSASST*"- sraEAM OF ^ 

Alberta Univ., Edmonton. Dept. of Zoology 
H. F. Clifford. 

Can J Zool. Vol 50, No 7, p 975-983. 1972. DJus 
Identifiers: Alberta, 'Brown water streams 
Canada, Cladocerans, Cyclopoids, •Drifting 



stream insects, Organisms. Oal/acods. Sut*au 
•r.nlornoslracans 

Irn 24 hi drift samples were taken from a btowa- 
water stream of Albert* Canada over a ) « 
penod with drift net* bavin* a mesh su* of 320 
micro f'ladocerans. cycloposds. and otl/acodt 
collccUvely called entomostracans ~"^- uc 
large pan of the drift by numbers and cootnbulaS 
substantially to the total btomast of the drift Dnft 
densities of entomostracans leaded to increase at 
the ice free season progressed, but drift ■'rwin 
H immature insects remained relatively couuW 
throughout the ice free season Iota) daily drift of 
both the entomostracans and noo-entomosiracaa 
fraction* tended to decrease as the ice free seasoa 
progressed, being dependent on water volume 
(>nft densities, lolaj daily drift, and number of 
taxa in the drift were very low in winter Moat of 
the species exhibited myt.ii.i~. behavioral dnf I At 
the sampling site, the eolomostracans and imma- 
lure aquatic insects were found to be esscotialy 
evenly distributed throughout the water ■— 
I-or part of the study penod, drift densities of una 
caught in the 320-micro net were compared wira 
drift densities of the same taxa caught in a 720- 
micro net. The 720-nucro net caught a mace 
smaller fraction of the aquatic insects than did the 
320-nucro net, and almost all the entomoctracaat 
passed through the 720-micro net When compared 
with other regional drift studies, the large fraction 
of entomostracans in the brown- water stream 
seems to be a unique feature; there is evidence 
that most of the drifting entomostracans orwjaaie 
in the marshy area drained by the main stream - 
Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts Inc 
W73-08427 



DRIFT OF INVERTEBRATES W AN INTER. 
MITTENT STREAM DRAINING MARSHY TER. 
RAIN OF WEST-CENTRAL ALBERTA, 

AJberta Univ., Edmonton. Dept. of Zoology 
H. F. Clifford. 

Can J Zool. Vol 50, No 7, p 985-991 1972 Dim 
Identifiers: •Alberta, Canada, Chironomids 
Cyclopoid, Draining, Drift samples Harpaco- 
coids, Intermittent streams, •Invertebrates 
Marshy land, Naupb, Nematodes, Rotifers' 
•Plankton. 

Seven 24-hr drift samples were taken with a plank- 
ton net (pore size: 76 micro) over 1-yr period from 
an intermittent stream that drains marshy 
muskeg-type terrain of west-central Alberta,' 
Canada. The drift was mainly composed of plank- 
tonic and benthic animals originating in the marsh. 
The only abundant lotic laxon in the drift was 
simuliid larvae. Rotifers and cyclopoid naupui 
were numerically the most important taxa. Drift 
densities for the fauna as a whole tended to 
decrease as the ice-free season progressed, but 
mere was no consistent correlation between drift 
densities and flow. However total daily drift 
across a point varied directly with flow. AD the 
abundant taxa drifted more during the day than at 
night, and nematodes, harpacticoids, simuliid lar- 
vae, chironomid larvae, chydorids, and rotifers 
were found m significantly (P<0.05) greater num- 
bers in the daytime drift. Drift rates of taxa caught 
in the plankton net were compared with drift rates 
of the same taxa caught in a 320-micro drift net 
Rotifers, entomostracans (especially the immature 
stages), and even small simuliid and chironomid 
larvae would have been seriously underestimated 
using only the 320-micro net. The marshy areas via 
drift through the intermittent tributaries contribute 
a very large number of small organisms to the main 
stream. Draining the wetlands might have a 
pronounced detrimental effect on the main 
stream's ecosystem.-Copyright 1973, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08428 



STUDIES ON BIOLOGICAL METABOLISM IN 
A MEROMICTIC LAKE SUIGETSuT^ 
Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Water Research Lab. 



66 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Effects of Pollution — Group 5C 



M. Matsuyama, and Y. Saijo. 

J Oceanogr Soc Jap. Vol 27, No 5, p 197-206. 1971. 

Illus. 

Identifiers: Bacteria, Biological studies, Japan, 

Lakes, Meromictic lakes, 'Metabolism, 

Phytoplankton, *Lake Suigetsu (Japan). 

Lake Suigetsu is a typical meromictic lake having 
a deep anoxic layer from 8 m to the bottom at 34 m 
depth. Lake accumulations of sulfide, total C02, 
phosphate and ammonium were observed in the 
deep layer. In Aug., 2 photosynthesis maxima, 
caused by the activity of phytoplankton and 
photosynthetic sulfur bacteria, were observed at 
the surface and the boundary between aerobic and 
anoxic layers respectively. In Dec, a marked dark 
carbon fixation was observed at the boundary 
layer, although there was no indication of bacterial 
photosynthesis. Sulfate reduction was found only 
in bottom mud, especially near the surface of sedi- 
ment. C and sulfur cycles and their interrelation in 
the anoxic layer are discussed.— Copyright 1973, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08429 



COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF THE BENTHOS 
DS SCOTTISH SEALOCHS: I. INTRODUCTION 
AND SPECIES DIVERSITY, 

Dunstaffnage Marine Research Lab., Oban (Scot- 
land). 
J. Gage. 

Mar Biol (Berl). Vol 14, No 4, p 281-297. 1972. Il- 
lus. 

Identifiers: 'Benthos, Diversity, Lochs, 'Sea- 
Loches, Species, 'Scotland. 

The diversity of the macrobenthos was measured, 
using the rarefaction method of Sanders (1968), 
from bottom samples from Loch Etive, Loch 
Creran and the Firth of Lome (Scottish west 
wast). Each sample (representing 1.6 m2 of bot- 
tom area) was accumulated as a series of separate 
nauls taken consecutively in a systematic pattern 
with a van Veen grab. Two habitats were con- 
sidered: soft mud and muddy sand. Within-habitat 
x>mparison of species diversity clearly indicates 
that diversity is lower in Loch Etive than in Loch 
Creran or the Firth of Lome The reasons for this 
ire probably connected with the relatively high 
freshwater run-off into Loch Etive, possibly limit- 
ng the survival of planktonic larval stages of the 
penthos. The values of species diversity measured 
or the soft-mud areas in Loch Creran and the 
Firth of Lome are thought to be representative for 
Jus habitat along the west coast of the British 
isles. They agree well with the diversity predicted 
>y Sanders for such a boreal inshore area, where a 
naritime climate prevails, on the basis of his time 
stability hypothesis and the results of his sampling 
Jsewhere.-Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, 
inc. 
OT3-08431 



NFECTION OF BROWN SHRIMP, PENAEUS 

iZTECUS IVES BY PROCHRISTIANELLA 

'ENAEI KRUSE (CRESTODA: TRYPANOR- 

IYNCHA) DM SOUTHEASTERN LOUISIANA 

IAYS, 

vlicholls State Univ., Thibodaux, La. 

. G. Ragan, and D. V. Aldrich. 

rrans Am Fish Soc. Vol 101, No 2, p 226-238. 

972. nius. 

dentifiers: Bays, *Cestoda, Fishery, Infection, 

'Louisiana, Penaeus-Aztecus, Penaeus-Setiferus, 

"rochristianella- Penaei, 'Shrimp (Brown), 

Southeastern U.S., Trypanorhyncha. 

"he plerocercus of the trypanorhynchan cestode, 
'. panaei was found to be a common parasite of 
onunercially important shrimp (P. aztecus and P. 
etiferus) in southeastern Louisiana. During June 
ind July 1967, the cestode was found in 42% of 971 
ubadult and large juvenile P. aztecus taken 
weekly from different estuaries. Infection of 
pecimens from Lake Pontchartrain varied 
ctween 18% and 50% without a definite pattern, 



but in Lake Borgne it rose suddenly from 38% to 
88% and leveled off. In the delta complex west of 
the Mississippi River, it increased at a slower but 
more regular rate and reached a maximum of 63% 
in the last sampling week. Prochristianella penaei 
was found in 75% of 150 P. setiferus obtained from 
Lakes Pontchartrain and Borgne on 2 successive 
wk (July 24-Aug. 3) following a sharp decline in the 
availability of P. aztecus. Infection patterns of 
both species are discussed relative to the ecology 
of sampled areas and habits of hosts involved in 
the life cycle of P. penaei. Shrimp drawn concomi- 
tantly from different parts of a given estuary 
showed marked differences in infection. It appears 
that coarser substrata found at some stations may 
have been limiting to at least 1 host, possibly 
shrimp. No definite relationship was found 
between infection and length of either host in any 
of the estuaries sampled. Results are discussed 
relative to the potential utility of P. penaei as a liv- 
ing shrimp 'tag. '-Copyright 1973, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-08433 



SALICYLANHJDE I, AN EFFECTIVE NON-PE- 
RSISTENT CANDIDATE PISCICIDE, 

Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, La 
Crosse, Wis. Fish Control Lab. 
L. L. Marking. 

Trans Am Fish Soc. Vol 101, No 3, p 526-533. 
1972. 

Identifiers: Cyprinids, Fishery, Ictalurids, Non- 
persistent, *Piscicides, •Salicylanilide, Salmonids, 
Toxicity. 

Salicylanilide I (2', 5-dichloro-3-tert-butyl-6- 
methyl-4'-nitrosalicylanilide) was tested for its 
toxicity to 20 spp. of freshwater fish in laboratory 
bioassays and to 15 spp. in outdoor pool bioassays. 
It is extremely toxic to all species of fish tested, 
and the 96-hr LC50's range from 0.3 to 8.6 ppb in 
standard tests. Ictalurids are about as sensitive as 
salmonids to Salicylanilide I. Cyprinids are equally 
or more sensitive to the chemical than some sen- 
trarchids. Salicylanilide I effectively kills fish at 
similar concentrations in soft and hard water, in 
cold or warm water, and in acid or alkaline water. 
In outdoor pools, Salicylanilide I killed all fish of 
1 5 spp. at concentrations of 40 and 60 ppb and all 
fish of 12 spp. at a concentration of 20 ppb. The 
chemical detoxifies in water, but detoxification 
appears to be inhibited by colder temperatures. 
The broad spectrum piscicidal activity of Sal- 
icylanilide I in waters of various qualities and tem- 
peratures offers advantages over presently used 
fish toxicants.-Copyright 1973, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-08434 



PHYSIO-MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF 
ABRUPT THERMAL STRESS ON DIATOMS, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Office 
of Environmental Sciences. 
G. R. Lanza, and J. Cairns, Jr. 
Trans Am Microsc Soc. Vol 91 , No 3, p 276-298. 
1972. Ulus. 

Identifiers: 'Diatoms, Ecology, Effluents, Elec- 
tric plants (Steam), Microscopical surveys, 
'Morphological studies, Stress, Surveys, 'Ther- 
mal pollution. 

The physio-morphological effects of several 
categories of defined abrupt temperature increases 
on diatoms were evaluated. Temperature increases 
which could result from entrainment through cool- 
ing lines of steam electric generating facilities and 
downstream additions of thermal effluents were 
simulated. In addition to established criteria such 
as standard microscopical surveys on cell 
morphology and effects on population growth, a 
new approach involving total cellular fluorescent 
patterns was developed and initially tested in the 
measurement of cellular alterations following 
stress. The changes in cellular fluorescent patterns 
prior to and following severe internal cellular 



destruction of diatoms are discussed, and ecologi- 
cal and physiological implications are indicated.— 
Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08441 



SPECIES DIVERSITY OF MARINE 

MACROBENTHOS IN THE VIRGINIA AREA, 

Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of 

Zoology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 

W73-08445 



ECOLOGY OF ARBOVIRUSES W A MARY- 
LAND FRESHWATER SWAMP: I. POPULA- 
TION DYNAMICS AND HABITAT DISTRIBU- 
TION OF POTENTIAL MOSQUITO VECTORS, 

Walter Reed Army Inst, of Research, Washington, 
D.C. 

E. S. Saugstad, J. M. Dalrymple, and B. F. 
Eldridge. 

Am J Epidemiol. Vol 96, No 2, p 1 14-122. 1972. Il- 
lus. 

Identifiers: Aedes-Canadensis, Aedes-Cantator, 
'Arboviruses, Culex-Salinarius, Culiseta-Melanu- 
ra, Ecology, 'Maryland, 'Mosquito vectors, Vec- 
tors, Water pollution effects. 

Entomological aspects of arbovirus ecology were 
studied in the Pocomoke Cypress Swamp in east- 
ern Maryland. During 1969 nearly 350,000 adult 
and 10,000 larval mosquitoes were collected in the 
swamp and surrounding areas. Aedes canadensis, 
Culiseta melanura, Culex salinarius and A. canta- 
tor accounted for 89% of the total adult catch. 
Analyses of variance of the capture rates of adults 
of these species demonstrated highly significant 
differences in capture rates between 5 habitats 
(based on vegetative differences) sampled for 3 
out of the 4 species, but no significant differences 
between collection sites within the same habitats. 
In some instances, interhabitat differences in adult 
density were related to differences in suitable lar- 
val breeding sites; in other cases differences ap- 
peared related to the availability of suitable hosts 
for blood feeding. Population peaks of several spe- 
cies of mosquitoes coincided with the peak of 
virus activity in the swamp, but C. melanura was 
the only species from which a group A virus was 
isolated. Fourteen isolates of Western Equine En- 
cephalitis and 5 of Eastern were recovered from 
July 15 to Sept. 8, an average of 1 isolate for every 
3,881 females. The significance of population 
dynamics and habitat distribution of the dominant 
mosquito species of the swamp to virus transmis- 
sion is discussed. (See also W73-08447)-Copyright 
1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08446 



RECURRENT ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS DE- 
FECTION IN RESIDENTS OF A FLOOD PLAIN 
OF THE TRINITY RIVER, ROOSEVELT 
HEIGHTS (DALLAS, TEXAS), 
Texas Univ., Dallas. Southwestern Medical 
School. 

J. P. Luby, and R. W. Haley. 
Am J Epidemiol. Vol 96, No 2, p 107-113. 1972. D- 
lus. 

Identifiers: Culex-Quinquefasciatus, Culex-Tar- 
salis, Cycles, 'Dallas, 'Encephalitis (St. Louis), 
Equine, Floodplain, Infection, River, Texas, 
Trinity River (Tex). 

A serologic survey was conducted among 
non white persons residing in a circumscribed com- 
munity (Roosevelt Heights) in Dallas, Texas, situ- 
ated on a flood plain of the Trinity River. In total, 
214 sera were collected. St. Louis encephalitis 
(SLE) neutralizing antibody (Ab) was found in 
13.6% of the sample and rates revealed a statisti- 
cally significant trend to increase by length of re- 
sidence, suggesting that this community had ex- 
perienced recurrent SLE infection. Western 
equine encephalitis (WEE) Ab was found in 1.9% 
of the survey population. The finding of a commu- 






I 



I 



67 



Field 05 WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5C — Effects of Pollution 



nity with recurrent SLE infection approximately 
100 miles west of the towns that were previously 
investigated was thought basic to the epidemiolog- 
ic proof that an interaction did exist between the 2 
established transmission cycles for SLE virus in 
Texas (SLE, WEE-Culex tarsalis mosquitoes and 
SLE-C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes). --Copyright 
1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08448 

5D. Waste Treatment Processes 



A METHODOLOGY FOR PLANNING OP- 
TIMAL REGIONAL WASTEWATER MANAGE- 
MENT SYSTEMS, 

Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. Water Resources 
Research Center. 

D. D. Adrian, B. B. Berger, R. J. Giglio, F. C. 
Kaminsky, and R. F. Rikkers. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 388, $6.75 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Publication No. 26, (1972) 243 
p, 19 fig, 10 tab, 81 ref, 7 append. OWRR BJoil- 
MASS(10). 

Descriptors: Waste water (Pollution), *Regional 
economics, 'Planning, Methodology, Human 
population, Combined sewers, Interceptors, *Cost 
allocation, *Massachusetts, *Decision making, 
Regional analysis, *Treatment facilities, ♦Con- 
struction costs, Optimal development plans, *Re- 
gional development. 

Identifiers: Springfield (Mass), *Capacity expan- 
sion. 

The research described is directed towards the 
development of a methodology and mathemati- 
cal/computer models which can aid planning agen- 
cies to make decisions concerning the develop- 
ment of regional wastewater management plans. 
The type of region under consideration is one in 
which a set of communities, commercial establish- 
ments, and industries discharge their treated ef- 
fluent to a common stream. The regional plan 
produced by the methodology does not yield 
detailed engineering plans for each treatment plant 
to be constructed in the region. It does yield a 
long-range construction program for the region 
which has been determined to be best in such a 
way that a quality environment results with a 
reasonable expenditure of funds. The report is di- 
vided into the following sections: (a) Summary of 
results, (b) Needs for further work, (c) Planning 
methodology, (d) Using the methodology, (e) Ap- 
pendices. The seven appendices describe: (a) 
Population dynamics, (b) Optimal interceptor net- 
works, (c) Optimal facility location-service model, 
(d) Optimal timing of capacity expansions, (e) 
Spacing effluent discharges, (f) Combined sewer 
problems, (g) Apportioning costs among partici- 
pants in regional systems. 
W73-07805 



A KINETIC APPROACH TO BIOLOGICAL 
WASTEWATER TREATMENT DESIGN AND 
OPERATION, 

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. Water Resources and 
Marine Sciences Center. 
A. W. Lawrence, and P. L. McCarty. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 402, $5.25 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Technical Report No. 23* 
1969. 56 p, 7 fig, 6 tab, 59 ref, 2 append. OWRR A- 
?! 6 ±X (4) - 14-01-000-1-1400, 14-01-0001-1852, 14- 
31-0001-3032, 14-31-0001-3232. 

Descriptors: *Biological treatment, Sanitary en- 
gineering, Activated sludge, Anaerobic digestion, 
Design, *Waste water treatment, Kinetics, Water 
quality control, Models studies. 

A unified basis for design and operation of biologi- 
cal waste treatment systems employing suspen- 
sions of microorganisms is developed from 



microbial kinetic concepts and continuous culture 
of microorganisms theory. Biological Solids Re- 
tention Time, average time period a unit of biologi- 
cal mass is retained in the system, is suggested as 
an independent parameter for process design and 
control. Biological Solids Retention Time is func- 
tionally related to process performance and is a 
readily controlled operational parameter. Steady 
state kinetic models are presented for three 
process configurations, i.e., completely mixed 
reactor without solids recycle, completely mixed 
reactor with solids recycle, and plug flow reactor 
with solids recycle. Reported values of kinetic 
coefficients are tabularized for: (1) aerobic treat- 
ment of carbonaceous wastes, (2) aerobic biologi- 
cal nitrification, and (3) anaerobic methanogenic 
fermentation of carbonaceous wastes. These coef- 
ficient values are substituted into the models to 
determine lower limits, i.e., minimum values of 
Biological Solids Retention Time, for each 
process. Minimum values of Biological Solids 
Rentention Time are compared with Biological 
Solids Retention Time values for actual treatment 
systems to identify the safety factors implicit in 
current design practice. 
W73-07809 



DISCHARGES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE TO 
MUNICIPAL SEWER SYSTEMS, 

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. Water Resources and 
Marine Sciences Center. 
V. C. Behn. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 361, $3.00 in paper copy 
$1.45 in microfiche. Technical Report No 60' 
February 1973. 18 p, 3 fig, 4 tab. OWRR A-017-NY 
(1). 14-01-0001-1400. 

Descriptors: *Industrial wastes, Industries, 
•Waste water treatment, Cities, Legislation, 'Mu- 
nicipal wastes, New York, Rates, 'Combined 
sewers. 

Studies by the Federal Government have shown 
that approximately one-fourth of industrial wastes 
are treated jointly with municipal wastes. A survey 
was made of ordinances and rate structures cur- 
rently in use in New York State. A close examina- 
tion shows that the ordinances are very similar in 
nature being mainly for the purpose of protecting 
the sewer system. Charges and surcharges are ex- 
tremely variable. The basic charges from city to 
city can be as much as 10 to 1, while surcharges 
can vary by about 4 to 1. Thus, there is not much 
that can be accomplished within the existing 
framework insofar as joint treatment is concerned. 
However, the flow equalization step does lend it- 
self to making the combined treatment more prac- 
tical. By making flow equalization of industrial 
wastes mandatory through the mechanism of the 
sewer ordinance it is felt that municipalities will be 
in a much better position regarding accepting the 
industrial waste into their system. At the same 
time, attention could be paid to surcharges, with 
some relief given to firms who provide a uniform 
rate to the municipal sewer system. 
W73-07810 



DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPURPOSE WATER 
PURIFICATION UNIT FOR ARMY HELD USE. 
Army Mobility Equipment Research and Develop- 
ment Center, Fort Belvoir, Va. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F 
W73-07833 



AMMONIATED MIXED BEDS GIVE MIXED 
RESULTS, 

E. Salem. 

Power Engineering, Vol 75, p 52-55, March, 1971 

2 fig, 3 tab. 

Descriptors: *Waste water treatment, *Water 
treatment, 'Separation techniques, 'Ion 
exchange, Resins, Anions, Cations, Economics, 



Ammonium, Design criteria, Treatment facilities 

Flotation, Water quality control, Water pollution 

control. 

Identifiers: 'Seprex, •Sodium throw, •Sulfate 

throw. 

Many proposals have been made because of 
economic considerations that ammonium form ca- 
tion exchange resin be substituted for the 
hydrogen form cation exchange resin in the con- 
densate polisher mixed bed. Teste conducted and 
the results show that the performance of mixed 
beds containing ammonium form cation resins va- 
nes greatly with pH levels. Of all the resins tested 
none had a volumetric throughput in excess of 14 
months of full power operation under today's nor- 
mal design criteria. To cope with this problem, a 
new process called Seprex was developed which 
eliminates sodium and sulfate throw. This process 
involves separating the entrained cation from the 
anion resin by flotation. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-07834 



THE CONTEMPORARY STATE OF DECON- 
TAMINATING WASTE WATER, 
V. YE. Privalov, S. N. Lazorin, and V. M. 
Komiyenko. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as AD-747 514, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Air Force Systems Command 
Foreign Technology Division Translation F70-MT- 
24-1460-71, April, 1972. 15 p, 2 tab, 20 ref. (Trans 
of Koks i Khimiya, No 5, p 33-38, 1969). 

Descriptors: 'Pilot plants, 'Water pollution, 
•Phenols, *Wastewater treatment, Chemical ox- 
ygen demand, Biological treatment, Oil wastes. 
Oil pollution, Water pollution treatment, Industrial 
wastes, Water supply, Lime, Decontamination 
Identifiers: 'Russia, »Coke plants. 

On the basis of a study conducted by the World 
Health Organization, a review is given of water 
pollution that is caused by the coke chemical in- 
dustry. By using active silt at a pilot plant, an in- 
vestigation was conducted to check on the purifi- 
cation of concentrated phenol wastewaters. Per- 
formance data from this pilot plant are compiled in 
two tables. If the inflow of limed water into biolog- 
ical installations is eliminated, the average deten- 
tion time of water in biological basins could be 
reduced 3 to 4 times, the rate of destruction of 
phenols rose 5 to 6 times, and the chemical oxygen 
demand was lowered 2-3 times. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-07835 



ADVANCED STUDIES OF THE SUBMERGED 
ANAEROBIC FILTER FOR BREWERY PRESS 
LIQUOR STABILIZATION, 

Kentucky Univ., Lexington 
E. G. Force. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-210 976, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Technical Report UKY48-72- 
CE14, 41 p, May, 1972. 9 fig, 2 tab, 14 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Anaerobic treatment, 'Anaerobic 
bacteria, 'Filtration, 'Wastewater treatment, In- 
dustrial wastes, Chemical oxygen demand, Or- 
ganic loadings, Water quality control, Water pollu- 
tion control, Water pollution sources, Water quali- 
ty. 

Identifiers: 'Brewery press liquor waste, 
'Anaerobic filter units. 

The anaerobic filter process evaluated consisted 
of passing liquid brewery press waste upward 
through a submerged rock packed column. The 
rocks provide the microorganisms that are neces- 
sary for stabilization with suitable media upon 
which to attach themselves, which in turn insures 
a long solids retention time necessary for optimum 
treatment. The COD removal efficiencies stabil- 
ized above 90% for all loadings except for 
dropping below 30% when the filter was loaded at 






WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Waste Treatment Processes — Group 50 



400 lbs COD. The results indicated that the anaero- 
bic filter can be used as a successful method of 
treating brewery press liquor waste at the loadings 
and buffering capacity studied. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-07836 



THE EFFECTS OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS 
PADDING MATERIAL ON MUNICD?AL WASTE 
TREATMENT PROCESSES, 

Kentucky Univ., Lexington. 
E. G. Foree. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-210 993, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Technical Report UKY 47-72- 
CE13, April, 1972. 50 p, 9 fig, 4 tab, 12 ref . 

Descriptors: *Wastewater treatment, *Waste 
treatment, *Activated sludge, 'Sludge treatment, 
Chemical oxygen demand, Suspended solids, 
Disposal, Aerobic digestion, Anaerobic digestion, 
Municipal wastes, Biological treatment, Water 
pollution control, 
identifiers: 'Disposable diapers. 

A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the 
potential effects of the flushable portion of 
disposable diapers on the operation of commonly 
employed municipal wastewater treatment 
processes. Two laboratory scale plants were con- 
structed and operated at a capacity of 24 liters per 
day each. One plant was operated as the control, 
while the second plant was operated under the 
same conditions with incremental contributions of 
diaper material, in addition. Each plant consisted 
of a primary clarifier, an activated sludge aeration 
basin, a secondary clarifier, and both an anaerobic 
digester and an aerobic digester as alternate means 
of sludge stabilization. Essentially 100% of the 
diaper material settled out in the primary clarifier 
and therefore, did not affect the secondary biolog- 
ical treatment processes. As a result of this study, 
it was felt that there will be no measurable effect 
on typical municipal wastewater treatment 
processes at present or in the near future due to 
diaper usage and the contribution of disposable 
diaper material to municipal wastewater streams. 
(Smith-Texas) 
W73-07837 



A PRESENT VALUE-UNIT COST 

METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING WASTE- 
WATER RECLAMATION AND DIRECT REUSE 
AT A MHJTARY BASE OF OPERATION, 

Army Mobility Equipment Research and Develop- 
ment Center, Fort Belvoir, Va. 
V. J. Ciccone. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as AD 746 621, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. 1972, 36 p, 1 fig, 73 ref. 

Descriptors: *Cost analysis, *Project benefits, 
•Unit costs, *Water reuse, Recycling, Mathemati- 
cal studies, Mathematical models, Optimization, 
Water supply, Potable water, Water quality con- 
trol, Water pollution, Waste water treatment. 
Identifiers: 'Economic evaluation, 'Military 
bases. 

The present value method of economic evaluation 
is applied to a water supply problem typical of a 
military operation. The concepts of reclamation 
and dual supply systems are introduced and 
presented as feasible alternatives. A hierarchy of 
water use is established with the highest quality in- 
tended for potable purposes. The difference in the 
calculated unit costs for the alternatives is ex- 
amined over selected p lanning horizons. The dif- 
ference in the calculated unit costs is input into the 
decision and policy making process for selecting 
in optimal system of water supply for the military 
base of operations. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-07838 



WATER SUPPLY AND WASTE DISPOSAL SE- 
RES, VOL 6, OXIDATION DITCH SEWAGE 
WASTE TREATMENT PROCESS, 

Federal Highway Administration, Washington, 

D.C. 

H. W. Parker. 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 

D.C. 20402 Price $0.60. Staff Report, April, 1972. 

52 p, 31 fig, 6 tab, 17 ref. 

Descriptors: *Oxidation lagoons, "Oxidation, 
•Waste water treatment, *Waste treatment, 
Domestic sewage, Sewage treatment, Pilot plant, 
Water pollution control, Aeration, Sludge, Mixing, 
Research and development, Activated sludge, 
Biological treatment, Municipal wastes. 
Identifiers: "Roadside rest areas, "Oxidation 
ditch. 

Theory, design, specifications, construction, 
operation and testing of the oxidation ditch waste 
treatment process are described. The oxidation 
ditch waste treatment process was chosen for use 
at roadside rest areas because of its simplicity of 
operation, reliablility of performance, ease of 
maintenance and cost advantage. It is also applica- 
ble to small domestic sewage plant use. It was 
found that the process had very few operational 
problems although some problems have occurred 
during intermittent operations. Therefore, the 
system should be activated and left in continuous 
operation. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-07839 



BRACKISH WATER DESALINATED BY THE 
'SHtOTHERM' PROCESS, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03A. 
W73-07840 



PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE IN THE USE OF 
POLYELECTROLYTES, 

Newcastle and Gateshead Water Co., Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne (England). 
F.Bell. 

Water Treatment and Examination, Vol 20, No 3, 
p 179-181, 1971. 6 ref. 

Descriptors: "Polyelectrolytes, "Filtration, 
"Alum, Water treatment, "Waste water treatment, 
Head loss, Color, Water quality control, Water 
pollution control, Economics, Coagulation, 
Chlorination. 
Identifiers: "Filter aids. 

The use of polyelectrolytes particularly as filter 
aids at the Henderson Filter Plant is described. Be- 
fore the use of polyelectrolytes filter, runs had to 
be ended before maximum head loss was reached 
because of excessive penetration and 
breakthrough of color and residual alum in the 
water. These problems are solved with the use of 
polyelectrolytes as filter aids. In addition, they are 
more economical because of the slight reduction in 
the alum dose. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-07841 



SLUDGE FIL TER PRESSING AND INCINERA- 
TION AT SHEFFIELD, 
Sheffield Corp., Wincobank (England). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05E. 
W73-07842 



A REGIONAL PLANNING MODEL FOR 
WATER QUALITY CONTROL, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst, and State Univ., 

Blacksburg. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-07918 



DEACTIVATION OF RADIOACTIVE SEWAGE 
BY THE METHOD OF TWO-STEP COAGULA- 
TION OF FERRIC HYDROXIDE. 

Ural Polytechnic Inst, Sverdlovsk (USSR). 
V. L. Zolotavin, A. A. Konstantinovich, V. N. 
Sanauna, V. V. Pushkarev, and V. S. Petrov. 
Soviet Radiochemistry, Vol 13, p 167-169, 1971. 3 
tab, 7 ref. (Trans, from Racu'okhrmiya, Vol 13, No 
1, p 164-166, Jan-Feb 1971). 

Descriptors: "Iron compounds, "Radioactive 
waste disposal, "Waste water treatment, "Floccu- 
lation, Filtration, Settling velocity, Sewage treat- 
ment, Filters, Chemical precipitation, Water pollu- 
tion treatment 

Two-stage flocculation with iron sulfate proved 
more efficient than a single stage. The alpha 
radioactivity of the effluent was reduced from the 
initial value of 0.3-0.9 microCurie/Uter to 0.1-9 
nanoCuries/liter after stage 1 , and to 24-60 picoCu- 
ries/liter after stage 2. The residual beta radioac- 
tivity was an order of magnitude higher. Compara- 
ble results were obtained in stage 1 by decantation 
after 24 hours settling, or by filtration through 
sand or filter paper after 2 hours aging. (Bopp- 
ORNL) ^^ 

W73-07937 



WATER AND WASTE WATER STUDIES, 1971 
(WASSER- UND ABWASSERCHEMISCHE UN- 
TERSUCHUNGEN), 

Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung m.b.H., Karl- 
sruhe (West Germany). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W73-07944 



RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS FROM NUCLEAR 
POWERPLANTS (BETRDZBLICHE ABLEITUN- 
GEN RADIOAKTTVER STOFFE AUS KERN- 
TECHNISCHEN ANLAGEN). 

Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein e. V., 
Cologne (West Germany). Institut fuer Reaktor- 
sicherheit 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as JJtS-T- 
23; $3.00 paper copy, $1.45 microfiche. Report 
IRS-T-23, July 1972. Proceedings of the Seventh 
Conference, Nov. 8-9, 1971, Koln, West Germany. 
158 p. 

Descriptors: "Radioactivity effects, "Nuclear 
wastes, "Nuclear powerplants, "Effluents, Eu- 
rope, Conferences, Standards, Regulation, Water 
pollution control, "Waste treatment, Monitoring, 
Forecasting, Environmental effects. 

German nuclear powerplants under construction 
detain Xe 40-60 days and Kr 2.5 days in charcoal 
absorption systems, which also remove iodine 
aerosols. The radioactivity of liquid effluents is 
reduced to less than 50 microCuries/cubic meter 
(by treatment by chemical precipitation, evapora- 
tion, deposition-filtration, and ion exchange) be- 
fore discharge with the cooling water. The average 
dose to individuals living in the vicinity is about 1 
mr/year. The adequacy of the 30-mr/year limit is 
discussed. English abstracts and the discussion 
following the papers are included. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W73-07952 



RADIOACTIVITY AND WATER SUPPLIES, 

Interuni versitair Reactor Institutt, Delft (Nether- 
lands). 
G. Lettinga. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as EUR- 
4866e. $3.00 per copy, $1.45 microfiche. Report 
No. EUR-4866e, 1972. 198 p, 98 fig, 54 tab, 290 ref. 

Descriptors: "Radioactive wastes disposal, 
"Water pollution, "Water pollution sources, "Air 
pollution, "Radioisotopes, Strontium, Cesium, 
Cobalt, Ruthenium, Iodine, Water pollution treat- 
ment, Assay, Adsorption, Ion exchange, Rivers, 
Peat 



I 



69 



Field 05-WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 50— Waste Treatment Processes 



Identifiers: 'Netherlands. 

An investigation has been made of the applicabili- 
ty of peat, chemically modified peat, clay and ac- 
tivated carbon for the removal of radionuclides 
(i.e., of Sr, Cs, Co, Mn, Ce, Ru, I) from aqueous 
solutions. Natural peat pairs a reasonable ion 
exchange capacity (approximately 1 meq/g at pH 
6) with a pronouced specificity for higher valency 
cations, especially the cations of the transition ele- 
ments and of the rare earth elements and for ca- 
tionic Ru-complexes. Relative to the alkaline ele- 
ments also the earth alkaline elements are sorbed 
with a high selectivity. However, within the last 
group a strong competing action exists between 
the various species, e.g., peat shows a slight 
preference for Sr over Ca only at pH <3.5. Strong 
indications were obtained that humic acids play a 
predominant part in the behavior of heavy metal 
ions in aqueous systems. By heating peat in air at a 
temperature of 1 20-160 C with either dilute or con- 
centrated H2S04, a product is obtained with 
strongly unproved properties over the natural 
*? 8t o e ^ IOn exchan $ e capacity (being 2-3.5 meq/g 
at pH 6), chemical and mechanical stability 
swelling properties and selectivity for Sr relative 
to Ca. Modified peat therefore may be considered 
as eminently suitable for decontamination of 
radioactively contaminated aqueous solutions For 
the removal of radiocesium some K-fixing Dutch 
clay deposits, such as Ammerzoden clay can ad- 
vantageously be applied. Radioiodine can be 
removed from aqueous solutions rather effectively 
riDK^^" 18 activated carbon +C12. (Houser- 
W73-07960 



A £ R £5 VDUSTRUL PARK WATER IMPROVE- 
MENTS, SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES 
BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT LOAN (FINAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Economic Development Administration, Austin 
Tex. Southwestern Region. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as EIS-TX-72-5127-F, $9.00 paper 
copy, $1.45 microfiche. August 18, 1972. 130 p 4 
fig, 3 map. r ' 

Descriptors: *Texas, *Environmental effects 
•Treatment facilities, 'Groundwater availability 
Industrial wastes, Industrial water, Land use' 
Area redevelopment, Water supply, Sewage treat- 
ment, Economic impact, Groundwater resources 
Identifiers: 'Environmental Impact Statements 
•Cactus (Tex). 

This project consists of an agri-industrial park 
water improvements, sewage treatment facilities' 
and a business development loan in Cactus, Texas 
Alternatives to this proposed development include 
a different site for the industrial park and no 
development. As a result of this project, 701 acres 
of unimproved range land would be converted to 
industrial use. Also, 145 acres of cultivated farm 
land would be converted to the site of a sewage 
treatment plant. The industries locating in the park 
would place an additional demand upon the ground 
water supply of the Ogallala aquifer. Noise, dust 
and exhaust emissions would increase in the area 
both during and after construction. Additional de- 
mands would be placed upon the solid waste 
J"POsalfacilities in the area. (Mockler-Florida) 



WINERY INNOVATES WAS, K. TREATMENT. 

Food Engineering, Vol 44, No 6, p 73 75 June 
1972. 3 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Waste water treatment, Water (real 
ment, Treatment facilities, 'Sludge disposal, Ul 
timate disposal. Fertilizers, Effluent*, Laboratory 
tests. Aeration, Biological treatment, Activated 
sludge, Sludge treatment, 'New York, industrial 
wastes, Water pollution control, Food processm* 

i id J list j y • 

Identifiers: 'Widmer's Wine Cellars, Inc. 

At a cost of more than 500,000 dollars, Widmer's 
Wine Cellars, Inc. located in New York State's 
Naples Valley, has completed and placed into 
operation a 3 acre industrial wastewater treatment 
facility that relies heavily on aeration. Four ten- 
foot deep aeration ponds are used to encourage 
bacterial growth and form activated sludge from 
waste material and natural decomposition. When 
solids level in the digester must be reduced 
digested solids are pumped from the ponds to a 
tank truck and distributed throughout the vineyard 
for fertilizer. A new on-site laboratory continually 
tests effluents moving through the system. (Smith- 
Texas) 
W73-08094 



EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES ON OX- 
IDATION POND PERFORMANCE, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C 
W73-08015 



nVACITVATION ASSAYS OF ENTEROVIRUSES 
AND SALMONELLA IN FRESH AND 
PS™ WASTE WATER SLUDGES BY 
PASTEURIZATION, "««•» 

ES£25Jf?' bibl i°graphic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08017 



THE ANAEROBIC FTLTER FOR THE TREAT- 
MENT OF BREWERY PRESS LIQUOR WASTE 
Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 
E. G. Foree, and C. R. Lovan. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-210 924, $3.00 in paper copy 
$1.45 in microfiche. Technical Report UKY46-72- 
CE 12, April, 1972. 52 p, 14 fig, 2 tab, 16 ref . 

Descriptors: 'Waste water treatment, 'Waste 
treatment, 'Industrial wastes, 'Sedimentation 
Organic wastes, Distillation, Filtration, Anaerobic 
bacteria, Anaerobic treatment, Filters, Trace ele- 
ments, Chemical oxygen demand. Organic load- 
ing, Dissolved solids, Water pollution control 
Water quality. 

Identifiers: 'Brewery wastes, 'Brewery press 
liquor waste. 

Spent grains from the lauter tub and hop strainer 
are collected in a press where they are concen- 
trated for further drying and processing for cattle 
feed, in a typical brewing process. The waste 
liquor from this operation has a very high concen- 
tration of dissolved organics and moderately low 
concentration of suspended organics which can be 
readily removed by sedimentation and a high tem- 
perature, usually 125 to 130F. This investigation 
was conducted to evaluate the performance of two 
laboratory scale filters. One was operated at a con- 
stant loading of 50 lbs. COD per thousand cu ft 
per day while the other filter load was increased to 
100 lb. COD per thousand cu. ft per day and the 
concentrations of buffering and trace element 
solutions were varied. Since COD removal effi- 
ciency of 90% or greater was achieved under all 
conditions and loadings, it was concluded that the 
anaerobic filter is a feasible means of treating 
brewery press liquor waste. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-08095 



USE OF WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SOLIDS 
FOR MINED LAND RECLAMATION, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05E 

W73-08096 



TERTIARY EFFLUENT DEMORALISATION 

Permutit Co. Ltd., London (England). 

J. Grantham. 

Process Biochemistry, Vol 5, No 1 , p 31-33 and 38 

January 1970. 2 fig, 4 tab, 14 ref. 



70 



l>es<.ripu,rs 'Wnitt water treatment, Walo l/eat- 
ment, 'Tertiary treatment, 'Anion emhauat 
treatment facilities. Separation techniques D*.' 
lergenLs, Co«t companion. Cod analysis PilM 
plants, Automation, Capital cost, Sewuc treat- 
ment, Retina, •iJetrimeralj/.atioo 
Identifier! 'Anion resins 

Thi* work u based upon current too exchange 
demincrauzing practice and shows that tertiary 
treated sewage can be dcminerali/.ed to a quality 
suitable for industrial use at a cost comparable ta 
terms of capital investment and running cost to 
that required for treating water from more conven- 
tional sources A small scale semi automatic pilot 
plant was set up and operated for 9 month* 
demmeralizing tertiary sewage effluent The 
results show that it is practical and economic to 
abstract filtered sewage effluent direct from the 
outfall of a sewage works and deminerahze it to a 
quality acceptable for industrial use using conven- 
tional water treatment type plants and isoporoui 
anion exchange resins The only problem of any 
significance concerns the accumulative effect of 
detergent on the performance of the anion resins 
A cost analysis is included ( Smith-Texas) 
W73-08O97 



•LIQUID FERTILIZER' TO RECLAIM LAND 
AND PRODUCE CORPS, 

Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05E. 



DESIGN OF TREATMENT FACILITIES FOR 
THE CONTROL OF PHOSPHORUS, 

Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 
F. M. Middleton 
Water Research, Vol 6, p 475-476, 1972. 1 fig. 

Descriptors: Phosphorus, 'Design criteria Treat- 
ment facilities, 'Waste water treatment, 'Biologi- 
cal treatment, Flocculation, Chemical reactions 
Activated sludge, Sludge treatment, Lime, Ahun' 
Iron compounds, Effluents. 
Identifiers: 'Chemical treatment, 'Phosphorus 
control. 

Biological removal enhanced by lime, alum, or 
iron compounds can produce effluents that meet 
new phosphorus standards. Facilities for chemical 
addition are easily constructed at existing plant* 
A 30 second flash mix followed by 1 -5 minute high 
energy flocculation and a 5-20 minute low energy 
flocculation achieves good results. Costs are about 
5 cents per 1000 gal for 80% removal. There are 
both advantages and disadvantages to addition of 
chemicals to the activated sludge treatment unit 
(Anderson-Texas) 
W73-08100 



FLOW VELOCITIES IN AERATION TANKS 
WITH MECHANICAL AERATORS, 

Emschergenossenscbaft, Essen (West Germany) 
K-H. Kalbskopf. 

Water Research, Vol 6, p 413-416, 1972. 6 fig 1 
ref. * 

Descriptors: 'Settling basins, 'Aeration 'Waste 
water treatment, 'Sludge treatment, Domestic 
wastes, Sewage treatment, Flow rates, Flow 
characteristics, Flow measurement, Flow profiles 
Detergents, Critical flow. 
Identifiers: 'Mechanical aerators. 

Mechanical aerators produce a radial or spiral flow 
of surface water which then flows down the side 
of the tank and across the bottom. The flow 
velocity across the bottom must be rapid enough 
to prevent sludge settling. The critical velocity is 
dif ferent for municipal and industrial wastes and is 
affected by the detergent content of the waste. 
(Anderson-Texas) 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Waste Treatment Processes — Group 5D 



W73-08101 

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN WET AIR OXIDA- 
TION PROCESSES, 

Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C. 
W.W.Willman. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as AD-749 350, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Operations Research Branch 
Report 72-4, August 1972. 1 1 p, 6 fig, 14 ref . 

Descriptors: *Waste water treatment, *Waste 
treatment, "Chemical oxygen demand, Oxygena- 
tion, 'Dissolved oxygen, Activated sludge, Sludge 
treatment, Sewage treatment, Aeration, Oxygen 
demand, Treatment facilities. 
Identifiers: *Wet air oxidation processes, *Bubble 
column reactors. 

An essential step in wet air oxidation processes is 
the diffusion of dissolved oxygen. An investiga- 
tion was made of the conditions under which this 
diffusion step becomes a limiting factor for 
processes which use an air bubble column reactor 
for sewage treatment. The results show that the 
importance of oxygen diffusion as a rate limiting 
step depends mainly on reaction temperature and 
pressure, chemical oxygen demand, bubble diame- 
ter, air supply rate, and reactor height. The impli- 
cation of these results for shipboard waste treat- 
ment processes currently being considered by the 
Navy are examined. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-08102 



USAF MOBILITY PROGRAM WASTE WATER 
TREATMENT SYSTEM, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. 
V. L. Snoeyink. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as AD-747 025, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1 .45 in microfiche. Air Force Weapons Laborato- 
ry Technical Report 71-169, April 1972. 210 p, 16 
fig, 31 tab, 133 ref. 

Descriptors: *Waste water treatment, Water treat- 
ment, *Waste treatment, * Waste disposal, Sludge 
disposal, Reverse osmosis, 'Incineration, Indus- 
trial wastes, Domestic wastes, Chlorination, Floc- 
culation, Aeration, Activated carbon, Filtration, 
Flotation, Water quality control, Water pollution 
control, Brines, Dilution, Settling basins. 
Identifiers: 'Photographic wastes. 

The support systems for the U. S. Air Force Bare 
Base Mobility program which involves a highly 
mobile force of 1000 to 6000 men include a waste 
water treatment system which can treat waste 
waters to the required degree prior to discharge to 
the environment. The treatment system involves: 
(1) separate collection and incineration of human 
waste and (2) treatment of all waste waters except 
concentrated photographic wastes in a system 
which includes chemical clarification, flotation, 
filtration, activated carbon adsorption and 
chlorination. The sludge concentrated photo- 
graphic waste and the skimmings from the aircraft 
and vehicle washrack waste are incinerated and 
the ash from the incinerator is disposed of on land. 
A reclamation system consisting primarily of a 
reverse osmosis process is recommended for up- 
grading the quality of the effluent from the waste 
treatment system such that it is suitable for reuse. 
The brine from the reverse osmosis treatment is 
disposed of either by dilution in receiving waters, 
evaporation from ponds or by transportation from 
the site. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-08103 



COST REDUCTION IN SULFATE PULP 
BLEACH PLANT DESIGN, 

Improved Machinery, Inc., Nashua, N.H. 

J. K. Perkins. 

Tappi, Vol 55, No 10, p 1494-1497, October 1972. 2 

fig, 1 tab. 



Descriptors: 'Design criteria, 'Water reuse, 
'Recycling, 'Cost analysis, Cost comparisons, 
Operating costs, Capital costs, Piping systems, 
Design standards, Water quality control, Water 
pollution control, Water pollution sources, 'Pulp 
and paper industry, Treatment facilities. 
Identifiers: 'Sulfate pulp bleach plant. 

A suggested design concept is described for a con- 
ventional sulfate bleach plant which will lead to 
the lowest true cost. First, housing is reduced to a 
minimum in keeping with climatic conditions. 
Next, all similar equipment is on the same center 
line and equally spaced allowing maximum repeti- 
tion of piping details for reduced prefabrication 
costs. All mechanical elements except washers 
and mixers and access to all control valves are on 
the ground floor. Multiple manifolding is 
eliminated by tapered inlet boxes that allow 
straight runs. Finally, stilling type filtrate tanks 
allow recycling of wash water and better foam con- 
trol for reduced water usage and treatment costs. 
(Smith-Texas) 
W73-08105 



TECHNOLOGIES FOR SHIPBOARD OIL-POLL- 
UTION ABATEMENT: EFFECTS OF OPERA- 
TIONAL PARAMETERS ON COALESCENCE. 

Naval Ship Research and Development Center, 
Annapolis, Md. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as AD-749 020, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Report 3598, August 1972. 14 
P,9fig. 

Descriptors: 'Separation techniques, 

'Coalescence, 'Filtration, Filters, Oil, Oil wastes, 
Flow rates, Water quality, Water quality control, 
Water pollution control, Water pollution, Ships, 
Research and development, 'Waste water treat- 
ment. 
Identifiers: 'Oil/water separator. 

The way in which variations of certain operational 
parameters affected the coalescence subsystem, 
and the final stage of a three stage oil-water 
separator system is described. A study was made 
of cylindrical cartridge type coalescer elements 
made of resin coated glass fiber. Particulate matter 
very seriously limited the service life of a 
coalescer element. Oil viscosity was found to have 
a very strong effect, with heavier oils decreasing 
elements life. Increasing oil concentration also 
decreased the life of the element, but above a cer- 
tain oil concentration this effect remained the 
same. No significant effects were noted on 
coalescer life with variations in the total flow rate 
in the range of 2 to 8 gallons per minute. (Smith- 
Texas) 
W73-08106 



STATE OF THE ART OF WATER FILTRA- 
TION, 

American Water Works Association, New York. 

Committee on Filtration Problems. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W73-08107 



BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, 

Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. Applied 

Sciences Branch. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-08108 



PHILADELPHIA SUBURBAN WATER COM- 
PANY, 

Philadelphia Suburban Water Co., Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 
W73-08109 



DETROIT METRO WATER DEPARTMENT, 

Detroit Metro Water Dept., Mich. 



For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 
W73-O8110 



DALLAS WATER UTILITD3S, 

Dallas Water Utilities Dept., Tex. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W73-08111 



ENGINEERING REPORT ON SHORE 
DISP OSAL OF SHIP GENERATED SEWAGE AT 
ACTIVITIES IN THE EASTERN AREA. 
VOLUME I. 

Reynolds, Smith and Hills, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as AD-747 998, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Report, June 1969. 179 p, 6 fig, 
38 tab. N00025-69-C-0004. 

Descriptors: 'Waste water treatment, Treatment 
f acihties, 'Cost analysis, 'Annual costs, 'Con- 
struction costs, Cost comparisons, Unit costs, 
Water quality control, Water pollution control, 
Sewage treatment, Waste disposal, Economics, 
Ships, Saline water. 

Identifiers: 'Naval treatment systems, Engineer- 
ing estimates, Shore disposal, Ship sewage. 

This study was undertaken to provide engineering 
and cost data for shore disposal of ship generated 
sewage at 42 Naval activities in the Eastern area of 
the United States including Puerto Rico. Total 
capital expenditures required to provide shore 
disposal of ship sewage in the Eastern area would 
be $10,078,000. Total cost for handling ship 
sewage from dockside is estimated at $937,000 per 
year. The engineering and cost data developed in 
this study are summarized in a table. This in- 
vestigation indicates that no serious effects are 
being experienced with sewage treatment 
processes exposed to high salt water concentra- 
tions introduced by infiltration and sea water 
flushing systems. The treatment processes accli- 
mate to these high salt water concentrations with 
very little loss in treatment efficiency. Construc- 
tion materials and protective coatings should be 
designed for the salt water environment. (See also 
W73-081 1 3) (Smith-Texas) 
W73-08112 



ENGINEERING REPORT ON SHORE 
DISP OSAL OF SHIP GENERATED SEWAGE AT 
ACTIVmES IN THE EASTERN AREA. 
VOLUME H. 

Reynolds, Smith and Hills, Jacksonville. Fla. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as AD-747 999, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Report, June 1969. 213 p, 70 
fig. N00025-69-C-0004. 

Descriptors: 'Sewage treatment, 'Sewage 

disposal, 'Sewerage, 'Treatment facilities, 

•Waste water treatment, Waste treatment, Ships, 

Water pollution sources, Water pollution control. 

Water quality control, Water pollution, Water 

quality. 

Identifiers: 'Sewerage systems. 

Maps and drawings show existing conditions, ship 
berthing and proposed sewerage faculties for 40 
activities under this study. Two berthing plans are 
shown for most of these activities, and are 
designated: (1) 'Design Maximum Loading of In- 
dividual Berthing Facilities', which shows the 
maximum berthing capability of each pier, wharf, 
and quay, and (2) 'Typical Berth Employment for 
a Maximum Day', which shows the maximum ship 
berthing experienced or expected at the port, ex- 
cept during a national emergency. These berthing 
plans were used to design the proposed sewerage 
systems as described in Volume I. Shore facilities 
to receive ship sewage have been constructed at 
the Naval shipyard Portsmouth, New Hampshire 
and Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Illinois. 



I 



71 



Field 05-WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Croup 50— Watte Treatment Processes 



All figures contained in this volume are pertinent 
to and referenced from Volume I, and are ar 
ranged by Naval district. (See also W73-08112) 
(Smith- Texas) 
W73-08113 



DETECTION, DECONTAMINATION AND 
REMOVAL OF CHEMICALS IN WATER 

Edgewood Arsenal, Md. Army Development and 

Engineering Directorate. 

£5£E??P' bibl '°8raphk entry see Field 05A. 

W/3-081 14 
™SS RBON * TREATING «■*»" 

Westvaco Corp., Covington, Va. 
A. W. Loven. 

Proc available from the National Technical Infor- 
mation Service as AD-738 544, $3.00 in paper 
copy, $1.45 in microfiche. In: Proceedings of First 
Meeting on Environmental Pollution, 15-16 April 
,^nV,f 0nSOre A by Ameri «n Ordnance Associa- 
ft£™ ^ood Arsenal Special Publication EASP 
100-78. February 1972, p 83-105. 1 1 fig, 1 3 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Activated carbon, •Filtration 
Waste water treatment, Industrial wastes, Water 
poUubon control, Adsorption, Water quality con- 
trol. Water quality, Porosity, Design criteria! Wot 

Identifiers: 'Industrial waste treatment systems. 

Adsorption on activated carbon is perhaps the 
most promising and widely acceptable process for 

SaVteTater ^^ "F* -S» 
waste water. Activated carbon adsorption princi- 
ples are reviewed, and activated carbon processes 
w a < L aCt, r ,te . d carbon application to induS 
waste water treatment are discussed. (Smith-Tex- 

W73-08115 



ACTIVATED CARBON IN POLLUTION CON- 

Calgon Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa 

G. V. Stone. 

Proc available from the National Technical Infor- 

E£r*i^ ICe aS ^ m 544 - W-00 m pap^r 
copy $1.45 in microfiche. In: Proceedings of F^st 
Meetmgon Enwronmental Pollution, 15-16 April 
1970, Sponsored by American Ordnance Associa- 

ff^V^r 041 ^% nal Special P"bhcation EASP 
100-78. February 1 972, p 1 06- 1 24. 6 fig, 2 tab 6 ref 



Water and Sewage Work*, Vol 1 19. No H, p < 
August 1 972. 3 tab, 1 5 ref. 

Descriptors: •Waste water bealmenl 'Heavy 
metals, 'Water reuse, 'kecyding. ' ArtuVud 
recharge Injection well*. Groundwater. Water 
supply Water demand. Cost analysis, Water treat 

52*5 Wate , rt l ua i''y. Water poUld IV, , nUnu 

Inckhngfdters, 'Califofi,,,, p-m». 

Identifirrs: 'Orange County Water iMtnd (Cal). 

The Orange County Water District is inve.Ugating 
the feasibility of waste water reclamation because 
of increasing water demand and rising cost of im 
ported water delivered to the Southern California 
area. Studies in waste water redamabon and 
groundwater recharge through mjecUon wells has 
been conducted since 1965 literature i, reviewed 
to determine what is known about the reduction 
and concentration of heavy metals by wa>.te water 
treatment and the efficiency of the Orange County 
Water District* pilot scale waste wateTbeabnent 
plant for removing heavy metals from trickling ef 
WtT-WH 'Smith-Texas) ^ " 

CONVERTING AMD TO POTABI.P wathi bv 
ION EXCHANGE TREATMENT WATE * BY 

Chester Engineers, Inc., Coraopolis, Pa. 

W. Zabban T Fithian, and D. R. Maneval 

fref C ' ?7, M ° 7> - D ,07 " ' • J"Jy 1972- 3 fig, 

Descriptors: 'Acid mine drainage 'Industrial 
wastes. 'Ion exchange, 'WaleTreuse 'Wa^ 

^Tf '. ° W ratCS ' Demineralization, Treat- 
ment facihues, Separation techniques Co, U 
Potable water. Water supply, 'Pennsylvania. ' 

Identif-ers: Counter current ion exchange. 

Two small potable water treatment plants have 
been erected in Pennsylvania, for the purposed 
converting acid mine drainage to Double^ by 
ion exchange treatment. These treatment facilities 
consist of two continuous counter current ion 
exchange umts, one for cation exchange and £e 
* ,or ..» D exchange, designed to treat 

u^'^.^r *V ** y RcsuJts have P ro ved that 
this method of demmeralization will result in a 
high quality low total dissolved solids product 

w^ig (Smith " Texas) 



dressed to the problem of comouun, 00. or «o. 

W/Uttl 111 



W73-0HII9 






WAI.DHOI- Tim Of H N K|,^ „, 

Iowa Suic Univ., Ante. 

I TMO, and W \) Cramer 

' ''-"^ '"W-^nng Progre,, Sympouua Se- i 

Descriptor* 'Waste disposal. 'Ultimate dupoul 
Industrial waste,, 'Waste water treatment Ire«U 
ment facilities. Aeraboo, 'f-ermenution' ^, J od 
processing industry, r-oaming. f-oam separation 
Identify -Waldnof ferme7«o^~bo£ate. 

Ihe abihty to handle materials that have straw 
foaming tendencies is one of the important cham! 
ten.be. of a Waidhof type of fermentor I, m^ 

™ r . ^° a / nm « P"**"*" by contmuou. 
recychng of the foam and by obtaining extra aera- 
bon through the airhquid mterfacTuTthe foam A 
study of the basic mecham»m» of the Waidhof 
h?f Y, fe , nncnlor& " reported Important factor, 
that affect the operabon of a Waidhof type of re? 
mentor ^d the experimental results, a. well m 
theorebcal developments, are included Thele 
operabonal factor, include air pumping by vortex 

!L h ,y . tem ' a f raU00 ***• e,fccts Ol protein. 
a ^S «** 00 oxygen absorpboi. foan, 
W73T1 20^ rormabon. (Smith-Texas) 



LIQUOR 



SPENT HCL PICKLING 

REGENERATED IN FLUTD BED 

American Lurgi Corp., New York' 

P. Marnell. 

Chemical Engmeering, Vol 79, No 25, p 102-103 

November, 1972. I fig, 1 tab. ' 

2!^ ript ?£ : ,IndustriaJ wste., 'Waste treat- 
ment, 'Waste water treatment, Separabon 
techniques, Iron compounds, Water poUution con- 
tra, Water quality conbol, Water poUubon, Water 
poUubon treatment, Water quahty Standards 
Identifiers: 'Fluid bed combusbon • \ad 



Descriptors: 'Activated carbon, 'Water poUution 
m e n?° , H P0 . UUt J° n abatem e°t. *Waste water bL, 
Zl fOT Wastes ' Desi 8 n crite na, Cost anal- 
ys s, Biological beatment, Adsorption, Biochemi- 
cal oxygen demand, Chemical oxygen demand 
Water poUubon, Water quality conbof aemand ' 
Identifiers: 'Industrial waste treatment systems. 

n^htT ^.? 1 SO,Uti< l n to ^"Strial waste water 
problem with granular activated carbon is 

tTZZ?- A I r° ,y T y ? e hloride "* ™ bb *r chemt 
SiSi ant .^ as 1 «a«d with the problem of removing 
i* load "« of polymer particles from Z 
plastic polymer processes effluent and soluble or 
g^cs from the rubber chemical plant effluent to 
meet the requirements of the receiving sbearn 
Studies were conducted using •Fatrasorb ? granuW 
activated carbon and biological methods oftrea^ 
^2£J n,e £ SuJts indicate ^at this treatmTnt 
method can be considered as a definite means of 
torting polyvinyl chloride plastic and^fbber 
chemical plants wastes. A cost analysis and des£ 

ssast treatn,em system « **"£ 

W73-08116 

HEAVY METALS REMOVAL IN Wactit 
WATER TREATMENT PROCE^ES- PAR^f 

Orange County Water District, Satte An^CaUf 
D. G. Argo, and G. L. Culp. ^^ 



SEI^S^ 1 * 7 ^ FORMULATION FOR 
SELECTING HOLDING-TANK-PROCFSSnn 

t^a'SSt!^ for smp ^ ™^S2e 

M. U. Thomas. 

AvaUable from the National Technical Informa- 
bon Service as AD-747 065, $3.00 in^ape7co^ 
$1.45 in microf-che. July 1S72. 22 p, 2 % 4 ret 

Descriptors: 'Waste water treatment, 'Waste 
^f" 1, ^ ps ' * Sewa 8* treatment, »Ma^ 
mabcal studies, Treatment faculties, Wasfe 
dispo^l Sewage disposal, Water poUution cot 
bol, Water poUubon sources, Water quality con- 

se^ e tre ati ; S eS' b0ard ^^ *»**«- 

A descriptive framework is provided for the deci- 
sion problem of selecting combined holding-tank- 
processor systems for shipboard sewagT treat- 
ment A mathemabcal formulation is described fnr 
examining tradeoffs between holo^'unTcSad- 

InhW. 1 "^ 6 ^ ratCS ° f ^ Proposed faculty 
subjec to the restrictions that aU sewage 
fZZ™?? mUS } ^ Processed. FoUowing a general 

sS a ?c° n K° f °lt Pwblem > ** &* ™* coT 
sidered is when the generation of sewage is as- 
sumed to be deterministic. In the second and more 
general case, the arrival streams are considered 
random, but assumed to foUow a Poisson 3isK 
bon. It is suggested that future studies be ad- 



72 



A new regeneration technique known as fluid bed 
combusbon has been adopted in a procew 
developed and licensed by Lurgi Aonaral? 
Technik Gmb H. The fluid bed o^tion^U*' 
advantages over other operations of smoother per- 
n^T^'J rela , tivel y dust free iron oxide 
r£^ t > and complete and continuous recovery of 
clean hydrochloric acid. These features wiU allow 
compliance with the stringent anti-poUubon regu- 
lations currently being adopted by federal sSe 

VW3S2? enC,eS(SmitbT " aS) 

CmCAGO DEPARTMENT OF WATER AND 

Illinois 1 State Water Survey, Urbana 
H. W. Humphreys. 

Descriptors. 'Settling basins, 'Flow charac- 
tensbes, 'Flow measurement, 'Flow conbol 
Flow profiles, How system, 'Waste water beat: 
ment, Water treatment, 'Filtrabon, Water quality 

m^f r q '£S ty COntro1 - Traccrs > now rates, Treat^ 
ment faculties, Separation techniques 'Illinois 
Identifiers: 'Chicago. "^M««». mmois. 

The nUnois State Water Survey, in cooperation 
wrth Chicago, is studymg flow characteristics in a 
hydraulic model of one of the sixteen settling 
basins in the Central Water FUtration Plant The 
objective is to improve flow conditions in the 
prototype settling basin in order to improve the 
quality of the settled water applied to the filter 
ine flow condibon. in the model are studied by 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Waste Treatment Processes — Group 5D 



measuring the velocity distribution in the settling 
basin and by making tracer studies. Although final 
conclusions cannot be made at this time, prelimi- 
nary tracer results for several flow rates indicate a 
short circuiting in the settling basin. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-08122 



EUROPEAN METHODS OF COMPOSTING 
AND SLUDGE UTILIZATION, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05E. 
W73-08123 



WARWICK MINE NO. 2 WATER TREATMENT, 
J. C. Draper, and R. E. McHugh. 
Mining Congress Journal, Vol 58, No 8, p 24-28, 
August, 1972. 2 fig, 3 tab. 

Descriptors: *Acid mine drainage, *Lime, *Waste 
water treatment, *Water treatment, Sludge 
disposal, Waste disposal, Ultimate disposal, Terti- 
ary treatment, Aeration, Pumping, Automation, 
•Pennsylvania. 

Identifiers: *Chemical treatment, *Greene County 
(Pa). 

Duquesne Light Company of Greene County, 
Pennsylvania, has begun lime treatment of mine 
water. Raw water was pumped from a four million 
gallon equalization tank into a reaction and aera- 
tion tank where it is mixed with lime slurry. The 
lime is delivered to the bin in pneumatic tank 
trucks. The resulting sludge is disposed of in an 
abandoned mine while the treated water is pumped 
to a polishing tank. A parallel plant has recently 
been added to increase capacity. Operating data 
for this plant and its several variations are not yet 
available. (Anderson-Texas) 
W73-08124 



THE ELIMINATION OF NITROGEN IN THE 
TREATMENT PLANT OF VIENNA-BLUME- 
NTAL, 

Technische Hochschule, Vienna (Austria). Institut 

fuer Wasserversorgung Abwasserreiningung und 

Gewasserschuts. 

N. Matsche. 

Water Research, Vol 6, p 485-486, 1972. 1 fig, 1 

tab, 5 ref . 

Descriptors: *Waste water treatment, *Waste 
treatment, *Water treatment, Aeration, Nitrogen, 
Organic loading, Denitrification, Optimization, 
Water quality control, Treatment facilities. 
Identifiers: * Vienna-Blumental (Austria). 

Nitrogen removal in two aeration basins was stu- 
died, with a removal efficiency of 88% being ob- 
served. Mean values of the loads are tabulated 
with a material balance, showing that 786 kg of 
nitrogen per day is eliminated. Denitrification was 
mainly influenced by the oxygen concentration in 
the basin. The process could possibly be op- 
timized, but the obtained removal seems to be 
satisfactory. (Anderson-Texas) 
W73-08125 



WASTEWATER TREATMENT STUDIES IN AG- 
GREGATE AND CONCRETE PRODUCTION, 

Smith and Monroe and Gray Engineers, Inc., Lake 
Oswego, Oreg. 
R. G. Monroe. 

Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP1 .23/2:73-003, $1.25; microfiche from NTIS as 
PB-219 670, $1.45. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Technology Series. Report EPA-R2-73- 
003, February 1973. 108 p, 45 fig, 3 tab, 4 ref, 3 ap- 
pend. EPA Project 12080 HBM. 

Descriptors: 'Waste water treatment, 'Ag- 
gregates, 'Filters, 'Coagulation, Water reuse, 
'Water purification, Treatment facilities, 
'Concrete plants. 

Identifiers: Aggregate settling ponds, Ready-mix 
settling basins, Filter ponds, Acid treatment. 



Discussions are presented of various water clarifi- 
cation systems used in the aggregate and ready- 
mixed concrete industries. The overall problem of 
waste water disposition in each type of plant is stu- 
died. An analysis is made of the use of settling 
ponds, filter ponds and coagulants. Recycling and 
use of recycled water is discussed with recommen- 
dations for further study of the potential use of 
waste water from ready-mix plants for concrete 
batch water. Since many aggregate and ready-mix 
concrete now have effective clarification or 
recycling systems the overall purpose of the study 
is to make these systems known throughout the in- 
dustry so proven systems can be made available to 
all. The report is based on a review of systems in 
reported 77 plants and firms plus data obtained 
from a field trip inspection of 88 plants on the 
West Coast. The study contains 45 charts and 
photographs of clarification systems. (EPA) 
W73-08126 



PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF 
COMBINED AND MUNICD7AL SEWAGE, 

Battelle-Northwest, Richland, Wash. Pacific 
Northwest Lab. 

Alan J. Shuckrow, Gay nor W. Dawson, and 
William F. Bonner. 

Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP1.23/2:73-149, $2.35; microfiche from NTIS as 
PB-219 668, $1.45. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Technology Series, Report EPA-R2-73- 
149, February 1973. 178 p, 88 fig, 31 tab, 14 ref, ap- 
pend. EPA Project 1 1020 DSQ. 14-12-519. 

Descriptors: 'Activated carbon, 'Adsorption, 
•Waste water treatment, 'Pilot plants, Alum, 
Coagulation, Polyelectrolytes, Filtration, De- 
watering, Sewage treatment. 
Identifiers: 'Combined sewage, Alum recovery, 
Carbon recovery. 

The research program included laboratory process 
development of a unique physical-chemical waste 
water treatment process followed by design, con- 
struction, and field demonstration of a 100,000 gpd 
mobile pilot plant. In the treatment process, raw 
waste water is contacted with powdered carbon, 
coagulated with alum, settled with polyelectrolyte 
addition and, in some cases, passed through a tri- 
media filter. The solids from the clarifier, com- 
posed of raw sewage solids, powdered carbon, and 
aluminum hydroxide floe, are readily dewaterable 
to 20-25 percent solids by direct centrifugation 
with the powdered carbon acting as a substantial 
aid to de watering. The dewatered solids are passed 
through a fluidized bed furnace developed specifi- 
cally for powdered carbon regeneration. Alum is 
recovered by acidifying the regenerated carbon 
slurry from the furnace to a pH of 2. The 
recovered carbon and alum are recycled as an 
acidified slurry and added to the raw sewage with 
the makeup carbon. The program demonstrated 
the ability of the treatment process to consistently 
produce high-quality effluent from raw waste 
water. Powdered carbon regeneration was highly 
successful on the pilot scale. Full capacity 
recovery was achieved with less than two percent 
carbon loss per regeneration cycle. Alum recovery 
was also greater than ninety percent. (EPA) 
W73-08127 



COLOR REMOVAL FROM KRAFT PULP MILL 
EFFLUENTS BY MASSIVE LIME TREAT- 
MENT, 

International Paper Co., Springhill, La. 
L. Oswalt, and J. G. Land, Jr. 
Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP1 .23/2:73-086, $1.25; microfiche from NTIS as 
PB-219 594, $1.45. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Technology Series, Report EPA-R2-73- 
086, February 1973. 109 p, 21 fig, 14 tab, 10 ref, 4 
append. EPA Project 12040 DYD. Grant 135-01 (R- 
1)(68). 

Descriptors: Pulp and paper industry, Effluents, 
'Waste water treatment. Color reactions, 'Lime, 



'Pilot plants, Operation and maintenance, 'Cost 
analyses, 'Pulp wastes, Foaming, Floculation, 
Sedimentation rates, Chemical precipitation, 
Water reuse, Biochemical oxygen demand, Calci- 
um carbonate, Feasibility studies, 'Capital costs, 
Bleaching wastes. 

Identifiers: 'Color removal, Kraft decker effluent, 
'Recarbonation. 

A demonstration plant was installed and operated 
to determine effectiveness and feasibility of using 
massive lime treatment (that is, 20,000 ppm lime) 
to decolor kraft pulp mill effluents. The two most 
highly colored effluents and mixtures of these 
treated in the demonstration plant were: (1) the al- 
most black effluent from the caustic extraction 
stage of pulp bleaching, and (2) the light reddish- 
brown effluent from the final unbleached pulp 
washing stage. Objectives were to determine: Ef- 
fectiveness of color removal, design and per- 
formance of massive lime system equipment, ef- 
fects of normal pulp mill operations, effects on 
pulp quality, operating costs. Impact of the mas- 
sive lime system on a hypothetical 1000 tons-per- 
day bleached kraft pulp and paper mill is 
described. Using all the lime normally available in 
such a mill would allow massive lime treatment of 
four million of the mill's twenty-nine million gal- 
lons of effluent. Such treatment would remove 
72% of the total mill effluent's color, reducing 
final effluent color to approximately 740 APHA 
units at an estimated operating cost of $1.80 per 
ton of pulp (depreciation, insurance, and taxes in- 
cluded). (EPA) 
W73-08128 



RENOVATING SEWAGE EFFLUENT BY 
GROUNDWATER RECHARGE, 

Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, Ariz. 
Water Conservation Lab. 
H. Bouwer, J. C. Lance, and R. C. Rice. 
In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972, 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins, p 9-16, 1972. 3 fig, 2 tab, 14 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water reuse, 'Water spreading, 
'Artificial recharge, Tertiary treatment, Ground- 
water recharge, Alluvial channels, 'Arizona, 
Hydrogeology. 

In the Salt River Valley in central Arizona the per- 
formance of a system for renovating waste water 
by groundwater recharge depends upon the local 
conditions of climate, soil and groundwater. The 
hydrogeological conditions in Salt River Valley, 
central Arizona, are favorable for groundwater 
recharge with infiltration basins in the river bed. It 
is estimated that tertiary treatment by this method 
would cost about $5 per acref cot or less than one- 
tenth of equivalent in-plant treatment This would 
be an additional source of water to meet future 
agricultural and other demands. (See also W73- 
08138)(Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08141 



WATER QUALITY ASPECTS OF THE STATE 
OF WASHINGTON, PART B, 

Washington State Univ., Pullman. 

B. W. Mar, D. A. Nunnallee, W. Mason, and M. 

Rapp. 

Report No. 3B, June 1970. 207 p, 30 fig, 50 tab, 148 

ref. 

Descriptors: 'Surveys, 'Data collections, 'Water 
quality, 'Waste water treatment, 'Washington, 
Costs, Reviews, Waste water, Industrial wastes, 
Administration, Municipal wastes, Water pollu- 
tion control, Waste water disposal, Sewage treat- 
ment, Treatment facilities. 

As an amplification of An Initial Study of the 
Water Resources of the State of Washington, this 
study further examines the quality of State waters. 
Particular emphasis is placed on three areas: (1) an 



I 



73 



— H 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5D — Waste Treatment Processes 



examination of water quality and management pol- 
icies for water quality control, (2) a quantitative 
compilation of industrial, commercial and mu- 
nicipal wastes in the State, with flow charts of in- 
dustrial and commercial processes and their rela- 
tion to waste production, and (3) a comparison of 
waste treatment efficiencies by type of waste 
treated, along with costs. In each of the 24 major 
river basins examined, extensive bacteriologic 
treatment is necessary in order to meet coliform 
standards downstream from community 
discharges. For dissolved oxygen, secondary 
treatment was not adequate in half the rivers 
checked. In those cases where secondary treat- 
ment is too costly or insufficient, alternative treat- 
ment is suggested, along with river monitoring and 
modelling and a program of research to provide 
new techniques of technology and management. 
Eighteen types of industrial and commercial 
operations, as well as municipal waste treatment, 
are examined to assist in the development of waste 
treatment methods. Five methods of water treat- 
ment are compared for treatment efficiencies. 
(Poertner) 
W73-08178 



WATER, SEWER AND STORM DRAINAGE 
PLAN FOR THE CUMBERLAND PLATEAU 
PLANNING DISTRICT. 

Thompson and Litton, Inc., Wise, Va. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06D. 

W73-08179 



WATER AND SEWER PLAN. 

West Alabama Planning and Development Coun- 
cil, Tuscaloosa. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06D. 
W73-08181 



REGIONAL WATER AND SEWER FACILITIES 
IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM. 

Southeastern Illinois Regional Planning and 

Development Commission, Harrisburg. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06D. 

W73-08184 



DIGEST OF PROPOSED REGULATION 
RELATING TO MONITORING AND REPORT- 
ING WASTEWATER DISCHARGES AND 
THEIR EFFECTS UPON RECEIVING WATERS. 

North Carolina Dept. of Natural and Economic 
Resources, Raleigh. (1971), 6 p. 

Descriptors: *North Carolina, 'Waste water 
discharges, 'Monitoring, 'Waste treatment, 
Waste water treatment, Water pollution sources, 
Sewage treatment, Treatment facilities, Measure- 
ment, Waste water (Pollution), Effluents, 
Sampling, Testing procedures. Municipal wastes, 
Industrial wastes, Effluent streams. 

A monitoring system must be established for each 
waste water treatment plant. Such a system must 
include an effluent flow measuring device and 
flow recording device. Additionally, samples of 
the influent and effluent of each waste water treat- 
ment plant must be collected and analyzed. 
Moreover, samples at one or more upstream and 
downstream sampling points must be collected and 
analyzed. With reference to the reporting require- 
ments, an annual survey report must be filed for 
each waste water treatment plant. Also, a monthly 
monitoring report must be filed for each waste 
water treatment plant listing the results of samples 
collected and analyzed in the past month. Several 
graphs and charts are included. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08202 



CELL REPLICATION AND BIOMASS IN THE 
ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Sanitary Engineer- 
ing. 



For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05M 
W73-08243 



THE MICROBIOLOGY OK AN ACTIVATED 
SLUDGE WASTE-WATER TREATMENT 
PLANT CHEMICALLY TREATED M>R 
PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL, 

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park Dept 

of Microbiology. 

J. A. Davis, and R. P. Unz. 

Water Research, Vol 7, Nos 1/2, p 325-327, Janua 

ry/February 1973. 

Descriptors: 'Phosphorus, 'Activated sludge, 
'Microorganisms, 'Waste water treatment, 
Protozoa, Coliforms, Enteric bacteria. Analytical 
techniques, Phosphates, Cultures, Sewage bac- 
teria, Streptoccocus. 

Identifiers: 'Alum, Removal, Culture media, 
Flagellates. 

Microbiological research was conducted on a dual, 
secondary wastewater treatment system which 
was part of the Pennsylvania State University 
wastewater treatment plant. Each aeration basin 
received identical wastewater which was the ef- 
fluent from a high rate trickling filter. One of the 
aeration basins was dosed with aluminum sulfate 
for the purpose of phosphorus removal. The other 
aeration basin (control) was operated in the con- 
ventional manner without alum addition. Plate 
counts performed on combined chemical-biologi- 
cal sludge and control activated sludge revealed 
that a higher number of viable microorganisms 
was contained in the chemical-biological sludge, 
but the magnitude of difference between the two 
sludges was significant depending on the culture 
medium employed. Results suggest the aluminum 
floes formed in the chemical-biological treatment 
enmesh dispersed wastewater microorganisms, 
some of which are qualitatively unlike those in- 
digenous to natural activated sludge. The com- 
bined chemical-biological sludge contained signifi- 
cantly higher numbers of lipolytic, gelatinolytic, 
and thiosulfate oxidizing microorganisms and, 
possibly, fewer nitrite oxidizing microorganisms 
than did control activated sludge. Alum did not ap- 
pear to affect flagellated protozoa in mixed liquor; 
however, amoeboid and ciliated protozoa were 
found less frequently in alum dosed than in control 
mixed liquor. The settledeffluent from the com- 
bined chemical-biological aeration basin generally 
contained fewer total coliforms, fecal coliforms, 
and fecal streptoccocci than did counterpart con- 
trol effluents. (Little-Battelle) 
W73-08250 



EXPERIENCE WITH ALGAL BLOOMS AND 
THE REMOVAL OF PHOSPHORUS FROM 
SEWAGE, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-08251 



ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF RAW 
SEWAGE IN SOLIDS-CONTACT CLARDJTERS, 

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Richmond, Va. IN- 
FILCODiv. 
R. L. Beebe. 

Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP1.23/2:73-183, $1.25; microfiche from NTIS as 
PB-219 883, $1.45. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Technology Series Report EPA-R2-73- 
183. March 1973. 98 p, 34 fig, 8 tab, 14 ref , append. 
EPA Project 17050 EGI, 14-12-586. 

Descriptors: 'Waste water treatment, 'Adsorp- 
tion, 'Activated carbon, 'Sewage treatment, Floc- 
culation, Filtration, Chemical analysis, Waste 
treatment, Cost, Settling rates, Pilot plants, Ad- 
sorption. 

Identifiers: Series clarifier countercurrent adsorp- 
tion. 

Degritted raw municipal sewage was treated with 
powdered activated carbon in a 28,000-gpd pilot 



plant Two high rale recuculaung slurry v,lxl» 
i oatacl i Uur/ien operating u, series will, counter 
currenl carbon advance, followed by a gravtfy 
polishing filler, produced effluent cquaJ 
better than that produced in a parallel activated 
-.ludge plant TO< and ( OD removal! outraged 
88 I and 88 7 percent, respectively, with higher 
removals hindered by the concentration of adsorp- 
Uve-resistanl materials present rillrable IOC add 
<()l) removal* were 68.0 and 69 9 percent, 
respectively Alum and polyelecl/olyte flocculated 
the powdered activated carbon and raw sewage 
suspended solids into a fast settling floe Sub- 
sidence tests conducted on the solid i slurry front 
the ACCE1.ATOR draft tube indicated ACCLA- 
I OR overflow rales equivalent to or greater thaa 
2.5 gpm/ft2. The maximum carbon adsorpuve 
capacity for filtrable COD was 50 to 55 g 
COD/g carbon. This capacity was achieved when- 
ever the concentrations of influent COD and car- 
bon matched or exceeded that ratio tadsorpuve-re- 
sistant COD excluded). Carbon requirements were 
55 to 60 percent of theoretical two- stage counter- 
current adsorption system requirements Assum- 
ing regeneration cycles 85 percent of the carbon 
feed, respective treatment cost estimates for 10- 
mgd and 100-mgd plants were 13.9 cents and 11.2 
cents per thousand gallons ( EPA) 
W73-08287 

THE DISPOSAL OF CATTLE FEEDLOT 
WASTES BY PYROLYSIS, 

Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, Mo. 

W. Gamer, and I. C. Smith. 

Environmental Protection Agency, Technology 

Series Report EPA-R2-73-096, January 1973 99 p, 

16 fig, 9 tab, 27 ref , 4 append EPA Project 1 3040 

EGH; Contract No. 14-12-850. 

Descriptors: 'Waste disposal, 'Farm wastes, 
Feedlots, 'Cattle, Chemical analysis. Organic 
compounds. Cost analysis, Gases, 'Waste treat- 
ment. 
Identifiers: 'Pyrolysis, 'Gas condensation. 

Beef cattle (steer) manure was obtained from a 
source that was free of soil contamination, and 
subsequently dried and pulverized. Replicate 
batch pyrolyses were carried out in stainless steel, 
glass, and iron tubes utilizing axial flow, at various 
levels of elevated temperature, and at atmospheric 
and lower pressures. Exhausts were carried by 
inert gas to traps and condensors. Qualitative 
separations and extractions were performed to 
determine the presence and quantity of various 
gases, ash, tar, and organics. Many constituents 
were extracted, but in such quantities that their 
value may not pay for the cost of pyrolizing. 
Larger scale pyrolyzing units should be tested to 
either confirm or disprove these findings. (EPA) 
W73-08290 



PHOT PLANT FOR TERTIARY TREATMENT 
OF WASTE WATER WITH OZONE, 

Air Reduction Co., Inc., Murray Hill, NJ. 
Research and Engineering Dept. 
C. S. Wynn, B. S. Kirk, and R. McNabney. 
Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP1. 23/2:73-146, $2.60; microfiche from NTIS as 
PB-219 877, $1.45. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Technology Series Report EPA-R2-73- 
146, January 1973. 229 p, 59 fig, 20 tab, 22 ref, 7 
append. EPA Project 17020-DYC, WOO 14-12- 
597. 

Descriptors: 'Ozone, 'Tertiary treatment, 'Waste 
water treatment, 'Pilot plants, 'Chemical oxygen 
demand, Optimization, Water treatment. Oxygen, 
Evaluation, Cost analysis. 
Identifiers: 'Washington, D.C. 

Tertiary treatment of waste water with ozone in a 
nominal 50,000 gal. /day pilot plant at Blue Plains, 
Washington, D.C., is described. Plant feeds (10 to 
100 ppm COD) were effluents from other pilot 



74 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Waste Treatment Processes — Group 5D 



ocesses involving nine different biological and 
ysical treatments of the Blue Plains waste 
iter. Major COD reductions were realized, and 
oduct water was sterile and oxygen saturated. 
le pilot plant used three major process steps: (1) 
aeration of ozone gas from oxygen, including 
^conditioning of the gas feed and means of recir- 
ating the gas; (2) dissolution of ozone from the 
ygen carrier gas into the water; and (3) retention 
the ozonated water for a period sufficient for 
; organic contaminants to be oxidized. Plant per- 
mance for each feed is described in terms of 
)D reduction characteristics and the effects of 
[, ozone concentration, feed pretreatment and 
tial COD on reaction rate. Data are given for 
one solubility and half-life in pure water and 
rious waste waters. Bacteria kills are reported, 
timates of capital and operating costs are 
;se nted for large plants to treat waste water with 
one and a procedure is given for optimization of 
sts for large plants. (EPA) 
73-08291 



ELD STUDY OF NITIUFICATION WITH THE 

BMERGED FILTER, 

inford Univ., Calif. Dept. of Civil Engineering. 

D. McHarness, and P. L. McCarty. 

ipy available from GPO Sup Doc as 

►1.23/2:73-158, $1.25; microfiche from NTIS as 

[-219 878, $1.45. Environmental Protection 

ency, Technology Series Report EPA-R2-73- 

i, February 1973. 101 p, 18 fig, 21 tab, 22 ref, 4 

ptend. EPA Project 17010 EPM. 

scrip tors: *Nitrification, 'Biological treatment, 
xygen, Municipal wastes, *Waste water treat- 
nt, Alkalinity, Solid wastes, *Filters, Filtration, 
ration. Activated sludge, Suspended solids, 
schemical oxygen demand, 
sntifiers: *Stage treatment, *Packed column, 
:ld evaluation, Temperature effect. 

is study demonstrated the feasibility of a 
umn packed with one-inch rock media to retain 
rifying organisms on the media surface. Kinetic 
es of the nitrification reaction in secondary ef- 
ent, using two modes of oxygen aeration, were 
died. Successful and reliable nitrification of 
ondary activated sludge effluent was demon- 
ited using a pilot size packed media column, 
lety percent reduction of ammonia nitrogen and 
idual BOD and suspended solids of less than 10 
II were obtained with a detention time of one 
it. Two methods of oxygen introduction were 
tluated. One system involved preoxygenation 
h pure oxygen at one atmosphere of pressure, 
I required recycle of treated effluent because of 
limited oxygen solubility. This system 
ieved the greatest efficiency of BOD and solids 
loval, and was most reliable. This system did 
>e a tendency to clog at high influent solids 
els. The other system, which employed direct 
>bling of oxygen into the column, was only 
htly less efficient and did not suffer from the 
gging tendencies of the recycle system. (EPA) 
3-08292 



NNERY WASTE TREATMENT BY ANAERO- 

( LAGOONS AND OXIDATION DITCH, 

Ibourne Water Science Inst. Ltd., Carlton 

istralia). 

3. Parker, and G. P. Skerry. 

jy available from GPO Sup Doc as 

1.23/2:73-017, $2.10; microfiche from NTIS as 

■219 823, $1.45. Environmental Protection 

;ncy, Technology Series Report EPA-R2-73- 

, February 1973. 110 p, 8 fig, 41 tab, 4 ref, ap- 

d. EPA Project 12060 FHS (WPD 21 1-02-68). 

icriptors: Industrial wastes, *Canneries, 
aste water treatment, 'Activated sludge, 
laerobic digestion, Lagoons, Aeration, Capital 
ts, Operating costs, Sewage treatment, Organic 
ling, 'Oxidation lagoons, Biochemical oxygen 
land. 



Identifiers: Oxidation ditch, *Anaerobic lagoons, 
*Food processing wastes, Combined treatment. 

Various mixtures of fruit and vegetable cannery 
wastes, and domestic sewage were treated by 
anaerobic lagoons followed by an oxidation ditch 
for a two-year period. The anerobic lagoons con- 
sistently achieved BOD reductions of 75 to 85 per- 
cent at loadings up to 400 lbs BOD/day/acre pro- 
vided adequate inorganic nutrients were present. 
The oxidation ditch reduced the BOD to low levels 
and was shown to be very stable against overload. 
Power requirements were less than 0.5 kw.hr/lb of 
BOD removed and the oxygenation capacity of the 
rotor was about 30 lbs of BOD per foot of length 
(Dostal-EPA) 
W73-08293 



TREATMENT OF FERROUS ACH) MINE 
DRAINAGE WITH ACTIVATED CARBON, 

Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
C. T. Ford, and J. F. Boyer. 
Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP1 .23/2:73-1 50, $2.10; microfiche from NTIS as 
PB-219 826, $1.45. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Technology Series Report EPA-R2-73- 
150, January 1973. 123 p, 17 fig. EPA Project 14010 
GYH. 

Descriptors: *Acid mine water, *Waste water 
treatment, *Activated carbon, lion compounds, 
Oxidation, Adsorption, Ferrobacillus, *Mine 
drainage, Aeration, Coal mine wastes, Cost analy- 
sis. 
Identifiers: "Iron removal, Oxidation catalyst. 

Laboratory studies were conducted with activated 
carbon as a catalyst for oxidation of ferrous iron in 
coal mine water. Batch tests and continuous flow 
tests were conducted to delineate process varia- 
bles influencing the catalytic oxidation and to 
determine the number and types of coal mine 
water to which this process may be successfully 
applied. The following variables influence the 
removal of iron with activated carbon: (a) amount 
and particle size of the carbon; (b) pH, flow rate 
concentration of iron, temperature, and total ionic 
strength of the water; and (c) aeration rate. Ad- 
sorption as well as oxidation are the mechanisms 
involved in iron removal by this process. An 
evaluation of this process indicated technical 
feasibility which would permit acid mine drainage 
neutralization using an inexpensive reagent, such 
as limestone. The major disadvantage is the cost of 
the activated carbons since they are rendered inac- 
tive after relatively short use by apparently irr- 
eversible adsorption of iron. This cost appears to 
be sufficiently high to prohibit the use of this 
process for treating coal mine drainage. (EPA) 
W73-08296 



MICROSTRAINDMG AND DISINFECTION OF 
COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS-PHASE H, 

Crane Co., King of Prussia, Pa. Environmental 
Systems Div. 

G. E. Glover, and G. R. Herbert. 
Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP1 .23/2:73-1 24, $2.10; microfiche from NTIS as 
PB-219 879, $1.45. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Technology Series Report EPA-R2-73- 
124, January 1973. 1 16 p, 32 fig, 8 tab, 30 ref, 4 ap- 
pend. EPA Program 1 1023 FWT. 

Descriptors: *Sewers, *Storm runoff, *FiItration, 
Water pollution control, 'Cost comparisons, 
Water quality, Ozone, Chlorine, Biochemical ox- 
ygen demand, Waste water treatment, Screens, 
Disinfection. 

Identifiers: *Microstraining, *Combined sewer 
overflow, "Suspended solids removal, 'Philadel- 
phia. 

A microstrainer using a screen with 23 micron 
apertures reduces the suspended solids of the 
combined sewer overflow from 50 to 700 mg/1 



down to 40 to 50 mg/1 levels operating at flow rates 
of 35 to 45 gpm/ft2 of submerged screen. The or- 
ganic matter as measured by COD and TOC was 
reduced 25 to 40%. Coliform concentrations were 
0.1 to 9 million cells per 100 ml and no reduction 
was brought about by Microstraining. Stormwater 
service requires special analytical techniques 
which are described in detail. The coliform con- 
centrations of both overflow and microstrained 
overflow were reduced by four or more orders of 
magnitude by disinfection with 5 mg/1 chlorine in 
specially built, high rate, contact chambers of only 
2 minutes contact time. The drainage area served 
by the combined sewer comprises 1 1 .2 acres of a 
residential area in the City of Philadelphia having 
an average dry weather sanitary flow of 1000 gph. 
The overflow rates recorded were generally 100 
times, with a maximum 400 times, the average dry 
weather flow. The extreme importance of very low 
- 2 minute - residence volume equipment for 
suspended solids removal and for disinfection in 
the very high instantaneous rates encountered 
with stormwater is shown. The cost of a micros- 
trainer - special chlorine contact chamber installa- 
tion is cited as $6,750/cfs of peak flow rate capaci- 
ty less land and engineering. On the basis of 2 cf s 
instantaneous design overflow per acre this is 
$13,100/acre.(EPA) 
W73-08297 



KRAFT EFFLUENT COLOR CHARACTERIZA- 
TION BEFORE AND AFTER STOICHIOMET- 
RIC LIME TREATMENT, 

Institute of Paper Chemistry, Appleton, Wis. Div. 

of Natural Materials and Systems. 

J. W. Swanson, H. S. Dugal, M. A. Buchanan, and 

E. E. Dickey. 

Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 

EP1.23/2:73-141, $1.00; microfiche from NTIS as 

PB-219 827, $1.45. Environmental Protection 

Agency, Technology Series Report EPA-R2-73- 

141 , February 1973. Project 12040 DKD. 

Descriptors: *Pulp wastes, *Waste water treat- 
ment, 'Industrial wastes, Pollution abatement, 
Waste water (Pollution), Effluents, Water reuse, 
Chemical analysis, Color. 

Identifiers: *Lime treatment, *Kraft colors, Kraft 
effluent, Decker effluent, Kraft decker effluent, 
'Molecular weights, *Color characterization, 
Color isolation. 

The lime-treatment process was found to remove 
on an average about 86 percent of the color, 57 
percent of the total organic carbon, and 17 percent 
of total sugars from the waste effluent during the 
period of approximately 15 months over which the 
samples were collected. No appreciable change in 
chloride content was noticed. The 'weight 
average' molecular weights (Mw) of untreated 
acid-insoluble fractions varied from < 400 to 
30,000 and of the untreated acid-soluble, lime- 
treated acid-insoluble, and lime-treated acid-solu- 
ble fractions from < 400 to 5000. The study shows 
that color bodies having an apparent Mw of < 400 
are not removed by lime treatment and those hav- 
ing Mw of 5000 and above are completely 
removed. The intermediate range of Mw 400 to 
5000 apparently undergoes partial removal. In- 
frared spectroscopy data indicate that the acid-in- 
soluble color bodies (high Mw) contain a high pro- 
portion of conjugated carbonyl groups where con- 
jugation with an aromatic ring is probable. The 
acid-soluble fractions (low Mw) seem to contain 
nonconjugated carboxyl groups and may be as- 
sociated with carbohydrate material. However, 
color bodies are found to be aromatic in nature 
(partially degraded lignin), possess a negative 
charge, and exist primarily as soluble sodium salts 
in aqueous solutions. The color bodies which are 
not removed by lime treatment have low Mw, high 
nonconjugated carboxyl groups, some ligninlike 
character, and seem to be associated with color- 
less carbon compounds. (EPA) 
W73-08298 



I 






75 



Fi«ld 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5D — Waste Treatment Processes 



PROBLEMS OF COMBINED SKWKK FACILI- 

! IKS AND OVERFLOWS, 1967. 

American Public Works Association, Chicago, 111. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05O. 

W73-08299 



TURBOVENTILATOR FOR THF; INPUT OF OX- 
YGEN INTO LIQUIDS, 

FMC Corp., San Jose, Calif. 
K-H. Kalbskopf . 

U. S. Patent No. 3,704,009, 7 p, 18 fig, 1 tab, 8 ref; 
Official Gazette of the United States Patent Of- 
fice, Vol 904, No 4, p 531, November 28, 1972. 

Descriptors: *Patents, 'Waste water treatment, 
♦Aerators, Equipment, 'Oxygenation, Ventila- 
tion, Pollution abatement, Water quality control. 
Identifiers: *Turboventilators. 

Water is formed into long lasting aeration-jet 
streams by means of jet producing devices. The 
aerator comprises circumferential spaced jet form- 
ing arms, each having box-like jet formers 
mounted to rotate at the surface layer of the liquid. 
The jet formers are bounded by upstanding, radi- 
ally spaced vanes. The vanes are parallel and ex- 
tend between upper and lower closure plates. The 
jet forming arms are circtunferentially spaced 
providing for unobstructed entry of liquid from 
between and in front of the arms and for entry of 
air from above the aerator. The vanes form box- 
like structures which are inclined from a tangent to 
their path of motion so that their leading edges 
have a smaller radius of rotation than their trailing 
edges. The jet formers accelerate the surface layer 
of liquid into diverging, horizontal jet streams that 
embody intrained air bubbles. The jet streams 
trave| onto the walls of the tank whereupon they 
are diverted downward and hence carry air down 
into the main body of the liquid. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-O8304 



METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ULTRASONI- 
CALLY CLARIFYING LIQUID, 

FMC Corp., San Jose, Calif, (assignee). 
R. Davidson. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,707,230, 4 p, 4 fig, 1 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office 
Vol 905, No 4, p 748, December 26, 1972. 

Descriptors: *Patents, *Waste water treatment, 
•Filtration, *Ultrasonics, Equipment, Water quali- 
ty control, Pollution abatement. 

The effluent is passed through a rotating fabric in a 
chamber. Solids are deposited on the fabric that 
serves as a filter. Within the chamber, ultrasonic 
transducers set up vibrations to remove the solids 
from the filter. The solids are directed through a 
discharge pipe for removal. A pressure head is set 
up between the effluent and the clarified liquid, 
with the transducers located above the level of the 
clarified liquid. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08306 



WASTE WATER CONCENTRATOR WITH PLU- 
RAL DISTRIBUTORS, 

Sweco, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif, (assignee) 
W.J.Talley.Jr. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,707,235, 9 p, 5 fig, 3 tab, 3 ref; 
Official Gazette of the United States Patent Of- 
fice, Vol 905, No 4, p 749, December 26, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Sewerage, 'Sewage treat- 
ment, 'Storm runoff, 'Storm drains, Water pollu- 
tion sources, Water quality control, Equipment, 
Waste water treatment. 

The apparatus for use in screening storm water 
overflows from sewer systems comprises a sub- 
stantially cylindrical rotary screen disposed for 
rotation within a housing. A feed device is used to 
direct influent toward the inner surface of the 
screen. An outlet receives the effluent which 
passes through the screen, the concentrate which 



does not pass the screen, and backsptash lum, ihe 
screen. (Sinha-OI-.ISj 

W73-08HI 



EXTENDED AERATION, ACTIVATED SLUDGE 
PLANT, 

Bi02 Systems, Inc., Kansas City, Mo (assignee). 
D. O. Smart, IV, G. B. Pennington, R. M Plettner, 
and R. F. Maughan. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,709,363, 6 p, 4 fig. 9 ref; Offi 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office 
Vol 906, No 3, p 513, January 9, 1973. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Sewage treatment, 
'Biological treatment, 'Activated sludge, 'Aera- 
tors, 'Waste water treatment, Water quality con- 
trol, Water pollution control, Pollution abatement, 
'Aerobic bacteria, Microorganisms, Treatment 
facilities. 
Identifiers: Clarifiers. 

This plant utilizes many of the basic principles of 
the activated sludge process. In particular it is 
designed to efficiently convert organic wastes into 
oxidation end products which may be safely 
discharged to the environment. In addition to hav- 
ing an aerator and clarifier, it has a unique airlift 
arrangement which induces skimmer flow and 
sludge return flow from the clarifier to the aerator. 
The air which is employed for inducing recycle 
flow is ultimately discharged to the aerator for 
vigorously circulating the mixture and for supply- 
ing oxygen for the aerobic microorganisms. (Sin- 
ha-OEIS) 
W73-08317 



METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DENITRJFI- 
CATION OF TREATED SEWAGE, 

Dravo Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa. (assignee). 
E. S. Savage. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,709,364, 4 p, 1 fig, 8 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol 906, No 2, p 513, January 9, 1973. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Activated sludge, 
'Sewage treatment, 'Waste water treatment, 'Fil- 
tration, Bacteria, 'Denitrification, Carbon, 
Nitrates, Nitrites, 'Nutrient removal, Water quali- 
ty control, Water pollution control, Pollution 
abatement. 

Sewage is subjected to an activated sludge treat- 
ment and a highly nitrified effluent is discharged 
from the settling tank of the activated sludge 
system. The effluent is concurrently clarified and 
denitrified in a deep bed filter. Backwashing of the 
filter is controlled so that denitrifying bacteria is 
either wholly or partially maintained on the filter 
media or is immediately returned to the media 
enabling continuous operation of the filter. A sup- 
plemental carbon feed is charged to the filter to 
balance the bacteriological environment (Sinha- 
OEIS) 
W73-08318 



FLOATING SURFACE AERATOR, 

Passavant-Werke, Michelbach (West Germany). 
Michelbacherhutte. 
H. Aider, and J. Muskat. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,709,470, 4 p, 6 fig, 10 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office 
Vol 906, No 2, p 539, January 9, 1973. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Aerators, Equipment, 
'Water pollution treatment, Pollution abatement, 
Water quality control, 'Aeration, 'Waste water 
treatment. 

This aerating apparatus consists of radially ex- 
tending blades or shovels which rotate about a ver- 
tical axis. The immersed buoyant body may be 
generally annular in shape. It surrounds the verti- 
cal axis. Small stabilizing floats located on the sur- 
face of the liquid are placed around the apparatus 



and are connected with il A baffle uiu|i 
unpam a screw-shaped torque lo the fluid j>* 
through it in the direction opposite to the dire 
of rotation of the aerator iSutha-Oi 
W73-083I9 



METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TREA1 

SKWAI.K, 

FMC Corp., San Jose. Calif (assignee) 

Q. L. Hampton. 

0. S Patent No 3,709,792. 6 p, 3 fig. 4 ref U, 

cial Gazette of the United Slate* Pateni Of Ik 

Vol 906, No 2. p 612-61 3, January 9, 1973 

I>escnptorv 'Patents, 'Sewage treatment, Tn 
ment faculties, 'Aerobic treatment, hiologx 
treatment, 'Aeration, 'Activated sludge, 'Wa 
water treatment, Water quality control, Water | 
lution control. Biochemical oxygen demand 

Aqueous waste is mixed with aerated, co~ 
fated sludge from a reaerabon zone and a 
natant liquor from an aerobic sludge du>._ 
zone to form a mixed liquor. Air is introduced i 
the aeration zone for mixed liquor, the a 
digestion zone and the reaeration zone for 
concentrate. Sludge is settled from the ^ 
liquor and is discharged into a flow course wine. , 
deliver, predetermined quantities of the sludgi 
concentrate to the reaeration zone. Aerated sludge 
and supernatant liquor are discharged into thY 
aeration zone. Control of the character of the! 
sludge being recycled is an important factor ii 
determining the overall efficiency of f eatment of 
sewage as measured by removal of BOD. The ap- 
paratus comprises a tank which is compartmental- 
ized by parallel partitions into a central compart- 
ment, a digestion compartment and a reaeration 
compartment. There is a common longitudinal axis 
for liquid flow. Conduits are provided in the set- 
tling compartment transverse to the longitudinal 
flow axis. These have airlift devices to induce 
movement of settled sludge. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08320 



DOMESTIC APPLICATIONS FOR AEROSPACE 
WASTE AND WATER MANAGEMENT 
TECHNOLOGEES, 

General Electric Co., Schenectady, N.Y. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B 
W73-08366 



REGIONALIZATION AND WATER QUALITY 
MANAGEMENT, 

Camp, Dresser and McKee, Boston, Mass. 

K. M. Yao. 

Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol 

45. No 3, p 407^»1 1 , March, 1973. 2 fig, 2 tab, 9 ref. 

Descriptors: Streams, 'Water quality, Manage- 
ment, 'Water pollution control, 'Massachusetts, 
'Connecticut River, 'Simulation analysis, Dis- 
solved oxygen, Water utilization, Water 
resources, Biochemical oxygen demand, Treat- 
ment facilities. Water supply, Computer pro- 
grams, Low flow, Mathematical models, Systems 
analysis, 'Regional analysis. 
Identifiers: Regionalization, Treatment plants, 
Streeter-Phelps equation, Bondi Island, Seconda- 
ry treatment 

A study is presented which utilizes a realistic ex- 
ample and a simulation technique (a) to demon- 
strate the effects of regionalization on stream 
water quality management, and (b) to explore and 
compare various alternatives from the viewpoint 
of water quality management as well as that of 
overall water resources utilization. The study area 
comprises four municipalities in the Connecticut 
River basin which have been ordered by the Mas- 
sachusetts state pollution control agency to up- 
grade their water pollution abatement facilities for 
achieving the state stream quality objective on a 
fixed time schedule. The Streeter-Phelps equation 



76 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Waste Treatment Processes — Group 5D 



i selected as the basis for the simulation model, 
I the stream DO used as the indicator of the ex- 
t of stream pollution and the attainment of the 
;er quality objectives. The section of the river 
tern studied was divided into six reaches; two 
: of computer runs were made to calculate the 
jmum DO in each reach. Study results and 
:ussions are presented in some detail. Re- 
alization can be a necessary step for cases in- 
ring small tributaries with a relatively large 
a. (Bell-Cornell) 
3-08383 



DELLING REGIONAL WASTE WATER 
JATMENT SYSTEMS, 

higan Univ., Ann Arbor. School of Public 

1th. 

l. Deiniuger, and S. Y. Su. 

er Research, Vol 7, No 4, p 633-646, April 

(. 7 fig, 1 tab, Href. 

criptors: *Water pollution control, *Waste 
er Treatment, "Costs, "Optimization, "Econo- 
i of scale, Planning, Treatment facilities, Al- 
thms, Mathematical models, Systems analysis, 
rations research, Computer programs, Linear 
;ramming, 'Regional analysis. 

t methods of operations research and systems 
ysis may be used to plan more efficient new 
:r pollution control facilities or to upgrade ex- 
g systems is illustrated. The economies of 
e in waste water treatment plants favor re- 
al systems. Presented is a mathematical for- 
ition of this problem and an algorithm for its 
don. First, general cost data of the various 
s of pollution control works are given; the cost 
aste water treatment is composed of the amor- 
ion of the construction costs and the annual 
ation and maintenance costs. Next, several 
examples which are network problems are 
ented. The mathematical formulation of the 
ilems is then given, and an approach for solv- 
the resulting minimization problem with con- 
: objective functions is revealed. The large 
lomies of scale in waste water treatment and 
reyance indicate that regional solutions for 
ition control may be more economical than in- 
itial solutions. Based on the computer code 
len in FORTRAN IV for an IBM 360/67, it ap- 
s that small to medium sized problems can be 
sd in reasonable time. The bottleneck for im- 
lentation of such regional plans will be the 
ical and institutional arrangements. (Bell-Cor- 

-08385 



PLE ALGORITHM FOR COST OPTIMIZA- 
V OF A THREE DECISION VARIABLE 
(EM, 

ne State Univ., Detroit, Mich. Dept. of Civil 

neering. 

Ordon. 

sr and Sewage Works, Vol 120, No 2, p 70-73, 

uary, 1973. 1 fig, 1 tab. 

rip tors: Environmental engineering, "Treat- 
: facilities, *Design, "Waste water treatment, 
its, 'Optimization, "Algorithms, "Trickling 
s, Decision making, Computers, Equations, 
lematical models, Operations research, Con- 
ats, Tertiary treatment. 
tifiers: Tree diagrams, Eckenf elder equation. 

1 engineering design implies fulfilling a stated 
f objectives at the least possible cost Cost op- 
ation of simple one or two stage systems is in- 
it in design techniques normally utilized in all 
leering design. However, the design of three 
ore stage systems is most usually based upon 
nent of the engineer. Presented is a simple, 
able algorithm, easily understood and put 
practice, which can be solved readily by hand 
' computer and which can be used in the solu- 
sf a wide variety of engineering problems. To 



illustrate the use of the algorithm, a three-stage 
waste water treatment plant is optimized. To in- 
sure meaningful results, it is necessary to include 
costs for each stage versus the percent removal for 
that stage. A simple tree diagram is used to illus- 
trate the process. To exemplify the versatility of 
the algorithm, it is used to show the optimization 
of a trickling filter using the Eckenf elder equation. 
The algorithm has many possible applications both 
within and outside the realm of environmental en- 
gineering, and it can be applied to more than three 
variable systems. (Bell-Comeli) 
W73-08386 



FLOCCULATING APPARATUS AND METHOD, 

Crucible Inc., Pittsburgh, Pa. (assignee) 

G. C. Almasi, and W. Slusarczyk. 

U. S. Patent No 3,714,037, 3 p, 4 fig, 5 ref ; Official 

Gazette of the United States Patent Office, Vol 

906, No 5, p 1722, January 30, 1973. 

Descriptors: "Patents, "Flocculation, "Waste 
water treatment, "Industrial wastes, "Filtration, 
Water quality control, Water pollution control, 
Separation techniques, Pollution abatement 
Identifiers: "Magnetic particles, "Magnetization. 

Magnetic particles are removed from industrial 
waste water by magnetizing the particles during 
flow. The particle containing liquid is introduced 
into a restricted passage having a large width to 
height ratio without any change in cross-sectional 
area. The passage has a magnetic field. Its lines of 
force are at right angles to the lengthwise liquid 
flow direction. As the particles are magnetized 
they agglomerate so that they may be removed by 
a filter or by settling in a tank. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08388 



SYSTEMS FOR THE REMOVAL OF POLLU- 
TANTS FROM WATER, 

A. J. Shaler, and D. C. McLean. 
U. S. Patent No 3,713,542, 9 p, 4 fig, 9 ref; Official 
Gazette of the United States Patent Office, Vol 
906, No 5, p 1606, January 30, 1973. 

Descriptors: "Patents, "Activated carbon, 
"Sewage treatment, "Organic wastes, "Water 
treatment, Pollution abatement, Water quality 
control, Water pollution control, Treatment facili- 
ties, "Waste water treatment. 

This method consists of providing an extensive 
wall of char or activated carbon, down the height 
of which the mixture of sewage effluent and un- 
clean water is allowed to flow by gravity. The car- 
bon is continuously regenerated by cycling 
through a thermal converter. Organically polluted 
sewage effluent and water from the waterway are 
continuously mixed and piped to the top of the 
wall of carbon, passed through it, and the clean 
water is drained from the bottom. The flow 
through the system may be reversed to backwash 
the screens and temporarily partially fluidize the 
carbon wall to prevent long-term decreases in its 
permeability. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08389 



APPARATUS FOR PROCESSING EFFLUENT 
SLUDGE, 

Hazemag G.m.b.H., Muenster (West Germany). 
E. von Conrad, K. Rosner, and L. Meyer. 
U. S. Patent No 3,712,550, 4 p, 1 fig, 5 ref; Official 
Gazette of the United States Patent Office, Vol 
906, No 4, p 1334, January 23, 1972. 

Descriptors: "Patents, "Sludge treatment, Equip- 
ment, Separation techniques, "Waste treatment, 
Water quality control, Water pollution control, 
Pollution abatement, "Waste water treatment 
Identifiers: "Impact grinders. 

The apparatus consists of an impact grinder for 
converting solid refuse to a particulate stage. The 



grinder comprises a rotor journalled for rotation 
about a horizontal axis. There is a supply conduit 
extending along and above an outlet. A distribu- 
tion baffle extends along a slot and is inclined 
downward so that effluent sludge flows in the 
form of a thin layer over the baffle and onto the 
ground refuse issuing from the outlet. (Sinha- 
OEIS) 
W73-08390 



REVERSE OSMOSIS MODULE, 

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa. (as- 
signee) 

G. W. Ellenburg. 

U. S. Patent No 3,712,473, 3 p, 3 fig, 4 ref; Official 
Gazette of the United States Patent Office, Vol 
906, No 4, p 1314, January 23, 1973. 

Descriptors: "Patents, "Reverse osmosis, "Semi- 
permeable membranes, "Desalination, Water 
treatment, "Demineralization, Membranes, Water 
quality control, "Waste water treatment, Water 
pollution control, Pollution abatement, Separation 
techniques, "Dissolved solids. 

A reverse osmosis module is described for reduc- 
ing the concentration of dissolved solids in a pres- 
surized liquid by passing the liquid through a semi- 
permeable osmotic membrane. The module is 
formed from a porous sand bar in which tubular 
osmotic membranes are placed in longitudinal 
holes. An enveloping membrane embraces the 
outer peripheral surface of the bar. The ends of the 
bar are sealed with epoxy. Only compressive 
forces are required. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08391 



PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF PHENO- 
LATED BVDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT, 

Societe Anonyme pour l'Etude et l'Exploitation 
des Precedes Georges Claude, Pairs (France), (as- 
signee) 

J-P. Zumbrunn, and F. Crommelynck. 
U. S. Patent No 3,711,402, 5 p, 3 ref; Official 
Gazette of the United States Patent Office, Vol 
906, No 3, p 1029, January 16, 1973. 

Descriptors: "Patents, "Chemical reactions, 
"Waste water treatment, Chemical wastes, 
"Liquid wastes, "Phenols, "Industrial wastes, Pol- 
lution abatement, Water quality control, Water 
pollution control. 

Industrial effluent polluted by phenolated impuri- 
ties is treated by conversion of the impurities by 
the action of an oxidizing reagent containing the 
HS05- anion. At least one mole of HS05- is 
required per mole of phenol. The oxidizing reagent 
is a member of the group constituted by monoper- 
sulphuric acid and its salts. Eleven examples illus- 
trate possible variations. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08394 



METHOD OF PURIFYING SEWAGE AND 
WASTE LIQUIDS AND A DECOCTING 
SYSTEM FOR CARRYING OUT THE METHOD, 

G. E. Lagstrom. 

U. S. Patent No 3,71 1 ,381 , 4 p, 1 fig, 6 ref; Official 
Gazette of the United States Patent Office, Vol 
906, No 3, p 1025, January 16, 1973. 

Descriptors: "Patents, "Sewage treatment, 
"Liquid wastes, "Domestic wastes, "Detergents, 
"Waste water treatment, Chemical wastes, Water 
quality control, Water pollution control, Pollution 
abatement 

Sewage and/or domestic effluent is boiled to 
produce a foam of the impurities. The steam and 
foam are removed and separated. The foam is led 
into a sedimentation tank and the steam either 
released to the atmosphere or used as a heat 
source. The sludge obtained in the sedimentation 
tank as the foam breaks down is removed at inter- 
vals and fed back to the boiler. (Sinha-OEIS) 



77 



Field 05-WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5D— Waste Treatment Processes 



W73-08395 



METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING 
SEWAGE, 

FMC Corp., Chicago, III. (assignee) 

H. Brociner. 

U. S. Patent No 3,710,941 , 4 p, 2 fig, 3 ref ; Official 

Gazette of the United States Patent Office Vol 

906, No 3, p 921 , January 16, 1973. 

Descriptors: •Patents, Pollution abatement 
•Waste water treatment, 'Sewage treatment' 
Treatment facilities, *Aeration, Water quality con- 
trol, Water pollution control, 'Liquid wastes 
Identifiers: *Grit. 

Grit is removed from liquid sewage in a tank 
whose floor terminates in an accumulation zone 
for solids. Air is introduced into the sewage ad- 
jacent to the first side wall and above the accumu- 
lation zone for solids with uniform distribution 
along the length of the side wall. A baffle is posi- 
tioned adjacent to a second side wall and trans- 
verse to the direction of liquid flow through the 
v* ^? advances the separation of light weight 
soUds. The sewage suspension flows under the 

wSsi U S f ° r remOVai by n ° W ° Ver a 
W73-08396 



bon. Hayer catalyst in place of activated carbon 
will reduce the mercury content ui the hydrogen 
jar to below I microgram/Nm3 Waste water from 
scrubbing operations can be treated wiih 
hydrazine or sulfide. Ventilation air is kept pure by 
using totally enclosed cells Handling procedures 
minimize mercury-air contact time 'Ihe resulting 
mercury loss is 2 to 3 grams per ton of chlorine 
produced (Anderson Texas) 
W73-084II 



SODIUM ALUMINATE FOR REMOVAL OF 
PHOSPHATE AND BOD, "-"""VA*- OF 

Babbitt Utilities Commission, Minn 

D. Cole, and P. Tveite. 

Public Works Vol 103, No 10, p 86-87, October, 

1972. 1 fig, 1 tab. 

Descriptors: •Phosphates, *Biochemical oxygen 
demand, Domestic wastes, »Waste water treat- 
ment, Coliforms, Chlorination, Suspended solids 
•Chemical precipitation. 

Identifiers: *Sodium aluminate, •Chemical treat- 
ment. 

In a three month trial at the Babbitt activated 
sludge treatment plant, 42.5% sodium aluminate 
was fed to sewage influent to evaluate the chemi- 
cal for phosphate removal. Sodium aluminate 
reacts with soluble phosphate to form aluminum 
phosphate. Sodium aluminate also acts as a coagu- 
lant and flocculant, causing both the precipitated 
aluminum phosphate and other insoluble 
phosphates in the waste to agglomerate and 
separate readily in the clarifier or settling tank 
Among other benefits of the sodium aluminate 
treatment were: (1) lower effluent BOD; (2) lower 
chlorine demand; (3) lower effluent coliforms- (4) 
reduced air requirements in the aeration cham- 
pers; (5) higher effluent dissolved oxygen- and (6) 
improved pnmary sludge characteristics. Quan- 
titative results are presented. Babbitt has decided 
to use the aluminate treatment, and the chemical 
storage .facilities are currently being designed. 
(Morpana- Texas) 
W73-08410 



FERMENTATION PATTERNS IN THE IN1T1AI 
STAGES OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DIGESTION ' 

Purdue Univ., I,afayette, Ind 

R. M. Sykes, and H. J. Kirsch. 

Developments in Industrial Microbiology Vol 1 1 

P 357-366, 1969. 5 fig, I tab, 16 ref 

Descriptors: 'Sludge digestion, 'Waste water 
treatment, Sludge, Activated sludge, 'Fermenta- 
tion 'Sewage treatment, Hydrogen, Carbon diox- 
ide, Amino acids, Humic acids. 
Identifiers: Methane, Propionic acids Butvnc 
acids, 'Acetic acid. 

The physiological activity of 75 pure culture iso- 
lates grown in sterilized raw sewage sludge was 
compared with that of a mixed culture obtained 
from a sludge digester. Some of the fermentaUon 
products formed were identified and quantified 
In the mixed culture a diphasic pattern of gas and 
acid production was apparent. During the early 
stages, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids were 
produced in nearly equal quantities, while 
hydrogen and carbon dioxide were evolved in 
nearly equal quantities. After 3 days, only acetic 
acid was produced in quantity, hydrogen disap- 
peared, methane was evolved, and carbon dioxide 
continued to accumulate. Of the pure culture iso- 
lates, 25 percent produced acetic, propionic and 
butyric acids, hydrogen and carbon dioxide The 
remainder produced only acetic acid, propionic 
acid and carbon dioxide. None of the pure iso- 
VHl * 08412 n,ethane - (Murphy-Texas) 

JK?« ^ SEW AGE-TREATMENT WORKS 

™c8Sk£» WATERLO ° URBAN DK - 

Water Pollution Control, Vol 71 , No 4, p 348-350, 



Descriptors: 'Waste water treatment, Treatment 
faculties, Biological treatment, Settling basins 
Sludge digesuon, Sludge, Storage capacity, 
Capital costs, 'Sewage treatment 



UHDE DETAILS CHLORINE CELL MERCURY 
RECOVERY PROCESSES. ' 

European Chemical News, Vol 22. No 544 d 22 
August 4, 1972. ' 

Descriptors: 'Mercury, 'Filtration, •Chlorine 
t-aroon, Chemical reactions, Absorption, 'Waste 
water treatment, Industrial wastes 
Identifiers: Hydrazine sulfide, 'Chemical treat- 
ment, Caustic soda solution. 

Mercury losses from chlorine plants are discussed 
Mercury levels which can be obtained through use 

sohri^ ^2 UCS "* de , s ? ribed - The caustifsoda 
solution can be pre-coat filtered to a mercury con- 
tent of 0.1 to 0.3 g/m3. Mercury leaving the decom- 
poser can be removed by condensation, Chemical 
reaction with wet chlorine, or absorption on car- 



The sewage-treatment plant capacity was ex- 
tended to 145,000 population in 1969 The new 
units include comminutors, detritor, sedimenta- 
tion tanks, biological filters with slag medium and 
a new ocean outfall. Additional capacity for sludge 
digesuon, storage, and pressing was provided The 
standards set by the Hampshire River Authority 
are 30 mg/1 SS and 20 mg/1 BOD for flows up to 18 
mgd and screening for overflows. A table of con- 
W73 C 0&414° SlS ' S included - (Anderson-Texas) 



THE DISPOSAL OF SOLD) WASTES, 

W73 P fW4 a0 ' bibliographic entrv see Field 05E. 



FILTER PLANT WASTEWATER TREATMENT 

Piroie (Malcolm), Inc., Paramus NJ 

G. P. Westerhoff. 

Public Works, Vol 103, No 10, p 79-82, October, 

1972. 2 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Waste water treatment, Treatment 

facilities, •Waste disposal, Tertiary treatment, 

Filtration, Sedimentation, *Coagulation, Alum, 



onnauoo, FlocculaUoii, Settling be 
Separation technique*. !>au ooUecUoo. tt 
water (PolluUon) "***-uua*. W 

Water t/eatmenl plant wa»tew«ier dispo-i 

discussed There are I wo main source, of 2 

water coagulation bairn wastewater frc/erre 

as alum kludge at plant* using alum coavulaU 

and fdter backwash wastewater Water i,eaUi 

processes used at the Ene County Sturgeon f 

riltration Plant are aeration, chemical add* 

mixing, flocculauon and sedimentation foUtx 

by fdtrauon, pH adjustment, fluondaUc* 

chlorination Alum recovery from coaguta 

basin wastewater was proved to bold conudefl 

promise as an effective system for t/eaUn 

recovery, and disposal of process residue A to 

program has been designed lo carry out daU i 

lection and evaluation to meet various goals • 

as idenuf ymg the physical and chemical proper 

of water treatment plant wastes and the effecti 

ness of several methods of uquid-soud separ* 

(both with and without the addition of coagufat 

aids) Ihe data will reflect overall plant oper*i 

and efficency and the feasibility of each proa 

Hoth phases of this study program are descr* 

i Morpana -Texas) 

W73-084I6 

5E. Ultimate Disposal of Wastes 

INDUSTRIAL WASTELINE STUDY - A SYSTB 
FOR CONTROLLED OCEAN DISPOSAL, 

r-rankhn Inst., Philadelphia, Pa. Labs f, 
Research and Development 
D. Pindzola.C. T. Davey.andR. A Erb 
Available from the National Technical Inform! 
Uon Service as PB-219 404, $3.00 in paper cop; 
SI 45 in microfiche. Final Technical Report I 

EPA Grant 1 6070 EOI 08/70. 

Descriptors: 'Waste disposal, 'Pipelines, BasenB 
studies, Continental shelf, Continental slope Un 
mate disposal, 'Outlets, Industrial wastes, Sews* 
sludge, Water pollution sources, Atlantic Ocean 
Identifiers: 'Ocean outfalls, 'Ultimate wash 
disposal, Dredge spoils. 



Pipelining waste to the edge of the contineiml 
shelf from the Delaware Valley was found to be 
feasible by defining waste loads, routes pipe 
types, conditions of the proposed outfall area an) 
costs. The waste load was examined and projected 
by type and quantity by percent of total volume at 
follows: dredge spoils, 24%; sewage sludges 6% 
waste acids and chemicals, 6%; ashes, 0.3%; and 
dilute industrial waste, 63.7%. Present dilute 
volume is established at 5,840 million gallons per 
year. Routes may generally be obtained along 
power and rail lines currently existing Of pipe 
materials considered, polyester-glass reinforced 
pipe appears best for overland routing and 
polyolefin for undersea. Estimated installation 
costs are in the area of $75,000,000. Disposal costs 
could be reduced from the current $3.50 to $1.85 
per 1000 gallons. Ocean studies included otter 
trawls and direct observation by submersible 
which showed the biodensity to fall off with in- 
creasing depth. The proposed disposal area ap- 
pears less densely populated than inshore areas 
and less productive than bays, marshes and estua- 
ries where wastes are currently deposited Bottom 
currents were determined to be mainly off shore 
by current meters and seabed drifters. Of 400 
seabed drifters deposited, only two were 
recovered, these by commercial trawlers Dis- 
solved oxygen levels were high in the water 
column. Further examination and baseline data are 

PF^JSJ; A , ctual P"Ot construction would be desira- 
ble. (EPA) 

W73-07812 



78 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Ultimate Disposal of Wastes — Group 5E 



' UDGE FILTER PRESSING AND INCINERA- 
Efl AT SHEFFIELD, 

ieffield Corp., Wincobank (England). 
IB. Tench, 
iter Research, Vol 6, p 539-544, 1972. 2 fig, 2 

I;'. 

scriptors: *Sludge treatment, 'Sludge disposal, 

aste disposal, 'Incineration, 'Automation, 

dge, Cost analysis, Treatment facilities, 

iy electrolytes, Filters. 

ntifiers: 'Filter pressing, 'Operating 

hniques. 

;dge from the Blackburn Meadows works is set- 
i, conditioned with lime, pressed by one of thir- 
six filter presses and transported by rail car to 
incinerator. Various operating techniques were 
:d to improve performance including polyelec- 
lyte conditioning and automatic control of 
dge conditioning. Experiments are being per- 
med with a view to automatic control of in- 
«ration in order to reduce fuel costs. (Ander- 
l-Texas) 
r3-07842 



JMOACTIVE WASTES (Dffi RADIOAK- 

VEN ABFAELLE), 

sellschaf t fuer Strahlen- und Umweltf orschung 

b.H. , Neuherberg bei Munich (West Germany). 

Kuehn. 

ue Technik, Vol 13, p 61-68, 1971. 3 fig, 2 tab, 

ref. 

scriptors: 'Nuclear wastes, 'Underground, 
'aste disposal, 'Radioactivity, Food chains, 
dioactivity effects, Nuclear powerplants, Ef- 
ents, Path of pollutants, Cements, Bituminous 
terials, Leaching, Geologic formations, 
oundwater barriers, Neutron adsorption, Trace 
ments, Waste treatment, Water pollution 
irces, Ultimate disposal, Waste storage, Triti- 
i, Radioisotopes, Reviews. 

hough tritium and Kr-85 may be dispersed in 
I atmosphere for as long as 100 years with little 
ect, certain other of the radionuclides from fis- 
n and from neutron absorption by trace ele- 
cts in nuclear-powerplant cooling water must 
isolated from man's environment. Current prac- 
: has decreased radioisotopes in gaseous and 
lid effluents to very low levels. Storage of 
lioactive liquids in tanks is less suitable in the 
g term than storage of solidified wastes in rock 
t or other geologic formations. Storage by sink- 
into the oceans or by burial is used for relative- 
small quantities. Some research is mentioned. 
>pp-ORNL) 
'3-07934 



DIOACnVE-WASTE MANAGEMENT, 

mbridge Nuclear Corp., Billerica, Mass. 
r primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
'3-07954 



JPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES ARIS- 
S IN THE UNITED KINGDOM FROM THE 
ACEFUL USES OF ATOMIC ENERGY, 

tional Radiological Protection Board, Harwell 

lgland). 

VI. Bryant, and F. Morley. 

ailable from NTIS, Springfield, Va., as NRPB- 

, $3.00 paper copy $1.45 microfiche. Report No. 

1PB-R1, April 1971. 16 p, 8 tab, 25 ref. 

scriptors: 'Nuclear powerplants, 'Radioactive 
ite disposal, 'Effluents, 'Air pollution, 'Water 
lution, 'Water pollution sources, Atlantic 
ean, Rivers, Environment, Monitoring, Assay, 
h of pollutants, Food chains, Marine fish, 
i lie health, Legislation, Regulation. 
ntifiers: Thames River, English Channel, Irish 



United Kingdom policy in relation to radioactive 
waste is described and the relevant legislation and 
methods of control are summarized. Data are 
given on the amounts of radioactivity discharged 
as waste from establishments of the United King- 
dom Atomic Energy Authority, the nuclear power 
stations operated by the Electricity Generating 
Boards and other users of radioactive materials. 
Studies of the behavior of radioactivity in the en- 
vironment are reported with particular reference 
to food chains and other potential sources of ir- 
radiation of the public. The results of environmen- 
tal monitoring are presented and estimates are 
made of radiation doses received by individual 
members of the public and larger population 
groups as a result of waste disposal. It is con- 
cluded that the doses received are all within the 
appropriate limits recommended by the Interna- 
tional Commission on Radiological Protection. 
(Houser-ORNL) 
W73-07957 



POLLUTION OF SUBSURFACE WATER BY 
SANITARY LANDFILLS, VOLUME 1, 

Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, Pa. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-08073 



USE OF WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SOLIDS 
FOR MINED LAND RECLAMATION, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. 
T. D. Hinesly, R. L. Jones, and B. Sosewitz. 
Mining Congress Journal, Vol 58, No 9, p 66-73, 
September, 1972. 2 fig, 1 tab, 21 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sludge disposal, 'Waste disposal, 
Ultimate disposal, 'Land reclamation, Land 
development, Land resources, Land use, Strip 
mines, Cost analysis, 'Waste treatment, 
Recycling, Soils, 'Illinois. 

Identifiers: 'Fulton County (111), 'Stripped mine 
land reclamation. 

It is apparent that the most desirable solution to 
the problem of sludge disposal is the recycling of 
the solids to natural biological systems. Fulton 
County, Illinois, is cited as an example of an area 
where waste treatment plant solids will be used for 
land reclamation because of the extensive stripped 
mine lands. An extensive geologic, biologic, and 
agricultural overview is presented of the effects 
expected due to this sludge disposal process. A 
cost analysis of the entire project is included. 
(Smith-Texas) 
W73-08096 



'LIQUH) FERTILIZER' TO RECLAIM LAND 
AND PRODUCE CORPS, 

Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, 

El. 

B. T. Lynam, B. Sosewitz, and T. D. Hinesly. 

Water Research, Vol 6, p 545-549, 1972. 3 tab, 9 

ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sludge disposal, 'Land reclamation, 
'Waste disposal, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Organic 
matter, Soils, Soil contamination, Viruses, Fecal 
coliforms, Agriculture, Fertilizers, 'Illinois, 
Water reuse. 
Identifiers: 'Chicago, 'Nutrient sources. 

The Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater 
Chicago handles a waste load equivalent of 10 mil- 
lion people. Disposal methods to handle the vast 
amount of sludge were studied. Land application 
of liquid sludge was determined to be the cheapest 
as well as most effective method. Studies by 
agronomists have shown the value of liquid sludge 
as a nitrogen source, phosphorus source, organic 
matter source, and as a soil conditioner. 
Microbiological studies indicate a rapid die-off 
rate for virus and fecal coliform. The heavy metal 
content is small and not expected to cause soil 
contamination. (Anderson-Texas) 
W73-08098 



WALDHOF TYPE OF FERMENTORS IN 
DISPOSAL OF FOOD WASTES, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W73-08120 



EUROPEAN METHODS OF COMPOSTING 
AND SLUDGE UTILIZATION, 

L. D. Hills. 

Compost Science, p 18-19, July-August, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Waste treatment, 'Land reclama- 
tion, 'Fertilizers, 'Sludge disposal, Ultimate 
disposal, Waste disposal, Urine, Domestic wastes, 
Sludge treatment, Organic matter. 
Identifiers: 'Composting, Clivus toilet. 

Methods of composting and sludge utilization in 
Europe are described. While sludge is primarily 
used as fertilizer and for land reclamation, com- 
posting is done by means of the Clivus Toilet. This 
is roughly a family Municipal compost plant that 
takes the excreta and urine and composts them 
with the kitchen wastes to produce roughly a hun- 
dred pounds a year, from a family of three, of a 
good high potash organic fertilizer. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-08123 



DISPOSAL OF BRINE EFFLUENTS, 

Dow Chemical Co., Walnut Creek, Calif. 
R. R. Grin stead, and T. E. Lingafelter. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-215 037, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Office of Saline Water 
Research and Development Progress Report No. 
810, August 1972. 120 p, 18 tab, 33 fig, 23 ref, 5 ap- 
pend. 14-30-2630. 

Descriptors: By-products, Solvent extraction, 
Separation techniques, 'Brine disposal, Liquid 
wastes, 'Waste disposal, 'Desalination, Salts, Ef- 
fluents, 'Chemical precipitation, 'Anion 
exchange, 'Water softening, Recycling, 
Chlorides, Sulfates. 
Identifiers: Metal complexation. 

A process is described by which brines from the 
desalination of brackish water supplies can be con- 
verted to either useful products or waste materials 
which can be readily disposed of without environ- 
mental harm. The method involves (1) precipita- 
tion of the sulfate with calcium chloride, (2) 
exchange of chloride for bicarbonate by means of 
a liquid-liquid anion exchange extraction system, 
and (3) recycle of the bicarbonate solution to the 
pretreatment (softening) step. The extraction 
system is regenerated with lime and carbon diox- 
ide, producing calcium chloride as a product, some 
of which is used in step (1). In cases where the 
sodium bicarbonate production is greater than 
required in pretreatment, a second liquid-liquid ex- 
traction system, based on a carboxylic acid cation 
exchanger, is used to produce sodium carbonate 
for sale. Preliminary economic estimates indicate 
that such a process would become competitive 
with conventional disposal methods (solar ponds 
or wells) at a production level slightly above 5 mgd 
of water and would be most attractive in cases 
where a high sodium carbonate requirement exists 
for pretreatment (OSW) 
W73-08189 



MARINE WASTE DISPOSAL - A COMPREHEN- 
SIVE ENVIRONMENTAL APPROACH TO 
PLANNING, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W73-08247 



THE DISPOSAL OF CATTLE FEEDLOT 
WASTES BY PYROLYSIS, 

Midwest Research Inst, Kansas City, Mo. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W73-08290 



M 



Field 05- WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND HtOTECTION 
Group 5E— Ultimate Disposal of Wastes 



THE DISPOSAL OK SOLID WASTES, 

A. R. Balden. 

Industrial Water Engineering, Vol 4, No 8 p 25- 

27, August, 1967. 6 fig, 2 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Ultimate disposal, 'Industrial 
wastes, 'Waste treatment, Sludge, Sludge 
disposal. 'Incineration, Design, Paints, Chemical 
wastes, Pilot plants, Tertiary treatment. 
Identifiers: 'Paint wastes. 

Methods of ultimate disposal and their application 
in handling oily sludges and paint wastes in the au- 
tomotive industry are reviewed. Five methods 
from the Environmental Health Series, 'Summary 
Report, Advanced Waste Treatment Research' are 
briefly explained. Three variations in incinerator 
design are described. Each design is capable of 
burning oily sludges without objectionable emis- 
sions. A pit incinerator for treatment of paint 
sludges, operated by a chemical manufacturer is 
described. (Morparia-Texas) 
W73-08415 

5F. Water Treatment and 
Quality Alteration 

DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPURPOSE WATER 
PURIFICATION UNIT FOR ARMY FIELD USE 

Army Mobility Equipment Research and Develop- 
ment Center, Fort Belvoir, Va. 
A. Ford, Jr., and D. C. Lindsten. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
toon Service as AD750 322, $3.00 in paper copy 
SI .45 in microfiche. 1972. 1 5 p, 9 fig, 5 tab, 3 ref ' 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Potable water 
Water supply, 'Reverse osmosis, 'Membranes' 
Suspended solids, Chemicals, Botulism Water 
quality control, Water pollution treatment Filtra- 
tion Cellulose, Turbidity, Salts, Bacteria, Water 
purification. 
Identifiers: 'Ultrafiltration. 

The Army Combat Developments Command has 
established a requirement for research and 
development to demonstrate the technical feasi- 
bility of a single multipurpose unit capable of 
producing potable drinking water for cullinary 
washing, bathing, laundering, and food prepara- 
tion purposes. Reverse osmosis is capable of 
removing up to 99% of dissolved salts from water 
removing essentially all turbidity from water' 
removing 99% of chemical agents VX and RZ 
78% of chemical agent GB, 98% of Na2HAS04 
and 99.988% of botulinum toxin from water. 
Furthermore, reverse osmosis is capable of 
removing essentially all microorganisms from 
water although chlorinab'on is indicated to protect 
the product water. The one disadvantage appears 
to be membrane fouling, which may be solved by 
feedwater pretreatment, intermittent cleaning or 
modular replacement. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-07833 



DESALINIZATION PLANTS, VIRGIN ISLANDS 
(FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATE- 

MENT). 

Department of Housing and Urban Development 

San Juan, Puerto Rico. Region JJ. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03 A 

W73-07977 



STATE OF THE ART OF WATER FILTRA- 
TION, 

American Water Works Association, New York 
Committee on Filtration Problems. 
R. L. Woodward, E. R. Baumann, J. A. Borchardt 
N. J. Davoust, and K. A. Dostal. 
Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol 64, No 10, p 662-665, October 1972. 26 
rei. 



Descriptors: 'Filtration, 'Filters, 'Water treat 
ment, 'Water quality control, 'Waste water treat 
ment, Water pollution control, Design criteria 
Turbidity, 'Tertiary treatment. Treatment facul- 
ties. Separation techniques. 

Identifiers: 'Plant operations, Upflow rates. Fil- 
tration rates. 

Rapid filtration of water is discussed under two 
mam topics: (1) theory of filtration and (2) design 
and operation of water filters. In the design and 
operation of filters, consideration is made of filter 
media, filter aids, filter rates, upflow and byflow 
filters, turbidity meters, surges and back washing 
Careful collection analysis and reporting of plant 
operating experience where advanced design or 
operating features exist is encouraged. (Smith- 
Texas) 
W73-08I07 



PHILADELPHIA SUBURBAN WATER COM- 
PANY, 

Philadelphia Suburban Water Co.. Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
K. E. Shull 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion Vol 64, No 10, p 647-648, October 1972. 1 fig 
6 ref. *• 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Waste water 
treatment, Research and development, Aluminum 
Filtration, Filters, Polyelectrolytes, Anions Ions' 
Laboratory tests, Pilot plants. Sludge treatment' 
Corrosion, 'Pennsylvania. 
Identifiers: 'Philadelphia. 

Details are given of various research projects 
being conducted by the Philadelphia Suburban 
Water Company. These projects include develop- 
ment of a method for determining small amounts 
of aluminum in water; use of dual media filters 
and polyelectrolyte application; development of a 
filtrate availability technique; investigations of 
polyelectrolytes; investigation of the use of ca- 
tionic, anionic, and non-ionic polyelectrolytes as 
filter aids; sludge conditioning studies, and labora- 
tory and pilot studies of the use of certain com- 
pounds in reducing the corrosive tendencies of 
water on metal pipes. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-08109 



DETROIT METRO WATER DEPARTMENT 
Detroit Metro Water DepL, Mich. 
G. J. Remus. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol 64, No 10, p 644-645, October 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Water reuse, 'Recycling, Floccula- 
toon, Waste water treatment, Water treatment, 
Corrosion, Corrosion control, Bioassays, Turbidi- 
ty, Ions, Water pollution control, Water quality 
control, Michigan. 
Identifiers: 'Detroit 

Several research programs conducted by the 
Detroit Metro Water Department are detailed 
They include studies of recycling of waste wash 
water; flocculator tests; dual media tests- studies 
with polyelectrolytes; fluoride corrosion tests; 
corrosion studies of copper surfaces; plankton 
counting and identification reproducibility; bioas- 
say studies; liquid alum feeding; tests of turbidity 
study of water samples; and specific ion elec- 
trodes. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-08110 



DALLAS WATER UTHJTIES, 

Dallas Water Utilities DepL, Tex. 
H. J. Graeser. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion Vol 64, No 10, p 638-641, October 1972. 1 fig 
5 tab, 1 ref. *' 

Descriptors: 'Waste water treatment, 'Waste 
treatment, 'Sewers, 'Combined sewers, 



•Polymer*. •Pilot plants, Research and devcfas 
ment. Operating coslt. Watt* ditpowd ScwZ 
disposal, Pollution abatement. Water reuse I rei 
ment facilities. Research f acililiet •'/ exat wide 
supply ^ 

Identifiers Dallas. 

The Dallas Water Uuhuet Department hat ban 
able to develop a unified approach to vMvm 
problems in water supply and waste waZ 
disposal I ne City of Dallas has constructed a pea 
plant to evaluate different unit procettet (££ 
tion of this pilot plant has been costly, but ft* 
savings realized in process selection and Om 
operational experience gained prior to starnjp ic 
the prototype do much to offset the research coft. 
The City of I>dllas hat also been expenmenoM 
with developing technological factors of wwfc 
water reuse. The two major areas of re»earch art 
metal and virus removal. Other areas of restart* 
now being conducted by the City of Dallas inclost 
microbiological studies, studies of the treatmeal 
and disposal of infiltration flowt m the sanitary 
sewer system, and experimentation with the use of 
polymers to increase the hydraulic capacity of 
sewers (Smith-Texas) 
W73-081I1 



WATER AND SEWER PLAN. 

West Alabama Planning and Development Cous- 

cil, Tuscaloosa. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06D 

W73-08181 



INVENTORY OF INTERSTATE CAJUIBt 
WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS. 

Environmental Protection Agency. Washington. 
DC. Water Supply Di v. ""•*«», 



January 1973.81 p. 

Descriptors: 'Water supply, 'Environmental 
sanitation, 'Potable water, 'Public health, 'Water 
purification, Interstate, Water resources develop- 
ment, Water utilization. Water yield improvement, 
Resources development, Water supply develop- 
ment, Municipal water, Water quality control 
Water quality standards. 

In 1970 the Environmental Protection Agency was 
assigned the responsibility of certifying water 
supply systems serving interstate carriers, a pro- 
ject formerly accomplished by the Public Health 
Service. Interstate quarantine regulations were 
promulgated to control the transmission of com- 
municable disease into the U.S. or between the 
states; additionally, they contain the standards for 
acceptable, safe drinking water systems and form 
the basis for the interstate carrier water supply 
certification program. Systems in substantial com- 
pliance with the standards are classified as ap- 
proved; those with significant deviations from the 
quality, surveillance, facilities or operational 
requirements of the standards are prohibited 
Charts and graphs provide all necessary informa- 
tion. The status of all water systems are listed by 
regional EPA offices as of December 29, 1972. 
(Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08192 



A PORTABLE VIRUS CONCENTRATOR FOR 
TESTING WATER IN THE FIELD, 

Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, Tex. DepL of 

Virology and Epidemiology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A 

W73-08262 



REGIONALIZATION AND WATER QUALITY 
MANAGEMENT, 

Camp, Dresser and McKee, Boston, Mass. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D 
W73-08383 



80 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Water Quality Control — Group 5G 



1EMICAL ANALYSES OF SELECTED 
JBLIC DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES (LN- 
LUDLNG TRACE METALS), 

isconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison. 
>r primary bibliographic entry see Field 05 A. 
73-08424 



JCURRENT ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS IN- 
ACTION IN RESIDENTS OF A FLOOD PLAIN 
F THE TRINITY RIVER, ROOSEVELT 
SIGHTS (DALLAS, TEXAS), 
xas Univ., Dallas. Southwestern Medical 
hool. 

>r primary bibliographic entry see Field OSC. 
73-08448 

S. Water Quality Control 



MANUAL ON COLLECTION OF 
SEROLOGIC DATA FOR URBAN DRAINAGE 
ESIGN, 

ydrocomp, Inc., Palo Alto, Calif. 

>r primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

73-07801 



gnomic evaluation of alternative 
lRM water sources ln the claypan 
iea of illinois, 

inois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Agricultural 
monies. 

L. Moore, E. R. Swanson, and W. D. Seitz. 
mailable from the National Technical Informa- 
in Service as PB-219 239, $3.00 in paper copy, 
.43 in microfiche. Illinois Water Resources 
snter Research Report No. 62, 1973. 85 p, 8 fig, 

tab, 33 ref, append. OWRR A-054-LLL (2). 14- 
-0001-3513. 

:scnptors: "Cost analysis, Farm ponds, Water 
lality, 'Illinois, Water supply, Potable water, 
ater supply development, 
enufiers: *Farm water supply, *Rural water 
stems, Farm wells, *Claypan area (111). 

le claypan area of Illinois is characterized by un- 
liable water supplies. In addition, water quality 
oblems have recently been recognized in the 
rm of widespread nitrate and coliform con- 
inination of water in private wells in Washington 
>unty. A ten-square mile area in this county was 
lected for study. The nature of present water 
pplies was described and the costs of six alterna- 
e supply systems were estimated: (1) present 
-farm sources, (2) treatment of pond water, (3) 
mbination of present on-farm sources plus haul- 
;, (4) hauling all water, (5) purchasing all water 
>m nearby municipality via pipeline, and (6) 
mbination pipeline plus present on-farm 
urces. The six alternatives were examined in 
cms of the net present value of costs associated 
th each alternative, considering a 40-year 
inning period. Although the present sources 
oved to be the least costly they are unsatisf acto- 
for reasons of health and also reliability. Treat- 
Hit of pond water was the least-cost source of 
jeting the quality requirements for water for the 
Lai area. However, the reliability of this source 
d questions of personal preference against 
inking pond water may indicate a preference 
long some users for connection with a municipal 
stem which was somewhat more expensive. 
73-07804 



METHODOLOGY FOR PLANNING OP- 
MAL REGIONAL WASTEWATER MANAGE- 
ENT SYSTEMS, 

assachusetts Univ., Amherst. Water Resources 

ssearch Center. 

ir primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

73-07805 



REAERATION OF WATER WITH TURBINE 
DRAFT-TUBE ASPLRATORS, 

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 
J. J. Cassidy. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 263, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Missouri Water Resources 
Research Center Completion Report, January 5, 
1973. 22 p, 8 fig, 32 ref. OWRR A-044-MO (1). 14- 
31-0001-3525. 

Descriptors: *Water quality control, *Reaeration, 
Dissolved oxygen, Hydraulics, *Draft tubes, 
Model studies. 
Identifiers: 'Aspirators. 

The rate at which reaeration of water can be ac- 
complished through introduction of air in turbine 
draft tubes was studied. A laboratory model simu- 
lating flow in a draft tube downstream from a tur- 
bine was constructed. Independent control of rate 
of flow of air and rate of flow of water was accom- 
plished. Dissolved oxygen content of flow before 
and after reaeration was measured. Dimensionless 
parameters of aeration efficiency, Froude number 
and air to water content were plotted. 
W73-07807 



ORGANIC WASTES AS A MEANS OF AC- 
CELERATING RECOVERY OF ACH> STRLP- 
-MLNE LAKES, 

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Dept of Civil En- 
gineering. 

D. L. King, and J. J. Simmler. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 264, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Missouri Water Resources 
Center Completion Report, February 20, 1973. 65 
p, 15 fig, 5 tab, 21 ref, append. OWRR A-038-MO 
(1). 14-31-0001-3225 and 3525. 

Descriptors: *Acid mine water, Coal mines, 
Nutrients, 'Aluminum, *Ions, Lakes, *Iron, Mine 
drainage, Sulfates, Metals, 'Organic wastes, 
Chemical wastes. 
Identifiers: *Strip mine lakes. 

In the presence of air and water, iron pyrite ox- 
idizes to sulfuric acid and ferric hydroxide. The 
majority of the hydrogen ions associated with the 
sulfuric acid never reach the acid strip-mine lake 
because as they flow over the overburden they are 
involved in a series of reactions that are responsi- 
ble for the weathering and dissociation of rocks, 
clays, and minerals. The majority of the sulfate 
ions, on the other hand, do reach the strip-mine 
lake and their concentration in the lake tends to in- 
dicate the amount of acid production in the par- 
ticular watershed. The ferric hydroxide is also 
washed into the lake with the sulfate ions and set- 
tles to the bottom; however, a certain amount 
redissolves in the lake according to pH and Ksp 
limitations. Iron, sulfate, and hydrogen ions along 
with a host of acid dissociated ionic species, in- 
cluding aluminum, manganese, calcium, and mag- 
nesium, and allochthonous organic materials are 
constantly being washed into the acid strip-mine 
lake. It is these ions and organic matter that 
characterize the chemistry of these lakes. A small 
amount of buffer in the acid mine water is from the 
dissociation of HS04 (-). Carbon dioxide and 
hydrogen sulfide gases also contribute con- 
siderably to the buffering of the water. However, 
it is the high concentration of such metals as alu- 
minum and iron that make the greatest contribu- 
tion to the net buffer capacity of the water. These 
metal buffers are responsible for the long natural 
recovery times associated with all acid strip-mine 
lakes. The amount of such buffers depends upon 
the amount and type of clays and minerals dis- 
solved on the spoil banks. Depending on the clay 
type more or less aluminum may be dissolved and 
allowed to flow into the lake. 
W73-07808 



ECONOMIC BENEFITS FROM AN IMPROVE- 
MENT LN WATER QUALITY, 

Oregon Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Agricultural 
Economics. 

S. D. Reiling, K. C. Gibbs, and H. H. Stoevener. 
Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as EP1.23/3 
(73-008), $2.10; microfiche from NTIS as PB-219 
474, $1.45. Environmental Protection Agency, 
Socioeconomic Environmental Studies, Report 
EPA-R5-73-008, January 1973. EPA Project 16110 
FPZ. 

Descriptors: 'Benefits, Recreation, Water quality, 

Economics, Lakes, Camping, Sport fishing, 

'Recreation demand, 'Water quality control, 

'Oregon. 

Identifiers: Travel costs, On-site costs, 'Klamath 

Lake (Ore). 

A new methodology is introduced and empirically 
tested for estimating the economic benefits accru- 
ing to society from an improved recreational facul- 
ty. The specific facility under consideration is 
Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, which presently 
has low water quality. The methodology draws 
upon previous work done in the evaluation of 
recreational demand; however, it focuses upoL the 
individual recreationist and separates the tradi- 
tional price variable into on-site costs and travel 
costs. The model is used to estimate the number of 
days per visit the recreationist will stay at the site 
as the water quality improves. Data collected at 
three other lakes with varied characteristics are 
used to derive a relationship between the number 
of visits to a site and the characteristics of the site. 
This relationship is then used to estimate the in- 
crease in visits to Klamath Lake that would be 
forthcoming with an improvement in water quali- 
ty. The impact of expanded recreational use of 
Klamath Lake upon the local economy is also esti- 
mated through the use of an input-output model of 
the Klamath County economy. (EPA) 
W73-07813 



WATER QUALITY CHANGES LN AN IM- 
POUNDMENT AS A CONSEQUENCE OF AR- 
TIFICIAL DESTRATTFICATION, 

North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. School of 

Public Health. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W73-07818 



IMPROVING WATER QUALITY BY REMOVAL 
OF PESTICIDES WITH AQUATIC PLANTS, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst, and State Univ., 
Blacksburg. Dept. of Plant Pathology and 
Physiology. 
S. W. Bingham. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 389, $4.85 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Virginia Water Resources 
Research Institute, Blacksburg, Bulletin 58, 
March 1973, 94 p, 31 fig, 9 tab, 20 ref. OWRR A- 
033- VA (3). 

Descriptors: 'Pesticide removal, Herbicides, 
Water quality, 'Aquatic plants, 'Algae, Pesticide 
residues, Metabolism, 'Scenedesmus, Water 
quality control. 
Identifiers: 'Herbicide metabolism. 

Several species of algae (axenic) and aquatic 
vascular plants were evaluated for effectiveness in 
removal of pesticides from water. Pesticides with 
14C were utilized to determine plant uptake and 
molecule degradation. Herbicide concentrations 
below toxic levels were used; however, these were 
many times greater than natural residue levels en- 
countered in surface water. It was evident that the 
plants removed herbicide residues from water, 
supporting the fact that residues have not yet ac- 
cumulated in surface water to dangerous levels. 
Various algae were not equally effective in absorb- 
ing pesticides. Scenedesmus was particularly ef- 
fective, and pH of the medium proved important 
with 2,4-D. In general, submersed species were 



I 



81 



Field 05-WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5G— Water Qualify Control 



nol as effective in herbicide removal an emerged 
species. This may be related to transpiration and 
an avenue for translocation through the xylem 
Herbicides were metabolized by various aquatic 
plants. Metabolites as well as the herbicide were 
released to the culture medium. Metabolism was 
rapid, particularly with algae. Algae and aquatic 
vascular plants contribute to the removal of pesti- 
cides from water and metabolize the chemicals to 
less active compounds in the environment 
W73-07821 



UNDERSTANDING THE WATER QUALITY 
CONTROVERSY IN MINNESOTA, 

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Water Resources 
Research Center. 
J. J. Waelti. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 586, $3.00 in paper copy 
51 .45 in microfiche. Minnesota University Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Extension Bulletin 359 

U™JJ,?- 4 f ' 8, 2 Ub ' l8 ref 0WRR A-019- 
MINN (1). 

Descriptors: 'Water quality, 'Water quality con- 
ti-ol, 'Water pollution control, Pollutants 
Economics, Economic efficiency, Federal govern- 
ment, State governments, Local governments 

•Minnesota. 

In order to facilitate meaningful, rational debate 
and better communication between citizen and 
government, the more important aspects of the 
water pollution problem are discussed in elementa- 
ry terms. Pollutants may be classified according to 
several criteria. For instance, pollutants may be (1) 
solid or liquid forms, (2) chemical, physical or 
biological, (3) degradable or nondegradable or (4) 
natural or manmade. Important problem areas 
discussed include (1) water quality problems in 
densely populated areas, (2) eutrophication and 
pollution on lakes, (3) agricultural pollution, and 
(4) industrial pollution. The losses resulting from 
water pollution include the direct loss of economic 
product, the misallocation of resources, and 
deleterious effects on social and aestlietic values 
Next, the role of federal, state, and local govern- 
ments in water quality control is outlined The 
basic problems which a government and its con- 
stituents need to resolve include (1) what technical 
methods should be employed in improving water 
quality., (2) what level of water quality should be 
attained., and (3) what institutional means should 
be used to implement water quality control policy 
Numerous technical terms commonly used in 
discussions of water quality control are carefully 
defined. (Settle-Wisconsin) 
W73-07822 



are considered, the particulai liability rule affect* 
the final equiUMm An important cau*e of (ugh 
transactions costs is uncertainty regarding the law 
itself. A government agency charged with regulal 
ing polluters will often have a wide range of cho 
ices open to it. In general, n must choose (I) 
whether to reduce the level of pollution or 
mitigate its effects, or both; (2) at what point in the 
pollution-production or pollution-consumption 
process to apply controls; and (3) what type of 
control or mitigation measure to apply Each of 
these aspects are briefly examined (Settle 
Wisconsin) 
W73-07823 



ALTERNATIVE FINANCING FOR STATE AND 
LOCAL WATER RESOURCES PROJECTS, 

Clemson Univ., S.C. Dept. of Economics. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06C. 



|CgNOMIC ASPECTS OF POLLUTION CON- 

Uniyersity of New England, Armidale (Australia) 
R. M. Parish. 

Australian Economic Papers, Vol 11, No 18 d 32- 
43, June, 1972. 14 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Pollutants, 'Pollution abatement 
Economics, 'Economic efficiency, Equity 
Negotiations, Regulation, Control, Cost-benefit 
analysis, Costs. 
Identifiers: Liability. 

It is almost exclusively in connection with com- 
mon-property resources, including the atmosphere 
and water, that severe pollution and congestion 
problems arise. With such resources there is often 
no effective barrier to their being utilized well 
beyond the optimum level. In these circumstances 
a social improvement could be effected by either 
reducing the intensity of use of the resource, or bv 
changing the manner of use. In the absence of 
transaction costs, externalities will be internalized 
by negotiation Furthermore, the outcome of the 
negotiations will be unaffected by the prevailing 
liability rules. However, once transactions costs 



THE ENVIRONMENT AS PROBLEM II 
CLEAN RHETORIC AND DIRTY WATER 

■AM. Freeman, III, and R. H. Haveman 

The Public Interest, No 28, p 51-65. Summer, 

Descriptors: 'Water pollution, 'Water pollution 
control, 'Regulation, 'Standards, Legal aspecU 
Economic efficiency, Pollution taxes (Charges) 
Identifiers: 'Laws, Subsidies. 

In spite of the several environmental protection 
laws passed in the last 20 years, indices of environ- 
mental quality show that the waste loads imposed 
on environmental resources have been growing 
continuously, and rising waste loads mean deteri- 
orating environmental quality. Present federal 
water pollution control policy has two main ele- 
ments: (1) a program of federal subsidies to cities 
for the construction of waste treatment plants and 
(2) a procedure for establishing regulations to limit 
discharges and for enforcing these rules An ex- 
amination of these two elements indicates that ex- 
isting federal water pollution policy has dismally 
failed to improve the quality of the nation's rivers 
Ihe federal subsidies in effect allow polluters to 
generate and dispose large quantities of wastes 
without bearing the full cost of their discharges In 
fact, the taxpayers' money is used to clean up 
after them. In addition, the regulatory-enforce- 
ment strategy fails because it pits the control 
authorities against the polluters in an unending 
sequence of long, drawn out, and often inconclu- 
sive battles over licensing and the enforcement of 
regulations. A desirable alternative may be to im- 
pose user or effluent charges on waste dischargers 
such that the charge is related to the volume 
discharged. (Settle- Wisconsin) 
W73-07827 



A second pro>cct will estimate the 
damage, of water poUutjoo in WO / 
brandi . ixoiogical Studies and lechooiog, 
tc»*ment, wilJ concentrate oo the research oca 

"i/nent effectively on Ihe eoviroumeaUki 
pact statement* A thud branch Stand** 
Research, will work oo the development at bet* 
methodology for evaluating »iaodard» parucutal 
for alternative approache. developed by2 
Economic Analyu. Branch The fourth hr»JI 
System* Evaluation, ha* a* lU main thru*! the at 
signmenl of identifying incentive* and relate- 
fiscal inducement* to promote pollution co2 
H.ai ,», how can tine*, effluent chargeTa! 
tidies, and other fi*cal incentive* be used to gets 
better quality environment with minimum cm* 

W73^29 eniCnt ' UjM *' e,> ' fSttUe W, » t<JO »»» 



ZltrJ^™ 8 * 8 POLLUTION CONTROL 

BENlLriTS. 

Environmental Science and Technology Vol 6 
No 1 0, p 882-883 , October, 1 972. 

Descriptors: 'Water pollution control, 'Benefits 
Costs, 'Evaluation, Standards, Methodology' 
Water pollution, Air pollution. 
Identifiers: Environmental impact statements In- 
centives. 

A newly formed division of the Environmental 
ProtectionAgency, the Implementation Research 
Division (IRD), is presently attempting to assess 
the benefits of air and water pollution control IRD 
consists of four branches. The Economic Analysis 
Branch is on a crash project to assess the benefits 
associated with pollution control. It will attempt to 
derive benefit and cost estimates in the human 
health, materials, animals, vegetation, recreation 
and aesthetics areas. The distribution of costs and 
benefits among the population will also be studied 



MODELS OF INDUSTRIAL POUXTION CO* 
TROI. IN URBAN PLANNING, "* 

RAND Corp., Santa Monica Calif 

D P Tihansky 

Available from the National Technical Inform*. 

tior. Service a* AD742 401, $3 00 in paper copy 

$1.45 in microfiche January, 1972 47 p 15 fl7 1 

tab, 36 ref. " 

Descriptors: 'Industrial waste*, 'Pollution abate- 
ment, 'Water pollution control, Cities, Economic 
efficiency. Mathematical model*, Profit On- 
timization, Standard*. 

To predict the economic implications of an and 
water quality management, some simple mathe- 
matical models are formulated The process 
modeled is one in which urban industries max- 
imize the present value of their aggregate profits 
over a discretized time span subject to constrainti 
on environmental quality and resource allocation. 
The model provides quantitative estimates of the 
responses of the following variables to changes is 
air and water quality standards U) individual 
profits at each firm and aggregate regional profit 
(2) industry output levels; (3) input requirement, 
for manufacturing activities; and (4) resource out- 
lays for gaseous and liquid waste control. Primary 
effects of enforced waste control on one industry 
are a diversion of its input resources from manu- 
facturing to pollution control and consequent 
reduction of output and demand. Secondary ef- 
fects may involve a decrease in the profits of other 
industries. The models are based on several 
restrictive assumptions including (1) a closed re- 
gional system with only five industries; (2) linear 
transport equations; (3) functional relationships 
based upon recent empirical findings and (4) ex- 
ogenously determined prices. These models are 
not precise enough to indicate the most efficient 
allocation of resources among firms within a real 
economy. (Settle- Wisconsin) 
W73-07831 



SYSTEMS APPROACH TO WATER QUALITY 
MANAGEMENT, ^ 

Water Resources Engineers, Inc., Walnut Creek 

Calif. 

For Primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B 

W73-07922 



REPORT OF THE CLINCH VALLEY STUDY, 
MAY 15-JUNE 2, 1972. »«•»«. 

Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. 

^^! e J. TOm NT1S - s Pnngfield, Va., as ORNL- 
4835, $3.00 per copy, $1.45 microfiche. Report No 
ORNL-4835, Jan. 1973. 68 p, 7 ref, 7 append 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear powerplants, 'Accidents, 
Hazards, 'Safety, 'Population, 'Radioactivity, 
Effluents, Radioisotopes, Strontium, Cesium, 
Iodine, Safety, Toxicity, Public health, Food 
chain. 
Identifiers: 'Emergency procedure. 



82 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Water Quality Control — Group 5G 



I 



i lumber of topics are discussed which affect the 
hdling of an accidental radioactivity release 
lm a nuclear power plant. Principal attention is 
i en to those matters that decrease the threat to 
I population surrounding the site of the power 
I nt. Recommendations are made to improve ex- 
i ng emergency plans. Procedures and methods 
, listed which have proved useful in handling 
er types of emergencies and appear to have use 
ing a radioactivity release. Also discussed are 
ergency control centers, construction modif ica- 
is to the nuclear power plants, chemical 
phylaxis, and improvised respiratory protec- 
a. (Houser-ORNL) 
'3-07938 



DIOACTIVE-WASTE MANAGEMENT, 

mbridge Nuclear Corp., Billerica, Mass. 
. Fitzgerald. 

Applied Radiation Protection and Control, Vol 
Aug 1969, Gordon and Breach, Science 
jlishers, New York, London, Paris, p 747-818, 
fig, 20 tab, 77 ref. 

scriptors: 'Waste disposal, 'Radioactive waste 
posal, 'Nuclear wastes, 'Waste storage, 
aste treatment, 'Effluents, Water pollution, 
iter pollution sources, Nuclear powerplants, 
rironment, Environmental engineering, Morn- 
ing, Assay, Analtycial techniques, Waste 
ntification. Public health, Path of pollutants, 
nagment, Professional personnel, Technology, 
lining. 

ring the last decade there has been rapid growth 
the use of radioactive materials and ionizing 
lation With the increased use of ionizing radia- 
i sources, there has been a corresponding in- 
ase in the need for the recruitment and educa- 
l of health physicists, radiological engineers, 
I radiological health specialists to evaluate the 
ential hazards and to provide radiation protec- 
l and control measures. This text has been 
pared to help both student and professional 
iological specialists to obtain a relatively broad 
w of radiation protection and control methods 
I applications. The text includes information on 
ninistration as well as technical measures in the 
iducting of applied radiation protection and 
itrol programs. The section on Radioactive- 
ste Management treats in detail the aspects of 
rces and magnitude, policies, handling, 
rage, disposal and public-relations problems of 
ioactive waste. (Houser-ORNL) 
3-07954 



SEARCH NEEDS FOR IRRIGATION 
TURN FLOW QUALITY CONTROL, 

orado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept. of 

icultural Engineering. 

/. Skogerboe, and J. P. Law, Jr. 

>y available from GPO Sup Doc as EP1.16: 

)30-ll/71), $1.00; microfiche from NTIS as PB- 

979, $1.45. Water Pollution Control Research 
ies, Environmental Protection Agency, 
/ember 1971, 98p, 9 fig, 9 tab, 31 ref. EPA Pro- 

13030-11/71. 

criptors: 'Research priorities, Water pollution 
sets, Water pollution sources, 'Water quality 
trol, 'Fertilizers, Irrigation water, Nematodes, 
nates, Phosphates, Salinity. 
itifiers: 'Return flow, Irrigated land, *Ir- 
ted systems. 

cific research needs regarding irrigation return 
v quality that are required to undertake an ef- 
ive control program are described. These 
arch needs include irrigation practices, soil- 
it-salinity relationships, leaching requirements, 
liction of subsurface return flow, cultural 
:tices, irrigation scheduling, treatment of 
m flows, economic evaluations, and institu- 
al control methods. (EPA) 
J-07965 



COPAN LAKE, LITTLE CANEY RIVER, 
OKLAHOMA (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IM- 
PACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Tulsa, Okla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 

W73-07979 



SNAGGING AND CLEARING PROJECT ON 
MUX CREEK AT RIPLEY, WEST VIRGINIA 
(FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATE- 
MENT). 

Army Engineer District, Huntington, W. Va. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 
W73-07981 



MICHIGAN'S ENVIRONMENTAL PROTEC- 
TION ACT OF 1970: A PROGRESS REPORT, 

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. 

J. L. Sax, and R. L. Conner. 

Michigan Law Review, Vol 20, no 6, p 1003-1106, 

May 1972. 104 p, 309 ref, 9 append. 

Descriptors: 'Michigan, 'Legislation, 'Judicial 
decisions, 'Administrative agencies, Legal 
aspects, Water pollution control, Remedies, Water 
quality control, Jurisdiction, Decision making. 
Eminent domain, Constitutional law. 
Identifiers: 'Standing, 'Citizen suits, Michigan 
Environmental Protection Act. 

Michigan's Environmental Protection Act of 1970 
represents a departure from the longstanding tradi- 
tion under which control of environmental quality 
has been left almost exclusively in the hands of 
regulatory agencies, since it gives to ordinary 
citizens an opportunity to take the initiative in en- 
vironmental law enforcement. Moreover, the act 
enlarges the role of the courts because it permits a 
plaintiff to assert that his right to environmental 
quality has been violated in much the same way 
that one has always been able to claim that a pro- 
perty right has been violated. Every significant 
legal issue, including the Act's constitutionality, 
remains unresolved by appellate courts. The small 
number of cases filed under the act shows the 
statute is not as easily accessible a tool as its sup- 
porters had hoped. Two encouraging features in 
the Act's history are the expedition with which 
most cases have been handled and the willingness 
of the courts to face up to the environmental is- 
sues that divide the parties. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-07982 



ADMINISTRATION OF THE NATIONAL EN- 
VntONMENTAL POLICY ACT, PART 1. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W73-07983 



PROJECTS PROPOSED FOR INCLUSION IN 
OMNIBUS RIVER AND HARBOR AND FLOOD 
CONTROL LEGISLATION-1972. 

Joint Hearings -Subcomm. on Rivers and Harbors, 
Subcomm. on Flood Control and Internal 
Development— Comm. on Public Works, U.S. 
House of Representatives, 92d Cong, 2d Sess, 
February 17, 22, 24, 29 and March 2, 1972. 312 p, 3 
fig, 20 plate, 1 map, 2 tab, 5 chart. 

Descriptors: 'Environmental effects, 'Rivers and 
Harbors Act, 'Legislation, 'Flood control, Water 
resources development, Federal government, 
Flood protection, Federal budget, Administrative 
agencies, Erosion control, Beach erosion, Naviga- 
tion, Wildlife, Recreation facilities, Flood 
damages, Channel improvement, Harbors, River 
regulation. 
Identifiers: 'Congressional hearings. 

The subcommittees heard testimony concerning 
the environmental effects of twenty-six new flood 
control and river and harbor projects costing over 
$210 million. Six of the projects are in the naviga- 
tion and beach erosion categories, eighteen in 



flood control and hurricane protection categories, 
and two involve fish and wildlife conservation at 
existing projects. All environmental statements 
required by the National Environmental Policy 
Act of 1969 have been prepared for each of the 
projects and the requirement of construction and 
maintenance of recreational facilities within each 
project has been fulfilled. The President's 1973 
budget proposal providing substantial increases 
for ongoing water resources projects to avoid the 
under-financing of past years while limiting new 
construction to a modest level was emphasized by 
several speakers. Included are environmental 
statements for several of the projects. (Beardsley- 
Florida) 
W73-07984 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS AT PUBLIC 
HEARINGS RELATING TO APPLICATIONS 
FILED (TO THE WATER AND AIR QUALITY 
CONTROL COMMITTEE OF THE NORTH 
CAROLINA BOARD OF WATER AND AJR 
RESOURCES). 

North Carolina Board of Water And Air 
Resources, Raleigh. Water and Air Quality Con- 
trol Committee. 

March 30, 1972. 84 p. 

Descriptors: 'North Carolina, 'Water quality 
standards, 'Classification, 'Water quality control, 
Water control, Water zoning, Water resources 
development, Water utilization, Water pollution 
control, Adjudication procedure, Recreation, 
Water supply, Waste water (Pollution). 
Identifiers: 'Cape Fear River Basin. 

Proceedings are reported of the public hearing 
held on applications requesting the reclassification 
of certain bodies of water in the Cape Fear River 
Basin, North Carolina, so that they may be pro- 
tected and maintained in a suitable condition for 
the reclassified use. The reclassification was 
requested in order to protect the waters for fishing 
and secondary recreation, to protect certain 
waters as a source of raw water for the University 
of North Carolina and to protect certain waters for 
bathing and other water-body contact recreation. 
A transcript of the hearings containing testimony 
from interested agencies and citizens is included, 
as well as prepared reports concerning the specific 
waters subject to possible reclassification. 
(Mockler-Florida) 
W73-07987 



PROPOSED RECLASSD7ICATIONS OF CER- 
TAIN WATERS IN THE CHOWAN, NEUSE, 
PASQUOTANK, ROANOKE, TAR-PAMLICO, 
AND WHITE OAK RIVER BASINS, ETC. 
North Carolina Board of Water and Air 
Resources, Raleigh. Water and Air Quality Con- 
trol Committee. 

1973. 35 P, 3 TAB. 

Descriptors: 'North Carolina, 'Classification, 
'Water quality standards, 'Water quality control, 
River basins, River basin development, Regula- 
tion, River systems, Water utilization, Water pol- 
lution control, Standards, Evaluation. 

The proposed reclassification of certain streams in 
the Chowan, Neuse, Pasquotank, Roanoke, Tar- 
Pamlico and White Oak River Basins to be con- 
sidered at public hearings is explained. An evalua- 
tion of all surface waters in the above named river 
basins have been carefully made in accordance 
with the quality of the waters and the best usage of 
the waters; the proposal seeks to reclassify them 
with reference to their best usage and in the best 
interest of the public. Present classifications and 
use of the river basins are given, as well as the 
proposed changes in classification. Comprehen- 
sive tables and charts are included, representing 
an exhaustive and well planned study of the river 



I 



83 






Field 05-WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5G — Water Quality Control 



basins in their present use as well as pertinent in- 
formation regarding their use when reclassifed 
(Mockler-Florida) 
W73-07988 



NEW CLASSIFICATION ASSIGNED TO CER- 
TAIN WATERS IN THE CAPE FEAR RIVKR 
BASIN. 

North Carolina Board of Water and Air 
Resources, Raleigh. 

Resolutions of March 30, 1972. 3 p. 

Descriptors: *North Carolina, 'Classification, 
•Water quality standards, 'Water quality control, 
River basins, Tributaries, Water rights, Water law, 
Water policy, Water resources development' 
Water management (Applied), Water pollution 
control, Adjudication procedure. 
Identifiers: 'Cape Fear River Basin, ♦Re-classifi- 
cation (Water quality standards). 

The reclassification of certain waters in the Cape 
Fear River Basin establishes new water quality 
standards for Buckhorn Creek and its tributaries 
flowing through Wake County, North Carolina 
the waters of Bolin Creek flowing through the 
town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and Cane 
Creek and its tributaries flowing through Orange 
County. The reclassification, a result of written 
applications and public hearings, are discussed 
along with a description of the concerned subject 
waters. Any natural, unnamed tributaries in the 
basin will carry the same classification as that of 
the segment to which it is tributary. Additionally, 
those tributaries not specifically covered will con- 
tinue to carry the same classification. (Mockler- 
Flonda) 
W73-07989 



(ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DELAWARE 
RIVER BASIN COMMISSION, 1972). 
Delaware River Basin Commission, Trenton, N J. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E 
W73-O7990 



ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENTS-A 
DUTY OF INDEPENDENT INVESTIGATION BY 
FEDERAL AGENCIES. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E 
W73-07993 



PRIVATE REMEDIES FOR BEACH FRONT 
PROPERTY DAMAGE CAUSED BY OIL POL- 
LUTION OF MISSISSIPPI COASTAL WATERS, 
M. Soper. 

Mississippi Law Journal, Vol XLIU, No 4 p 516- 
537, 1972. 161 ref. »*■»»■ 

Descriptors: 'Mississippi, *Oil pollution, 'Coasts, 
•Oil spills, Riparian rights, Legal review, Legisla- 
tion, Law enforcement, Riparian land, Judicial 
decisions, Negligence, Penalties (Legal), Water 
pollution, Beaches, Water pollution sources, 
Legal aspects, Damages, State government! 
Federal government, State jurisdiction, Common 
law, Trespass. 
Identifiers: Nuisance (Legal aspects). 

Remedies are discussed that a Mississippi citizen 
owning beach-front property along the Gulf -coast 
may have for damage caused to his property by the 
discharge of oil from sea-going vessels. At present 
there is no Mississippi act which gives a landowner 
a private right to sue for cleanup or oil damage to 
his beach property. The state does have legisla- 
tion, such as the Mississippi Air and Water Pollu- 
tion Control Act of 1966, which adequately pro- 
tects state interests; however, existing state law 
pves no statutory rights to an injured individual 
landowner. The best avenue presently open to an 
individual beach property owner for private 
redress for oil damage is found in the common law 



actions of trespass, negligence, and nuisance 
These remedies are predicated upon the fact that 
one who owns beach-front property in Mississippi 
has riparian rights which can be protected through 
these three common law actions. There are, how- 
ever, difficulties in maintaining these private civil 
actions. Federal laws, like Mississippi statutory 
law, are adequate only to the extent that they pro- 
tect the national interest. State laws are needed to 
provide for strict liability for damage to private 
parties. (Adams-Florida) 
W73-07994 



THE ENERGY NEEDS OF THE NATION AND 
THE COST IN TERMS OF POLLUTION, 

Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G 
W73-07995 



THE YEAR OF SPOILED PORK: COMMENTS 
ON THE COURT'S EMERGENCE AS AN EN- 
VIRONMENTAL DEFENDER, 

Florida Univ., Gainsville. 

W. A. Rosenbaum, and P. E. Roberts. 

Law and Society Review, Vol 7, No 1 p 33-60 

Fall 1972. 28 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Judicial decisions, 'Legal review, 
'Decision making, 'Administrative agencies, 'Ad- 
ministrative decisions, Water resources, Water 
law, Project planning, Alternate planning, Cost- 
benefit analysis, Legal aspects. Political aspects 
Federal government, Standards, Water pollution ' 
Recreation, Environmental effects, Legislation. 
Identifiers: 'National Environmental Policy Act, 
'Sovereign immunity, 'Environmental Impact 
Statements, Standing (Legal). 

Federal water resources projects have been con- 
sistently challenged by environmentalists because 
of the fact that Congress frequently votes for pro- 
jects on the basis of political expediency without 
considering their ecological impact. The major line 
of attack upon these projects has been through the 
courts. There are four crucial legal issues which 
emerge from environmental lawsuits. First, it must 
be determined if the government can be sued. This 
depends upon whether environmentalists have 
standing, and whether the government enjoys 
sovereign immunity. Second, can projects which 
have already been begun be subjected to suit. 
Third, are benefit-cost calculations susceptible to 
judicial review. Fourth, what effect will the Na- 
tional Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and its 
impact statements have on these lawsuits. 
Recently a lower court adopted a twin test for the 
acceptability of NEPA environmental impact 
statements: they must be submitted in good faith, 
and they must alert decision-makers to major en- 
vironmental problems involved in the particular 
project If this test is upheld, the effect would be 
to remove the judiciary from substantive in- 
vestigations of impact statements, thus diminish- 
ing the value of the courts as a means for attacking 
pork-barrel projects. (Adams-Florida) 
W73-07996 



F. W. GUEST MEMORIAL LECTURE: RIVER 
POLLUTION AND THE LAW, 

G. H. Newsom. 

Otago Law Review, Vol 2, No 4, p 383-392 Au- 
gust 1972. 11 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Foreign countries, 'Penalties 
(Legal), *Legislation, 'Water pollution control, 
'Riparian rights, Natural flow doctrine, Water 
law, Legal aspects, Water rights, Banks, Owner- 
ship of beds, Riparian waters, Trespass, Common 
law, Judicial decisions, Fish, Fisheries, Law en- 
forcement. 

Identifiers: 'New Zealand, 'Comparative law, In- 
junctions (Prohibitory), Nuisance (Legal aspects) 
England. 



1 hu address, delivered in New Zealand u, |/7| fe 
a noted English jurist, provide* both an aocouolaf 
the English experience m nver pollution over fa 
last twenty years, and a critique of New /ealaatf', 
legislaUve effort* to combat river pollution TV 
most effecuve weapon utilized in hiudaud -kt 
nver pollution has been, traditionally, coiqomo 
law actions by riparian owners England an 
passed a senes of acts in order to deal with Ik 
problem These acts, such as the Rivers Act of 
1951, and the subsequent Act of 1961 provide (or 
criminal penalties, including imprisonment lor 
habitual offenders The laws, both civil' aM° 
criminal, are now adequate The problem remaw 
with enforcement, but this can be solved by offi- 
cial resolution and good organization As for Nov 
Zealand's efforts in water pollution control, car- 
rent legislation contains inadequate penalties. lo- 
ci u si on of penalties of imprisonment is itiiijroiol 
in order to put teeth into the laws Another major 
weapon to be used against nver pollution it the or- 
ganization of public opinion on a massive scale 
(Adams-FloridaJ 
W73-07997 



CRIMINAL LIABILITY UNDER THE REFUSE 
ACT OF 1899 AND THE REFUSE ACT PERMIT 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E 
W73-07998 



ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: STRICT COM- 
PLIANCE WITH PROCEDURAL REQUIRE. 
MENTS OF NEPA-THE AGENCIES MUST 
PLAY BY THE RULES, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E 
W73-07999 



DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES: 
DIVISION OF WATER POLLUTION CONTROL 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E 
W73-O8OO0 



SEEGREN V. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTEC- 
TION AGENCY (PETITION FOR HARDSHIP 
VARIANCE FOR USE OF SANITARY SEWERS). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E 
W73-08008 



STALEY MANUFACTURING CO. V. ENVIRON- 
MENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (REGULA- 
TION OF DISCHARGES FROM PRTVATB 
SEWER INTO MUNICIPAL SEWER). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E 
W73-08009 



REEDS CONTROL EUTROPHICATION OF 
BALATON LAKE, 

Research Inst, for Water Resources Development, 

Budapest (Hungary). 

L. Toth. 

Water Research, Vol 6, No 12, p 1533-1539 

December 1972. 3 fig, 3 tab, 13 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sewage treatment, 'Effluents, 
'Water pollution control, Aquatic plants, Water 
pollution sources, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, 
'Eutrophication, Water quality control. 
Identifiers: 'Reeds, 'Balaton Lake (Hungary), 
Macrophytes. 

As part of a study on the eutrophication of Lake 
Balaton, information is presented on the sewage 
discharged from the sewage purification plants at 
Tihany, Balatonfuered, and Keszthely into Lake 
Balaton directly and through stands of reed. Sam- 
ples of effluent were filtered through Sartorius 
membrane with a pore size of 0.45 micron and 
determinations were made of organic nitrogen and 
phosphorus. The measurements performed at Bal- 
tonfuered and Tihany show that in July, i.e. in the 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Water Quality Control — Group 5G 



[ iod of small load (Balatonfuered: total P equals 
;i ppm, total N equals 30.4 ppm, Tihany: total P 
nals 4.50 pp, total N equals 19.97 ppm) and in 
i gust, in the period of maximum load (Bala to o- 
I red: total P equals 6.25 ppm, total N equals 4S.4 

I n) the phosphorus and nitrogen content of the 
i 'age effluent which flows through the reeds is 
; isumed by the organisms living there (the living 
; ting of reed stalks, algae, bacteria, etc.) and 
; y small amounts of it get into the lake from the 
i : of the reeds bordering on open water (Tihany: 

J P equals 0.081 and 0.01 ppm, total N equals 

I I abd 0.78 ppm). With regard to lake protection 
p conflicting observations were made. The lake 
aid to be protected by the reeds only during one 
son, as in the autumn when the reeds die down. 
i's materials retained by them are mixed with 
t water by waveaction. On the other hand, the 
d materials discharged into the reeds and stabil- 
1 in the bodies of the living organisms there 
ich are either eaten by fish or leave the water 
' dry land, might decrease the trophic grade of 

lake. The optimal quantity of reedy areas in 
ce Balaton should be determined because the 
ds are important in protecting the water quality 
he lake. (Holoman-Battelle) 
3-08025 



OCEEDING 1971 TECHNICAL CON- 
ftENCE ON ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC 
RTHWEST. 

:gon State Univ., Corvallis. 
primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
3-08051 



E DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR HAR- 
1TOWN TOWNSHIP, MACON COUNTY, IL- 
JOIS. 

con County Regional Plan Commission, 
(■tur.HL 

•primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 
3-08052 



dreline management plan for the 
:ambia-santa rosa region. 

ith (Milo) and Associates, Tampa, Fla. 
primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

3-08053 



fECTS OF LAND USE ON WATER 
SOURCES, 

leral Water Pollution Control Administration, 

shington, D.C. 

primary bibliographic entry see Field 04C. 

5-08054 



E INTENSITY OF DEVELOPMENT ALONG 
Ul AND MEDIUM SIZED STREAMS IN 
USURBAN PHILADELPHIA, 

ional Science Research Inst, Philadelphia, Pa. 
primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 
1-08055 



JCTIONAL PLANNING AND PRO- 
VMMJNG: HOUSING, WATER AND 
VER, RECREATION, LAND USE, ADMINIS- 
LTION. 

k Twain Regional P lanning Commission, 

son, Mo. 

primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

1-08056 



AND SOLUBLE CU, NI AND ZN IN EAST- 
I KENTUCKY COAL MINE SPODL 
IERIALS, 

tucky Univ., Lexington. Dept. of Agronomy, 
primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
1-08088 



WINERY INNOVATES WASTE TREATMENT. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W73-08094 



OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN WET AHt OXIDA- 
TION PROCESSES, 

Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W73-08102 



TECHNOLOGIES FOR SHIPBOARD OIL-POLL- 
UTION ABATEMENT: EFFECTS OF OPERA- 
TIONAL PARAMETERS ON COALESCENCE. 

Naval Ship Research and Development Center, 

Annapolis, Md. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W73-08106 



BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, 

Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. Applied 
Sciences Branch. 

W. P. Simmons, L. A. Haugseth, and L. O. 
Timblin. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol 64, No 10, p 624-627, October 1972. 4 fig. 

Descriptors: Water resources, *Water resources 
development, *Water reuse, Precipitation (At- 
mospheric), Water management, Water pollution 
control, Water policy, Water quality, Water quali- 
ty control, Laboratory tests, Laboratory equip- 
ment, Geothermal studies, Surveys. 
Identifiers: 'Bureau of Reclamation. 

The Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of 
the Interior is concerned with conceiving, evaluat- 
ing, planning, designing, constructing, operating, 
and maintaining water resource related projects 
that maximize social, environmental and economic 
benefits for the area in the 17 Western States. The 
Bureau is concentrating present research on new 
water supplies in the geothermal resources and 
precipitation management fields. A study is also 
being made to identify the locations, amounts, and 
characteristics of various waste waters under the 
Inventory of Waste Water Reclamation Opportu- 
nities Program. Laboratory and field evaluations 
of techniques, structures, and equipment for use 
in waste water reclamation projects are also un- 
derway. Furthermore, Bureau research involves a 
continuing effort on methods of water quality 
determination and evaluation. (Smith-Texas) 
W73-08108 



HEAVY METALS REMOVAL IN WASTE 
WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES: PART 1, 

Orange County Water District, Santa Ana, Calif. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W73-08117 



CONVERTING AMD TO POTABLE WATER BY 
ION EXCHANGE TREATMENT, 

Chester Engineers, Inc., Coraopolis, Pa. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W73-08118 



WARWICK MINE NO. 2 WATER TREATMENT, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W73-08124 



HUMAN WASTE POLLUTION IN UNITED 

STATES FORESTS. 

Environmental Protection Center, Inc., In- 

glewood, Calif. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-08134 



THE APPLICATION OF SNOWMELT 
FORECASTING TO COMBAT COLUMBIA 



RIVER NITROGEN SUPERSATURATION 
PROBLEMS, 

Corps of Engineers, Portland, Oreg. North Pacific 

Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W73-08142 



CLEAN WATER FOR SAN FRANCISCO BAY. 

California State Water Resources Control Board, 

Sacramento. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W73-08176 



REGIONAL WATER AND SEWER GUIDE. 
Upper Savannah Planning and Development Dis- 
trict, Greenwood, S.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06D. 
W73-08177 



THE CLEAN STREAMS LAW OF PENNSYL- 
VANIA. 

Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Resources, 

Harrisburg. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W73-08183 



INVENTORY OF INTERSTATE CARRIER 
WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS. 

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, 

D.C. Water Supply Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W73-08192 



THE IMPACT OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRON- 
MENTAL POLICY ACT UPON ADMINISTRA- 
TION OF THE FEDERAL POWER ACT. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 
W73-08195 



HOW AN ENFORCER BECOMES THE POLLU- 
TER'S DEFENDER, 
W. L. Moonan. 
Juris Doctor, p 24, 25, 36, February 1973. 1 photo. 

Descriptors: 'Legal aspects, 'Pollution control, 
'Pollution abatement, 'Water law, Water policy, 
Industries, Economic impact, Social aspects, In- 
dustrial wastes, Industrial production, Administra- 
tion, Standards, Water pollution sources. 

An interview is described with a New Jersey attor- 
ney who is one of a growing number of anti-en- 
vironmental lawyers. Until 1970, he was one of the 
New Jersey Attorney General's top environmental 
law enforcers. He expresses concern for the effect 
of pollution control on the economy, fearing that 
the costs of cleanup will put many companies out 
of business and increase unemployment He is 
now a partner in a private law firm, and has pollut- 
ing companies waiting in line for his services. 
However, he is selective in his cases and will only 
handle companies who are sincerely interested in 
pollution control, and are not simply attempting to 
avoid their responsibility. As he says, he still cares 
about pollution. (Glickman-Florida) 
W73-08196 



THE WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL, 

National Water Commission, Arlington, Va. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W73-08198 



DEPARTMENT OF ECOLOGY. 

Washington Natural Resources and Recreation 

Agencies, Olympia. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 

W73-O8200 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5G— Water Quality Control 



D1GES1 OF PROPOSED REGULATION 
RELATING TO MONITORING AND REPORT- 
ING WASTEWATER DISCHARGES AND 
THEIR EFFECTS UPON RECEIVING WATERS. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W73-08202 



REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CON- 
FERENCE ON HUMAN ENVIRONMENT, HELD 
AT STOCKHOLM, 5-16 JUNE, 1972. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 
W73-08203 



LEGAL ASPECTS OF COASTAL ZONE 
MANAGEMENT IN ESCAMBIA AND SAN 
ROSA COUNTIES, FLORIDA (ESCAROSA), 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W73-08204 



IMMINENT IRREPARABLE INJURY: A NEED 
FOR REFORM, 

C. L. Hellerich. 

Southern California Law Review, Vol. 45, p. 1025- 

1061, 1972. 37 p, 145 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Remedies, 'Judicial decisions, 
•Damages, 'Adjudication procedure, Legai 
aspects, Jurisdiction, Water policy, Local govern- 
ments, Water pollution control, Environmental ef- 
fects, Water law, Law enforcement. 
Identifiers: 'Injunctive relief, Citizens suits, Na- 
tional Environmental Policy Act, Nuisance (Legal 
aspects). 

The most frequently requested remedy in environ- 
mental lawsuits is an injunction; however, in order 
to obtain one the plaintiff usually must show im- 
minent irreparable injury. The requirement that 
the threatened harm be both immediate and practi- 
cally certain to occur is no longer acceptable in 
today's era of over-population, over-industrializa- 
tion, and new and expanding technology. Also 
discussed are other needed reforms in the court 
system, the imminent threat of long-term damage 
unless procedures are changed, and the authority 
for reform of the imminent irreparable injury doc- 
trine. The imminent irreparable injury doctrine 
should be expanded to include future as well as un- 
certain harm. Various procedural alternatives are 
set forth with recommendations that the courts 
reevaluate and restructure their remedies to make 
them more responsive. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-O8205 



ENVIRONMENTAL LAW-PRTV.TE CAUSE OF 
ACTION UNDER THE RIVERS AND HARBORS 
APPROPRIATION ACT OF 1899 FOR INJURY 
TO THE ECOLOGY OF NAVIGABLE WATERS, 

Texas Law Review, Vol. 50, No 6, p 1255-1264, 
August 1972. 60 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Rivers and Harbors Act, 'Constitu- 
tional law, 'Judicial decisions, 'Law enforcement, 
Legislation, Jurisdiction, Legal review, Penalties 
(Legal), Permits, River regulation, Navigation, 
Water pollution control, Pollution abatement, 
Navigable waters, Ecology, Environmental con- 
trol, Environmental effects, Wildlife conserva- 
tion, Estuarine fisheries. 

Identifiers: 'Standing (Legal), 'Citizen suits, In- 
junctions (Prohibitory). 

Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 
makes it unlawful to excavate or fill any navigable 
water of the United States unless a permit has 
been obtained from the Army Corps of Engineers. 
Recently, private citizens have brought suit for 
damages and injunctive relief under the Act in 
order to prevent harm to the environment. These 
suits have raised the question of whether private 
citizens have standing under the Act. Courts which 
have allowed citizen suits have imposed two 



prerequisites: (1) the private plaintiff mutt be 
threatened with special injuries, and (2) the special 
injury must be within the Act's /.one of protection 
This latter requirement causes attention to focus 
on the purposes of the 1899 Act. A 1970 case, 
Zabel v. Tabb, extended the Act to protect the 
ecology of navigable waters by emphasizing the 
congressional policy in favor of environmental 
protection. The first decision to recognize a right 
to protect the environment through private en- 
forcement of the 1899 Act was based upon the 
grounds that the plaintiffs would suffer a direct 
and personal injury from destruction of fisheries 
and wildlife. (Adams-Florida) 
W73-08207 



THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY 
ACT OF 1969 SAVED FROM 'CRABBED IN- 
TERPRETATION', 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W73-08208 



SMALL BOAT HARBOR, KING COVE, 
ALASKA (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 
STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Anchorage, Alaska. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08D. 
W73-08209 



SMITHVILLE LAKE, LITTLE PLATTE RIVER, 
MISSOURI (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IM- 
PACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District. Kansas City, Mo. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W73-08210 



WALKER DAM IMPOUNDMENT, AQUATIC 
PLANT CONTROL PROJECT, NEW KENT 
COUNTY, VIRGINIA (FINAL ENVIRONMEN- 
TAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Norfolk, Va. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as EIS-VA-72-5511-F, $3.75, in paper 
copy, $0.95 in microfiche. May 15, 1972. 24 p, 2 
map, 3 photo, 1 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Virginia, 'Environmental effects, 
•Aquatic weed control, 'Fishkill, Aquatic en- 
vironment, Water quality, Environmental control, 
Recreation, Water chemistry, Water conservation, 
Weed control, Herbicides, Diquat, Aquatic weeds, 
Impoundments, Reservoirs, Oxygen require- 
ments. 

Identifiers: 'Egeria, New Kent County (Virginia), 
'Environmental impact statements. 

The proposed project would initiate a program in 
conjunction with the state, designed to control in- 
festation of egeria, an aquatic weed, through 
chemical treatment with a 50-50 mixture of herbi- 
cide diquat dibromide and potassium endothall. 
The control of egeria would increase recreational 
activity, insure adequate water velocities for in- 
take systems and increase fish production on the 
reservoir. However, adverse environmental ef- 
fects would include minor fish kills, reduction in 
available dissolved oxygen associated with bac- 
terial oxidation of dead plants, rendering of reser- 
voir water unsuitable for drinking purposes for ap- 
proximately two weeks, and potential damage to a 
tree farm near the upper reaches of the lake. Alter- 
natives to the proposed project include no im- 
provement, alteration of the lake habitat through 
water level reduction, mechanical control of 
aquatic vegetation, and removal of nutrient 
sources. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08212 



VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA-BEACH ERO- 
SION CONTROL AND HURRICANE PROTEC- 



TION (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMJ-AT7 
STATEMENT) 

Army Engineer District, Norfolk, Va 

For primary bibliographic entry sec Field 08A 

W73-082I3 



« ONSTRUCTION Of ARTIFICIAL REEK n, 
THE ATLANTIC (H KAN OF* f.APE HEIWV 
VIRGINIA (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 
STATEMENT). 

National Marine Fisheries Service, Beaufort, NjC 

Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Center 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G 

W73-08215 



WILLOW ISLAND LOCKS AND DAM OHK) 
RIVER, OHIO AND WEST VIRGINIA (FINAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT^ 
Army Engineer District, Huntington, W Va. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A 
W73-082I6 



PEARL RIVER BASIN, EDINBURG DAM AND 

LAKE, MISSISSIPPI AND LOUISIANA (FINAL 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT), 

Army Engineer District, Mobile, Ala. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A 

W73-08221 



KANAWHA RTVER COMPREHENSIVE BASIN 
STUDY, NORTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, AND 
WEST VIRGINIA, (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL 
IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Ohio River Basin Commission, Cincinnati. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A 
W73-08222 



LITTLE CALUMET RTVER: LAKE CALUMET 
HARBOR. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E 
W73-08233 



CHANGES IN THE MICROBIAL POPULA- 
TIONS OF A RESERVOIR TREATED WITH 
THE HERBICIDE PARAQUAT, 

University of Wales Inst, of Science and Tech. 

Cardiff. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W73-08239 



THE FISH FAUNA OF NERA RTVER AND ITS 

PROTECTION, (IN RUMANIAN) 

Academia R.S.R., Bucharest Institute! de 

Biologic 

P. Banarescu, and T. Oprescu. 

Ocrotirea Nat. Vol 15, No 2, p 138-148, 1971. IHus. 

English summary. 

Identifiers: 'Barbus-Meridionalis, 'Cbon- 

drostoma-Nasus, Cobitis-Elongata, Fauna, Fish, 

'Nera River, Protection, River, 'Romania, Snails. 

The fish-fauna of Nera River (Southern Banal, 
Romania) include 28 spp. (19 autochthonous ones 
and 9 ascending the river from the Danube). The 
most abundant species are Chondrostoma nasui 
and Barbus meridionahs petenyi. The most in- 
teresting species is Cobitis elongate, a preglacial 
relict, occurring also in some tributaries to the 
Danube from Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. It is neces- 
sary to protect these fish species as well as the 
whole aquatic fauna of this river, which includes 
some remarkable prosobranchiate snails, by 
preventing any pollution of the river or of its tribu- 
taries upwards from the gorges. The protection 
only of the gorges is not sufficient-Copyright 
1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08269 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Water Quality Control — Group 5G 



lOMITUS TRUTTAE SCHMIDT, A 
i ASITE OF YOUNG TROUT IN THE FARM 
[POND JADRO SOLIN, (IN SERBO-CRO- 

m, 

i-vsko Ribogojilistvo Jadro, Solin (Yu- 
uvia). 

ulovec, R. Vukovic, and P. Ritterman. 
yologia (Sarajevo). Vol 1, No 1, p 19-25, 
Illus. English summary. 
ifiers: Calomel treatment, Diet, Fish, Gall- 
ier, Membrane, Mucous, *Octomitus-truttae, 
sit-drug, *Parasites, Ponds, Toxicity, *Trout, 
;oslavia. 

arasitic disease, caused by flagelate, was 
lfied. It caused heavy losses in raising young 
8. Microscopic examination of fresh prepara- 
from gall bladders and intestinal mucous 
branes of the young trout revealed the 
sites. Calomel treatment is effective, and 
. zoohygienic measures were undertaken. A 
lal system of feeding was also used. Calomel 
ment can provoke some toxic symptoms in 
ig trouts. By this system of treatment and 
ing of young trout, the mortality was reduced 
ss than l%.-Copyright 1972, Biological Ab- 
ts, Inc. 
-08282 



IONAL ANIMAL FEEDLOT WASTES 
EARCH PROGRAM, 

at S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab., 
Okla. National Animal Feedlot Wastes 
arch Program. 
Shuyler. 

i available from GPO Sup Doc as 
23/2:73-157, $0.75; microfiche from NTTS as 
19 821, $1.45. Environmental Protection 
icy, Technology Series Report EPA-R2-73- 
February 1973. 33 p, 3 fig, 2 tab, 15 ref. EPA 
set 1 3040 GJU. 

riptors: *Feedlots, Animals, Wastes, Water 
ty control, Pollution abatement, Planning, 
m wastes, *Research priorities, Federal 
rnment, Project planning 
tifiers: 'National research programs, 'Animal 
ot wastes, Agricultural waste water. 

status of the National Animal Feedlot Wastes 
arch Program is presented. Current research 
:cts and future program development are 
issed. Research and investigations are needed 
'aluate the effectiveness of potential treat- 
and control measures. Examples of such pro- 
are presented. Demonstrations and educa- 
1 activities will be required to provide 
spread acceptance of new concepts. The fu- 
)lans of the program are presented on a PERT 
am. The time frame for the PERT diagram is 
ident on funding and may be adjusted slightly 
: future. (EPA) 
08286 



SPILLS CONTROL MANUAL FOR FIRE 
UlTMENTS, 

le Geophysical Associates, Inc., Norwood, 

oss, J.Cunningham, B. Katz, and A. Roberts, 
available from GPO Sup Doc as 
'3/2:73-117, $1.25; microfiche from NTIS as 
19 884, $1.45. Environmental Protection 
cy, Technology Series Report EPA-R2-73- 
February 1973. 98 p, 10 fig, 17 ref. EPA Pro- 
5080 FVP. New York City Fire Department 
i tee). 

riptors: Training, *Oil spills, *Oil pollution, 
lx>rs, 'Inland waterways, Hydraulics, Jets, 
, Docks, *Water pollution control, Pressure, 
is. Boats, Law enforcement, Nozzles, Local 
nments, Dispersion emulsions, 
ifiers: Surface currents, Monitor streams, 
departments, Booming, Herding, Skimming, 
:nts, Oil spill containment boom, Emergency 
Be, Boom terminal gap. 



This report was developed from field tests and ac- 
tual oil spill control experiences of the Marine 
Division of the New York Fire Department during 
a twenty-two month period beginning October 8, 
1970. The information is intended to assist a cum- 
munity in protecting its area against oil spill 
damage. Operational procedures described are in- 
tended to serve as stop-gap measures, pending the 
inauguration of clean-up activities by the spiller or 
responsible Federal Agency. A survey of cities 
susceptible to oil spills indicates that most 
responding fire departments are concerned with 
containing spills as well as dealing with spill- 
created fire hazards. Research and development 
which culminated in the production of this manual 
concentrated on the utilization of existing fire de- 
partment resources. However, a limited amount of 
useful ancillary equipment was procured or 
developed. Such equipment is described and its 
use is expalined. The manual describes common 
sources of oil spills and some ecological effects of 
oil pollution. Pertinent Federal laws and regula- 
tions are outlined. Some feasible techniques for 
dealing with harbor spills are offered. (EPA) 
W73-08288 



PROBLEMS OF COMBINED SEWER FACILI- 
TD2S AND OVERFLOWS, 1967. 

American Public Works Association, Chicago, 111. 

Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, 
Water Pollution Control Research Series WP-20- 
11, December 1, 1967. 183 p, 10 fig, 61 tab, 22 ref. 
EPA 11020-12/67, FWPC A Contract No. 14-12-65. 

Descriptors: 'Combined sewers, *Sewerage, 
•Water pollution, *Urban runoff, Costs, Data col- 
lections, Water pollution control, Overflow, 
Separated sewers, Sanitary engineering, Urban 
drainage, Water pollution sources, Sewers. 
Identifiers: 'Combined sewer overflows. 

A nationwide survey was made of the effects and 
means of correcting combined sewer overflows 
and storm and sanitary sewer discharges. Over 900 
communities were surveyed by personal inter- 
views of public officials, and the results were pro- 
jected for the entire country. Many conclusions 
were reached and recommendations made on al- 
Lieviaung the problems of flooding and pollution 
from sewer systems. The communities surveyed 
did not have adequate information to evaluate the 
extent and effect of sewer overflows and that 
sewer overflows are a major part of this country's 
water pollution problems, contrary to what was 
previously thought. Separation of existing com- 
bined sewers was estimated to cost 48 billion dol- 
lars nationally, while alternative methods of con- 
trol would cost only 15 billion dollars. Few com- 
munities were engaged in programs of complete 
separation of combined sewers. Although separa- 
tion is the most popular method of control being 
used, it is usually applied to only a portion of the 
total sewer system. Additional research is recom- 
mended to develop new methods of control and/or 
treatment of combined sewer overflows as alterna- 
tives to sewer separation. Other recommendations 
were made on improving the knowledge of the 
frequency and effects of combined sewer over- 
flows and design criteria for sewers to help solve 
the problems of flooding and overflows. (Poertner) 
W73-08299 



DESTRUCTION OF OIL SLICKS, 

Halliburton Services, Duncan, Okla. (assignee). 
R. F. Rensvold. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,705,782, 3 p, 4 ref; Official 
Gazette of the United States Patent Office, Vol 
905, No 2, p 353, December 12, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Oil spills, 'Oil pollution, 
Water quality control, 'Pollution abatement. 
Identifiers: 'Calcium carbide, Acetylene gas, 
Hydrocarbon gas. 



87 



Oil spills are destroyed by increasing the com- 
bustibility of the oil film by incorporating an ig- 
nitable and combustible gas such as a hydrocarbon 
gas or hydrogen gas and igniting it in the presence 
of atmospheric oxygen. The oil film will be con- 
verted to carbon dioxide and water and thereby 
destroyed. Finely divided particles of calcium car- 
bide are deposited on the surface of the oil. The 
particles settle through the oil film, contact the 
water and generate acetylene gas. The product of 
the reaction between calcium carbide and water is 
calcium hydroxide. The hydroxide is eventually 
converted to calcium carbonate. The ignition of 
the oil-hydrocarbon gas mixture may be accom- 
plished by a variety of means, such as floating 
flares dropped from aircraft, or incendiary projec- 
tiles fired from a floating vessel. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08305 



OIL REMOVAL DEVICE, 
R. H. Cross, HI. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,706,382, 4 p, 4 fig, 3 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol 905, No 3, p 526, December 19, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, Skimming, 'Oil spills, 'Oil 
pollution, Water quality control, 'Pollution abate- 
ment, Equipment, Separation techniques. 

This device includes an H-shaped skimmer con- 
sisting of a cross member and two arm portions. 
Each arm is of rectangular or circular cross section 
and provides inflow ports. A flexible buoyant suc- 
tion hose communicates through the structure with 
the inflow ports for the removal of oil. The 
skimmer may be suspended from a buoyant frame. 
The longest dimension of the device is not more 
than one-fourth the wavelength of the shortest 
waves whose amplitude might be significant in 
disturbing the device. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-O8307 



SKIMMERS FOR POLLUTION CONTROL 
DEVICE, 

J. W. Harrington, and E. G. Milne. 
U. S. Patent No. 3,707,232, 4 p, 2 fig, 3 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol 905, No 4, p 748, December 26, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, Skimming, 'Oil spills, 'Oil 
pollution, 'Pollution abatement, Equipment, 
Water quality control. 

This floating skimmer has a top part which can 
slide on an intake conduit and a bottom which can 
counteract the internal pressure drop normally in- 
cident to the intake operation. An upper cone has a 
horizontal flange and the lower float has a flat sur- 
face which extends slightly past the flange and is 
positioned close to the flange in normal use. The 
cone is free to move to achieve adjustment and 
float on the pollutant surface. Stops may be added 
on any point of proximity between the top member 
and the upper plate of the bottom member to main- 
tain a minimum skimming aperture. It is preferred 
that the upper plate of the bottom member by 
moderately concave, so as to act somewhat as a 
small basin. Two variations in the configuration 
are presented. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08309 



ANTI-POLLUTION BALLAST CONTAINER, 

H. Liles. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,707,937, 3 p, 5 fig, 11 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol 906, No 1 , p 148, January 2, 1973. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Pollution abatement, 

Equipment, Water pollution control, Water quality 

control. 

Identifiers: 'Oil tankers, 'Ballast containers. 

The container is constructed with a surrounding 
wall having contraction rings secured at intervals. 






I 



FteM OS-WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5G— Water Quality Control 



The container collapses in folds that are guided by 
rings secured to the wall of the container inter- 
mediate of the folds. This allows the container to 
expand when ballast fluid is pumped into the con- 
tainer to provide the appropriate quantity of bal- 
last weight within the compartment and yet to be 
discharged from the tanker without the ballast 
fluid being contaminated with the oil or causing 
pollution at the point of discharge. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08313 



OIL SKIMMER, 

Cities Service Oil Co., Tulsa, Okla. (assignee) 
E.A.Bell. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,708,070, 5 p, 5 fig, 10 ref ; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office 
Vol 906, No 1 , p 183, January 2, 1973. 

Descriptors: •Patents, Skimming, *Oil spills, •Oil 
pollution, Water quality control, *Pollution abate- 
ment. Equipment, Separation techniques, Water 
pollution control. 
Identifiers: *Oil skimmers. 

The oil skimming barge has a transition compart- 
ment arranged to receive inflow from the surface 
of the water over the rim of a pivoted floating baf- 
fle. Surface liquid inflow to the compartment is 
determined by the position of the baffle which in 
turn is determined by the outflow of water from 
the bottom of the downstream end of the compart- 
ment. At the downstream end of the last transition 
compartment there is an oil recovery compartment 
having a floating baffle inlet arrangement. Oil is 
withdrawn at a suitable rate to control the inlet 
baffle position. The inlet to the recovery compart- 
ment faces a downstream direction to render in- 
flow to the recovery compartment substantially in- 
dependent of perturbations in the liquid resulting 
from the overall surface flow. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08314 



SYSTEM AND BARRIER FOR CONTAINING 
AN OBL SPILL, 

Ocean Systems, Inc., Tarrytown, N.Y. (assignee) 
R.N.Blockwick. *^ 

U. S. Patent No. 3,708,982, 5 p, 18 fig, 3 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office 
Vol 906, No 2, p 418, January 9, 1973. 

Descriptors: *Patents, 'Barriers, 'Oil spills, 'Oil 
pollution, Water pollution control, Water quality 
control, 'Pollution abatement, Equipment, 
Separation techniques. 

Individual barrier modules are coupled end to end 
for confining a liquid such as oil floating on the 
surface of a body of water. The barrier module 
may form a closed loop about a tanker. The barrier 
may be moored if necessary. The upper section of 
each module extends above the surface of the 
water, and the lower section which reaches below 
the surface serves as ballast and subsurface barri- 
er. They are bound by any water repellent sealing 
adhesive. Where a porous foam plastic material is 
used to form the upper section it may be rendered 
water impervious by sealing the outer periphery. 
Once immersed into water the mass of the water- 
absorbing lower section will immediately increase 
due to entrapped water, providing the necessary 
ballast. The lower section will exhibit a dynamic 
response characteristic closely simulating the sur- 
face characteristics of the sea itself. The lower 
section may be fabricated out of a reticulated 
polyether based polyurethane foam. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W73-08315 



Descriptors: •Patents, Barriers, 'Oil spills, *0,j 
pollution, Water pollution control, Water quality 
control, Equipment, Separation technique *Pollu 
lion abatement. 

The apparatus comprises a series of elongated, 
hollow, structural units that are connected 
together to form a closed loop of any desired con- 
figuration. Each structural unit is air tight except 
for inlet and outlet openings and each is connected 
to an air line that may be attached to a compressor 
Valves on each unit may be actuated simultane- 
ously u> allow air to escape from and water to 
enter to units, causing them to flood and submerge 
the apparatus. When an oil spill or leakage is to be 
contained, the outlet valves can be closed and the 
inlet valves opened so that the compressor can 
supply air to raise the apparatus to the water sur- 
face. Barrier portions extending above and below 
the hollow air-filled units prevent waves from 
breaking over the apparatus and oil from passing 
under it. (Sinha-OEIS) k— -u« 

W73-08316 



APPARATUS FOR CONFINING A FLOATABLE 
LIQUID, 

N. Matheson. 

U. S. Patent No 3,710,577, 4 p, 9 fig, 10 ref Offi- 

*?\ S^ ette of tbc United States Patent Office, 
Vol 906, No 3, p 829, January 16, 1973. 

Descriptors: *Patents, Barriers, 'Oil spills, *Oil 
pollution, •Pollution abatement, Equipment 
Water quality control, Water pollution control' 
Separation techniques. 

This apparatus consists of floatable barrier sec- 
tions, each comprising a flexible water impervious 
upright curtain. A pair of cables are secured to 
each curtain and extend longitudinally in spaced 
relationship one to the other. A pair of buoyant 
tubes are placed to control the center of buoyancy 
and develop corrective forces that maintain the 
bamer in a generally upright stable position. The 
apparatus has a towing assembly which consists of 
a pair of outboard buoyancy tanks and a towing 
bridle that stabilizes the floatable barrier and in- 
hibits yaw, pitch and roll. The barrier can be ar- 
ranged in a variety of configurations. (Sinha- 
OEIS) 
W73-08321 



VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT FENCE FOR OIL 
SPILL CONTAINMENT AND RECOVERY 
W. M. Davidson, and H. W. Cole, Jr 
U. S. Patent No 3,710,943, 4 p, 8 fig, 5 ref; Official 
Gazette of the United States Patent Office Vol 
906, No 3, p 922, January 16, 1973. 

Descriptors: •Patents, *Oil spills, Barriers 
Separation techniques, Water pollution control' 
Water quality control, 'Pollution abatement, »Oii 
pollution. 

A barrier is provided that is responsive to mean 
wave height rather than to each wave in a heavy 
sea. This flexible, inflatable barrier is constructed 
in the form of a tunnel inside of which there is a 
continuous passage for oil that enters the barrier 
beneath the water's surface on the upstream side 
and leaves the barrier on either end of the tunnel. 
The barrier is weighted at the bottom by suitable 
ballast means and buoyed at the top by long, con- 
tinuous air chambers. Lengthwise cables are at- 
tached along the top and bottom of the barrier for 
towing and control purposes. (Sinha-OEIS) 



DM npiors •Fateul*. »Oil tpUlt. 'Oil putlft 
Separation technique*, 'PloUam. Barriers, i 
pollution control, Water quality control *| 
lion abatement 

This barrier consul* of section* each of I 
contain* an inflatable bag with panel* niipJ 
from and tangent to it The panel* overlap | 
other over a portion of their length The panei 
connected »o as to be able to swing relative to| 
other. The barrage formed by an a**emb!y o] 
rier* ha* a chain serving at traction means J 
ballast extend* underneath the barrage air-™ 
entire length. The barrage u able to folk 
movement* of the surface of sea* and 
drawn into a variety of configuration* 
OEIS) 
W73 -08323 



Jk.v| 



SYSTEMS FOR THE REMOVAL OF POII 

TANTS FROM WATER, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D 

W73-08389 



APPARATUS FOR CONFINING OIL SPILLS, 

W. E. Brown, and E. E. Gilbert. 
U. S. Patent No. 3,708,983, 4 p, 1 1 fig, 5 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol 906, No 2, p 418, January 9, 1973. 



FLOATING BARRAGE, 

Pneumatiques, Cacutchouc Manufacture et 

Plastiques Kleber-Colombes (France). 

R. Ducrocq, and C. Moreau. 

U. S. Patent No 3,713,410, 3 p, 3 fig, 3 ref; Official 

Gazette of the United States Patent Office, Vol 

906, No 5, p 1573, January 30, 1973 



STANDARDS BASED ON THE QUALITY I 
THE RECEIVING WATER, 

Trent River Authority (England) 

W. F. Lester. 

Water Pollution Control, Vol 58, Part 3 p 324- 

1969. 8 tab, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: •River regulation, 'Water qui 
standards, Water pollution control, Aerat 
Water law, Regulation, Effluents. 
Identifiers: Royal commission river standards. 

The Royal Commission established visible si 
dards in 1911 for classifying rivers from 'v| 
clean' to 'bad'. In order to establish standai 
based on the quality of the receiving water, mi { 
subtle factors beyond visual observation must i 
considered, such as reareation rate, physi 
parameters, and biological use of the water Ri 
standards have the disadvantage of requir 
legislative revision. The advantage of river st 
dards is that the river itself determines the qua! 
of effluent that should be discharged to it (And 
son-Texas) 
W73-08413 



THE EFFECT OF KRAFT PULP MILL I 
FLUENTS ON THE GROWTH OF ZALERIC 
MARTnUM, *^^m^ 

Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby (British ColumbL 

Dept. of Biological Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C 

W73-08426 



WATER POLLUTION IN SUEZ BAY, 

Red Sea Inst, of Oceanography and Fisheries, / 

Ghurdaqah (Egypt). 

A. H. Meshal. 

Bull Inst Oceanogr Fish. 1: p 461-473. 1970. Dlu 

Map. 

Identifiers: Bays, *Suez Bay, Water pollutio 

treatment, ♦03 pollution, 'Pollution abatement 

Methods are suggested (and evaluated) for th 
treatment and disposal of floating oil. They are 
covering with fibrous material, sinking with pow 
dered solids, and dispersion with emulsifiers- 
Copyright 1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc 
W73-08432 



THREATENED FRESHWATER FISHES OF THI 
UNITED STATES, 

Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Museum of Zoology. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 021. 
W73-08439 



88 



JJo6. WATER RESOURCES 



PLANNING 
6A. Techniques of Planning 



I INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE UPPER 
3 WABASH SIMULATION MODEL, 

J Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. Water Resources 
'Research Center. 

m For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 
i W73-07815 



fci DEVELOPMENT OF A STATE WATER- 
•PLANNING MODEL, FINAL REPORT, 

Montana State Univ., Bozerr.an. Water Resources 
Research Center. 

D. W. Boyd, T. T. Williams, and R. L. Brustkem. 
Ui Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 363, $3.00 in paper copy, 
{1.45 in microfiche. Completion Report No. 36, 
1973. 19 p. OWRR B-029-MONT (5). 

Descriptors: 'Planning, 'Mathematical models, 
il 'Systems analysis, 'Montana, 'Model studies, 
State governments. 

A water-planning model was developed for the 
| Water Resources Division, Montana Department 
of Natural Resources and Conservation. The 
planning model is a management tool, intended to 
1 1 be used by the Water Resources Division to pro 
: | vide impersonal, accurate, speedy answers to 
water management questions such as 'what will be 
the effect on the river basin of diverting flow from 
a particular stream for a new thermal energy 
i plant', or 'what changes in streamflow can be ex- 
i peeled by constructing a new storage dam at a 
! specified location.' Three levels of development of 
i the model have been completed: state peripheral, 
i basin peripheral, and sub-basin peripheral. The 
I sub-basin model is the most comprehensive ver- 
sion, and provides the greatest amount of detail. 
, The models are hydrologic; but the methodology 
, can easily be extended to include water quality and 
i economic data as well. (Holje-Montana) 
W73-07817 



MODELS OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CON- 
TROL IN URBAN PLANNING, 
RAND Corp., Santa Monica, Calif. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field OSG. 
W73-07831 



MANAGEMENT MODEL AS A TOOL FOR STU- 
DYING THE WORTH OF DATA, 

Geological Survey, Arlington, Va. Water 

Resources Div. 

T. Maddock, HI. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 270- 

280, April 1973. 1 fig, 5 tab, 12 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Mathematical models, 'Systems 
analysis, 'Water management (Applied), 'Farm 
management, Data processing, Data collections, 
Irrigation, Water utilization, Planning, Ground- 
water, Withdrawal, Water yield. 
Identifiers: 'Data evaluation. 

Groundwater simulation modeling, mathematical 
programming, and decision theory may be com- 
bined to plan and manage an irrigated farm. The 
model accommodates variation in economic fac- 
tors such as pumping costs and crop prices, in 
hydrologic factors such as transmissivity and 
storage coefficient, and in physical factors such as 
the choice of a physical model of the groundwater 
system. Those factors that are most critical to 
planning and managing the farm are identified and 
analyzed. The results of the analysis are a decision 
on cropping and pumping patterns over a design 



period, a choice of a physical model of the ground- 
water system that meets the needs of the farm, a 
ranking of data by the worth to the farm, and a 
ranking of data by priority for further data collec- 
tion activities. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07882 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 06 
Techniques of Planning — Group 6A 

Descriptors: 'Water resources, 'Water manage- 
ment (Applied), 'Systems engineering, Hydrau- 
lics, 'Social needs, 'Environmental effects. 
Ecology, Stochastic processes, Simulation analy- 
sis, Optimization, Operations research, Mathe- 
matical models. 



OPTIMIZATION OF DEAD END WATER DIS- 
TRIBUTION SYSTEMS, 

Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 
W73-07920 



INTEGRATING ALL ASPECTS OF REGIONAL 
WATER SYSTEMS, 

British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Water 

Resources Research Centre. 

I. K. Fox. 

Journal of the Hydraulics Division, American 

Society of Civil Eningeers, Vol 99, No HY4, 

Proceedings paper 9662, p 599-603, April, 1973. 5 

P, 1 fig- 

Descriptors: 'Water resources development, 
'Systems analysis, 'Hydraulics, 'Economic anal- 
ysis, 'Regional analysis, Social needs, Institu- 
tions, Systems, Water quality. 
Identifiers: 'Wisconsin River, Policies, 
Behavioral scineces, Cost minimization. 

The natural scientist, the economist, and the en- 
gineer are concerned with providing better data 
and information for making decisions about water 
use, through utilization of water resources system 
analysis. The behavioral scientist, on the other 
hand, is concerned with providing information 
about how people and institutions interact in mak- 
ing water use decisions and how institutions may 
be altered to produce a different kind of decision. 
The conceptual and factual foundation utilized by 
the behavioral scientist has limitations similar to 
those of the natural scientist and the economist, 
and systems analysis makes best use of limited 
data while indicating the areas in which additional 
knowledge is most urgently needed. The advance- 
ment of systems analysis in the natural science, 
economic, and behavioral science areas, in- 
dividually and separately, is highly worthwhile. 
However, a procedural integration of physical- 
biological subsystems, economic subsystems, and 
institutional subsystems is necessary for providing 
an improved foundation for policy and institu- 
tional design in water resources development. 
How such a procedure was followed in a case 
study of the Upper Wisconsin River is outlined, 
and the results of using the approach are 
discussed. (Bell-Cornell) 
W73-07921 



SYSTEMS APPROACH TO WATER QUALITY 
MANAGEMENT, 

Water Resources Engineers, Inc., Walnut Creek, 

Calif. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-07922 



SYSTEMS ANALYSIS IN IRRIGATION AND 
DRAINAGE, 

California Univ., Riverside. Dry-Lands Research 

Inst. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03F. 

W73-07923 



STATUS OF WATER RESOURCE SYSTEMS 
ANALYSIS, 

Texas Univ., Austin. Center for Research in Water 

Resources. 

L. R. Beard. 

Journal of the Hydraulics Division, American 

Society of Civil Engineers, Vol 99, No HY4, 

Proceedings paper 9658, p 559-565, April, 1973. 7 

P- 



Although great progress has been made in simulat- 
ing the physical operation of water resource 
systems, challenging problems still remain. 
Primarily, these are multi-objective evaluations of 
physical output and application of operations 
research techniques. Conflicting and complemen- 
tary output functions, stochastic input functions, 
complex physical, legal and social constraints, and 
system nonhnearities pose great technical difficul- 
ties. Development of an optimum plan of water 
resources management requires the integration of 
objectives, such as economic efficiency, environ- 
mental protection, ecological management, and 
social well-being; necessarily, these objectives 
must be related in terms of a common denomina- 
tor, or unique objective function. Effective appli- 
cation of operations research techniques, such as 
linear or dynamic progr amming , is hindered by the 
extreme complexity of water resource systems; 
nonlinearities and interrelationships that change 
with time and location make optimization particu- 
larly difficult. At present, a gradient type of op- 
timization based on detailed system simulation is 
most useful. Needed is a more realistic and highly 
sophisticated systems simulation model, capable 
of accommodating systems of any configuration, 
inputs, and demand criteria, and containing a 
framework for operating the system that is suffi- 
ciently flexible to respond to all needs. Advances 
are most promising in the direction of analyzing in- 
ternal interactions of water resource systems and 
their impacts on objective functions. (Bell-Cor- 
nell) 
W73-07924 



TO 



POWER 



SYSTEMS APPROACH 

PLANNING, 

Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, Calif. Hydro and 

Community Facilities Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08C. 

W73-07925 



EFFECT OF INCLUDING WATER PRICE ON 
THE CONJUNCTIVE OPERATION OF A SUR- 
FACE WATER AND GROUNDWATER 
SYSTEM, 

Plan Organization, Tehran (Iran). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04B. 
W73-08132 



OPTIMAL PATH OF INTERREGIONAL IN- 
VESTMENT AND ALLOCATION OF WATER, 

Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept of Economics. 
U. Regev, and A. Schwartz. 
Water Resources Research, Vol 9, No 2, p 251- 
262, April, 1973. 2 fig, 42 equ, 17 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Optimization, 'Water resources, 
'Management, 'Economics, 'Water allocation 
(Policy), 'Investment, 'Regions, Seasonal, Water 
conveyance, Costs, Water storage, Flow, Mathe- 
matical models, Systems analysis, Equations. 
Identifiers: Shadow prices, Integer programming. 

A deterministic model of the optimal allocation of 
water and investment in a system composed of 
several water regions is presented. A discrete time 
control theory is applied to formalize the model in 
which the main focus is upon the interaction of re- 
gional and seasonal considerations. Economic in- 
terpretation of the optimal conditions reveals the 
following price policy implications: Prices at two 
adjacent regions should differ by (at most) the cost 
of transportation. The general trend of the water 
inventory shadow price in present value is increas- 
ing over time with a decreasing rate, whereas the 
seasonal peaks and troughs in water demand 
produce positive and negative shifts from that 



Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 
Group 6A— Techniques of Planning 



trend and suggest a peak load-pricing system. The 
marginal productivity of water is related to rental 
prices of the different equipment types and to 
capital equipment marginal cost. The latter sets up 
an upper bound for water prices. Increasing 
returns to scale are treated by integer pro- 
gramming formulation when setup costs or in- 
divisibility of projects violate the concavity of the 
objective function. (Bell-Comell) 
W73-08133 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE WESTERN SNOW 
CONFERENCE, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C 
W73-08138 



COPING WITH POPULATION GROWTH AND 
A LIMITED RESOURCE, 
Arizona Water Commission, Phoenix 
P. Briggs. 

In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Snow Conference, April 18-20, 1972, 
Phoenix, Ariz: Printed by Colorado State Univer- 
sity, Fort Collins , p 6-8, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Systems analysis, 'Mathematical 
models, 'Water balance, Simulation analysis, Op- 
timization, Water resources development, Water 
yield, Safe yield, Water management (Applied) 
'Arizona. 

A computerized systems analysis, using a series of 
optimization and simulation models, was used to 
prepare recommendations of water allocations in 
the State of Arizona. The system was divided into 
three subsystems: economic, hydrologic-engineer- 
mg, and one which interfaces the first two. These 
fit together in a closed loop which can be continu- 
ously operated until all inputs are internally con- 
sistent. This method may be used to develop 
technical evaluations of specific areas for use by 
decision makers. (See also W73-08138) (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W73-08140 



REGIONALIZATION AND WATER QUALITY 
MANAGEMENT, 

Camp, Dresser and McKee, Boston, Mass. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D 
W73-08383 



MODELLING REGIONAL WASTE WATER 
TREATMENT SYSTEMS, 

Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. School of Public 

Health. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D 

W73-08385 



SIMPLE ALGORITHM FOR COST OPTIMIZA- 
TION OF A THREE DECISION VARIABLE 
SYSTEM, 

Wayne State Univ., Detroit, Mich. Dept. of Civil 

Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D 

W73-08386 

6B. Evaluation Process 



A METHODOLOGY FOR PLANNING OP- 
TIMAL REGIONAL WASTEWATER MANAGE- 
MENT SYSTEMS, 

Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. Water Resources 

Research Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D 

W73-07805 



THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF A CORPS OF 
ENGINEERS PROJECT REPORT: THE 
DELMARVA WATERWAY, 

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. 



For primary bibliographic entry »ce Field 06F 

W73-0781I 



ECONOMIC HWRII FROM AN IMPROVE 
MENT IN WATER QUALITY, 

Oregon Univ., CorvalUs. Dept of Agricultural 

Economics. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G 

W73-07813 



THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER- -A WATER SOURCE 
FOR TEXAS. (EVALUATION OF A PROPOSED 
WATER DIVERSION), 

Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge Dept. of 
Civil Engineering. 
R. G. Kazmann, and O. Arguello. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 362, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Louisiana Water Resources 
Research Institute, Baton Rouge, Bulletin 9 

ow^r'a^i^aV) 7 * 8 Ub> 22 rcf ' 4 appcnd: 

Descriptors: 'Diversion, 'River forecasting 
'Inter-basin transfers, Oultlets, 'Water transfer! 
Water importing, Water costs. Economic feasibili- 
ty, 'Saline water intrusion, Saline water-fresh- 
water interfaces, Mathematical models, Loui- 
siana, 'Mississippi River, Interstate, Regional 
economics. 
Identifiers: Texas Water Plan. 

Various rates of diversion to Texas were incor- 
porated in computer playbacks of the daily Missis- 
sippi River discharges at Vicksburg for the period 
from 1928 to 1967, assuming that the Old River 
Control Structure also diverted 25 percent of the 
flow into the Atchafalaya River at the same time. 
The frequency of salt-water encroachment in the 
river at New Orleans (Algiers) during low water 
would not have changed if the minimum diversion 
rate to Texas had been 24,000 cfs for 8.5 months 
per year (annual quantity, 12 million acre-feet). 
Cost estimates include: construction of new reser- 
voirs in Texas to store 15 million acre-feet for 
seasonal distribution; 12,000 megawatts of electric 
power to lift the water 4,000 feet Total cost of ir- 
rigation water ranges from approximately $70 to 
$100 per acre-foot. Possible future projects in the 
Mississippi River basin, including proposed 
navigation improvements and reconstruction of 
the Old River Control Structure, would necessitate 
greater diversion rates for shorter periods and, 
thus, increase water costs. A simple program 
forecasts the daily discharges at Vicksburg (up to 6 
days) and New Orleans (up to 9 days) from daily 
readings at upstream gaging stations. The esti- 
mates are within 11% of recorded flows at least 
80% of the time. Salt-water advance up the Missis- 
sippi can also be reliably predicted with a subrou- 
tine from either the actual or the forecast flows. 
(Hill-Louisiana) 
W73-07816 



REGIONAL WATER RESOURCE PLANNING 
FOR URBAN NEEDS: PART 1, 

North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Dept of City 
and Regional Planning. 

D. H. Moreau, K. Elfers, G. S. Nicolson, and K. 
Takeuchi. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 364, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. North Carolina Water 
Resources Research Institute Report No 77 
March 1973. 159 p, 16 fig, 14 tab, 81 ref. OWRR B- 
021-NC (2) and B-045-NC (1). 14-31-0001-3313, 14- 
31-0001-3624. 

Descriptors: 'Water resources, 'Planning, 'Alter- 
native planning, 'Water supply, 'Water pollution 
control, Urbanization, 'Regional analysis, Re- 
gional development, North Carolina. 
Identifiers: 'Urban water resources, Piedmont 
Triad Region (N.C.). 



OtjjetUve* of study are three fold <\) lo t_ 
•Irate need for regional water resource plana 
emerging urban areat, (2) to examine how i 
water resource planning can be realized wi_ 
emerging organizational framework of lc 
Stale, regional, and local planning, and O) I 
amine the process, substance, and techajqa 
field level planning for regional water re* 
systems. Analysis of present nver basin pit 
and development indicates that problems of i 
areas and linkages with nver basins have bee. 
gely ignored. Bias results from the t/ada 
emphasis on national economic developme 
formulation of basin plans Osign of muai 
water supply and waste disposal systems , 
been largely single purpose and fractionated 
respect to the water resources Opportunitu 
achieve economies and resolve externa 
through regional planning and management 
been ignored Recent imtiaUves by Federal 
State governments have created an organizatl 
framework within which deficiencies in these 
processes can be resolved A water reso 
planning model and a planning system that 
operate within this framework is suggested, 
the fragile political basis upon which 
framework is founded requires that State 
Federal agencies must reinforce the process if 
to resolve the problems of urbanizing regions, 
substance of regional water resource ptannin 
examined using a case study of the Piedmont T 
Region of North Carolina. 
W73-07819 



LOCAL ECONOMIC IMPACT OF R£SERV( 
RECREATION, 

Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Water Resour 
Research Center. 
C. B. Garrison. 

Available from the National Technical Infon 
tion Service as PB-219 585, $3.00 in paper cot 
$1.45 in microfiche. Research Report No 27 J 
1972. 37 p, 15 tab. OWRR A-020-TENN (2) 14- 
0001-3543. 

Descriptors: 'Economic impact, Rural are. 
•Reservoirs, Tennessee, Water resoun 
development, 'Recreation. 
Identifiers: 'Norris Reservoir (Term), 'New Jot 
sonville (Tenn). 

Reservoir recreauon affects the economy of t 
local area and also the larger region in which t 
reservoir is located. This study estimates the loc 
economic impact of recreauon activities at Non 
Lake on a three-county rural area of East Tenne 
see. The impact consists of the primary and seco 
dary effects. The primary effect is determined I 
estimating the emoloyment and payroll of ente 
prises which sell goods and services to visitor 
Estimation of the secondary effect requires tl 
construction of local income and employment mt 
tipliers; these are estimated by the use ( 
economic base theory. The economic effects < 
reservoir recreauon are compared with those dt 
to the establishment of a concentration of wate 
oriented manufacturing industry at New Johnsoi 
ville in West Tennessee. 
W73-07820 



ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF POLLUTION CO* 
TROL, 

University of New England, Armidale (Australia) 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G 
W73-07823 



ALTERNATIVE FINANCING FOR STATE ANI 
LOCAL WATER RESOURCES PROJECTS, 

Clemson Univ., S.C. Dept of Economics. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06C. 
W73-07825 



90 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 06 
Evaluation Process — Group 6B 



j i AN ECONOMIC APPROACH TO LAND AM) 
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: A RE- 
PORT ON THE PUGET SOUND STUDY, 

1 Washington Univ. , Seattle. Dept. of Economics. 
i.L.Wsh. 

Washington University Institute for Economic 
Research Report, April, 1972. 19 p, append. 

•'Descriptors: *Water resources development, 
:l 'Management, *Decision making, Water utiliza- 
tion, Land use, Evaluation, 'Washington. 
Identifiers: 'Conflicts, Interdisciplinary study, 
•Puget Sound (Wash). 

I An interdisciplinary study of Washington's Puget 
i Sound, which emphasizes the decision-making 
i process for land and water use, is described. Ini- 
tially, the study undertook to describe the physi- 
ical, biological, and zoological characteristics of 
i the Sound, its economic uses, and the existing 
, political and legal structure. Next, a detailed study 
of land and water use decision-making was un- 
dertaken with two successive goals in mind: (1) to 
.develop the capacity to predict and evaluate con- 
sequences likely to flow from alternative political 
and legal structures, and (2) as a result, to evaluate 
, the alternative political and legal structures them- 
selves. The basic assumptions underlying the stu- 
dy's theoretical structure are identical with those 
of traditional microeconomics. However, unlike 
much traditional analysis, such matters as govern- 
ment organization, specification and enforcement 
'of property rights, regulation of markets, regula- 
tion of many aspects of production and consump- 
tion, and governmental provision of goods and ser- 
vices directly to citizens are treated as subjects for 
analysis rather than as assumptions of the model. 
'Application of the theory involves (1) four case 
studies of conflict in making decisions concerning 
'land and water use, (2) projections of demand for 
water and land use, and (3) analysis of interaction 
and conflict among uses. (Settle-Wisconsin) 
W73-07826 



EPA ASSESSES POLLUTION CONTROL 
BENEFITS. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W73-07829 



A REGIONAL PLANNING MODEL FOR 
WATER QUALITY CONTROL, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst, and State Univ., 

Blacksburg. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-07918 



THE FTNANCIAL FEASIBILITY OF RE- 
GION ALIZATION , 

Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept of Agricul- 
tural Economics and Rural Sociology. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 
W73-07919 



STATUS OF WATER RESOURCE SYSTEMS 
ANALYSIS, 

Texas Univ., Austin. Center for Research in Water 

Resources. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06A. 

W73-07924 



S YSTE MATIC DEVELOPMENT OF 

METHODOLOGIES IN PLANNING URBAN 
WATER RESOURCES FOR MEDIUM SIZE 
COMMUNITIES. EXPECTATION OF LD7E IN 
INDIANA, 1950-1970, 

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. Dept. of Sociology 
and Anthropology. 

E. R. Cooper, L. Z. Breen, and H. R. Potter. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 978, $4.50 paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Indiana Water Resources 
Research Center, Lafayette, Technical Report No 



29, January, 1973; 50 p, 1 fig, 19 tab, 28 ref, ap- 
pend. OWRR C-3277 (3713) (1). 

Descriptors: 'Population, 'Human population, 
'Mortality, 'Urbanization, Fecundity, Migration, 
Aging, Urban sociology, Water resources develop- 
ment, Income distribution, Water consumption, 
Water utilization, 'Indiana. 

Identifiers: 'Life expectation, Survival ratios, 
Lafayette. 

Water consumption in a given region is dependent 
upon variables such as the rate of urbanization, 
population size, age composition, income, indus- 
trial development, recreational opportunities, etc. 
Estimates of future populations depend upon the 
calculation of age specific survival ratios for the 
present population. Mortality is the one stable 
component in population change, thus the careful 
calculation of present life tables provides the 
prerequisite for the development of reliable popu- 
lation projections from a basis of accurate survival 
ratios. The life tables developed for this research 
represents a series of probability statements. The 
data are based upon intervals of observation 
through the study period, 1950-1970. The reported 
measures of expectation of life at various ages are 
presented for the economic regions of Indiana, 
and like other life tables, are based upon the as- 
sumption that age-specific will remain the same in 
future years as was recorded during the observed 
periods. The populations in the regions are rela- 
tively small, thus the observed mortality rates may 
not be stable. It is emphasized that change in these 
rates will result in estimations of expectation of 
life which are different from those calculated in 
the study. The study is a part of an inter-disciplina- 
ry project entitled 'Systematic Development of 
Methodologies in Planning Urban Water 
Resources for Medium Size Communities.' 
W73-07964 



THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR HAR- 
RKTOWN TOWNSHIP, MACON COUNTY, IL- 
LINOIS. 

Macon County Regional Plan Commission, 
Decatur, 111. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-210 974, $9.35 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Final Report, February 1972. 
143 p, 2 fig, 17 maps, 3 tab. 111-1-291. 

Descriptors: 'Land use plan, 'Comprehensive 
planning, 'Urban land use, Urbanization, Utili- 
ties, Drainage, 'Illinois. 

Identifiers: Utility extension, Decatur (111), Imple- 
mentation program, Macon County (HI). 

A comprehensive land use plan for Harristown 
township including several elements such as open 
space, transportation, commercial, industrial and 
residential land and a discussion of utilities exten- 
sion are presented. Discussed are: (1) inventory 
and analysis including a discussion of land capa- 
bili' es for various land uses; (2) growth objectives 
and the conseqeunces of uncontrolled growth; (3) 
the proposed land use plan including several maps 
and policy statements; (4) and the means for im- 
plementing the plan. The discussions of utility ser- 
vices, i.e. water supply, sanitary sewers, and the 
storm sewers, are a minor element of the study, 
although the extension of these services is a key 
feature of the implementation of the overall land 
use plan. In general, the study proposes that the 
city of Decatur and the Decatur Sanitary District 
be responsible for extending the services into the 
township. It is also proposed that casements and 
drainage ordinances be used to protect the natural 
drainage ways. (Elfers-North Carolina) 
W73-08052 



SHORELINE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE 
ESCAMBIA -SANTA ROSA REGION. 

Smith (Milo) and Associates, Tampa, Fla. 



Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-212 438, $12.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Final Report, prepared for 
Escambia-Santa Rosa Regional Planning Council, 
Pensacola, Florida. June 1972, 197 p, 25 fig. Fla-P- 
141. 

Descriptors: 'Shoreline, 'Urbanization, 

'Planning, 'Environmental effects, Design 
criteria, Management, Coordination, Beaches, 
Land use, 'Florida. 

Identifiers: 'Shoreline management, Escambia- 
Santa Rosa Region (Florida), Escambia County 
(Florida), Santa Rosa County (Florida). 

This shoreline management plan is comprehensive 
study and set of policies and recommendations for 
the use of the coastal zone around Pensacola, 
Florida. The study includes sections on the exist- 
ing urban development patterns, the environmen- 
tal impacts of these patterns and land uses, and an 
inventory of physiographic and hydrologic fea- 
tures. The most significant sections include: (1) a 
discussion of the basic philosophy of shoreland 
development and the objectives involved; (2) an 
analysis of potential design concepts and elements 
for shoreline development, including a morpholog- 
ical approach and an ecological approach; (3) a 
shoreline utilization plan featuring numerous 
development policies, standards, and implementa- 
tion strategies; (4) and a shoreline management 
program involving protection programs, land use 
controls, monitoring, coordination of local agen- 
cies by the Regional P lanning Council, environ- 
mental impact statements, and the creation of a 
special Shoreline Management Committee. Nu- 
merous maps and charts are included. (Elfers- 
North Carolina) 
W73-08053 



THE INTENSITY OF DEVELOPMENT ALONG 
SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED STREAMS IN 
SURBURBAN PHILADELPHIA, 

Regional Science Research Inst., Philadelphia, Pa. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 
W73-08055 



FUNCTIONAL PLANNING AND PRO- 
GRAMMING: HOUSING, WATER AND 
SEWER, RECREATION, LAND USE, ADMINIS- 
TRATION. 

Mark Twain Regional Planning Commission, 
Macon, Mo. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-211 603, $11.50 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. Report, June 1972. 180 p. Mo. 
P. 195SA/145. 

Descriptors: 'Planning, 'Projects, Water supply, 
Sewage systems, Priorities, 'Missouri. 
Identifiers: Citizens Advisory Committee, Mark 
Twain Region (Missouri), Macon (Missouri). 

A water and sewer report is one section of this 
functionally-oriented p lanning study for the eight 
county Mark Twain region in Missouri. The water 
and sewer section is a summary of two consultant 
studies of water and sewer needs in the region and 
of a citizens advisory committee's review of the 
two studies. The water and sewer needs are out- 
lined according to cities with no public water 
systems, cities that need additional water supplies, 
cities that need water treatment improvements and 
storage improvements, and cities that need sewer 
systems. These needs are accompanied by some 
short descriptions and recommendations. Every 
need or proposed project is then rated as to its pri- 
ority on the basis of the citizens advisory commit- 
tee review. (Elfers-North Carolina) 
W73-O8056 



OPTIMAL PATH OF INTERREGIONAL IN- 
VESTMENT AND ALLOCATION OF WATER, 

Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). DepL of Economics. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06A. 



91 



Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 
Group 6B — Evaluation Process 



W73-08I33 

WATER SUPPLY PLANNING STUDY OF THE 
CAPITOL REGION OF CONNECTICUT, 

Connecticut Univ., Storrs. Dept. of Civil I D 

gineering. 

P Magyar, P. Renn, A. Shahane, and D. Wall. 

Report No. CE 72-57, October 1972. 156 p, 6 fig, 

35 tab, 29 ref, 3 append. OWRR A-999-CONN 

(11). 

Descriptors: 'Water supply development, *Water 
demand, 'Regional analysis, 'Human population. 
Urbanization, Environmental effects, Social 
aspects, Economics, Connecticut River, Water 
reuse, Evaluation, 'Connecticut. 
Identifiers: 'Optimum population, Ethical issues, 
•Capitol Region (Conn). 

This study of water supply schemes for the Capitol 
Region of Connecticut projected population con- 
sidering traditional engineering methodologies and 
ethical points raised by sociologists and demog- 
raphers. An effort was made to quantify the 
qualitative concept of ethical issues to arrive at 
'optimum population' for the Capitol Region. 
Total water demand was estimated for the years 
1980, 2000, and 2020. To meet the projected de- 
mand of 250 MGD, alternative sources, including 
existing sources, new upland surface sources, the 
Connecticut River, Quabbin Reservoir and 
recycling were considered. These combined 
sources constitute viable alternatives to be evalu- 
ated on some rational basis. In the past, benefit- 
cost analysis has been used. However, public con- 
cern called for consideration of social, economic 
and environmental factors. Since it is relatively 
difficult to convert these qualitative factors into 
dollar terms, methods other than benefit-cost anal- 
ysis were used to put value judgment on these al- 
ternatives. Literature review revealed two useful 
methods for this purpose: the Mason-Moore 
method, and the weighing factors method adopted 
by the Connecticut Region Planning Agency. After 
individual evaluations utilizing these methods, use 
of the Connecticut River rather than use of new 
upland sources (reservoirs) was chosen as the 
recommended alternative. (Edelen-Connecticut) 
W73-O8302 



ORBITAL SURVEYS AND STATE RESOURCE 
MANAGEMENT, 

Battelle Columbus Labs., Ohio. Aerospace 

Mechanics Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 

W73-08364 



SIMPLE ALGORITHM FOR COST OPTIMIZA- 
TION OF A THREE DECISION VARIABLE 
SYSTEM, 

Wayne State Univ., Detroit, Mich. Dept. of Civil 

Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W73-08386 



THE ECONOMICS OF WATER TRANSFER, 

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Dept. of Agricultural and 

Resource Economics. 

C. Gopalakrishnan. 

In: Water Resources Seminar Series No 2, Water 

Resources Research Center, University of 

Hawaii, Honolulu, December 1972. 11 p, 2 fig, 1 

tab, 12 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Economics, 'Water transfer, Water 
resources development, 'Resource allocation, 
'Welfare (Economics), Water demand, Prices, 
Water rights, Optimum development plans. 

The economics of water transfer is an aspect of 
water resource development that has at present 
generated considerable interest among 
economists. It deals with the economic implication 
of transferring water from low-yielding, conven- 



tional uses (mainly agricultural) to newly emerging 
and more productive use* (industrial and recrea 
lional) with a view to enhance the value and 
productivity of water Ihe limited supply of water 
in relation to the fast-expanding demand for it 
makes this type of transfer almost imperative for 
the optimum utilization of water resources The 
tools of microeconomics and welfare economics 
are used to study the economic underpinnings of a 
process of water transfer. To understand the na- 
ture of the market for water and the allocation of 
water among multiple uses, a discussion of the 
theoretical principles underlying resource alloca- 
tion is included, examining the concepts of propor- 
tionality embodied in the law of variable propor- 
tions and the equi-marginal principle Also ex- 
amined rather closely are the market for water 
rights and the problem of pricing water The three 
principal characteristics of water development 
which enable direct application of welfare 
economics to water resources are described. See 
also W73-05857) (Bell-Cornell) 
W73-08387 

6C. Cost Allocation, Cost Sharing, 
Pricing/Repayment 

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE 
FARM WATER SOURCES IN THE CLAYPAN 
AREA OF ILLINOIS, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Agricultural 

Economics. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-07804 



DISCHARGES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE TO 
MUNICIPAL SEWER SYSTEMS, 

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Water Resources and 

Marine Sciences Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W73-07810 



SYSTEMS ENGINEERING OF OYSTER 
PRODUCTION, 

Delaware Univ., Newark. Dept. of Mechanical 
and Aerospace Engineering. 
F. A. Costello, and B. L. Marsh. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as COM-72-10698, $3.00 in paper 
copy, $1.45 in microfiche. College of Marine Stu- 
dies Publication No 2 EN 066, May, 1972. 55 p, 2 
tab, append. Sea Grant No. GH-109. 

Descriptors: 'Oysters, 'Systems analysis, Op- 
timization, Costs, Mathematical models. 
Identifiers: 'Oyster production, 'Uncertainty, 
'Systems engineering, Marine products. 

A stochastic optimization model for a closed-en- 
vironment oyster production facility is developed. 
Three types of stochastic uncertainty important to 
the oyster production system are analyzed: (1) un- 
certainty in primary system process parameters 
such as the effect of cell concentration on oyster 
growth; (2) uncertainty in design variables such as 
the heat exchanger outlet temperature; and (3) un- 
certainty in subsystem process functional relations 
such as algae growth rate versus illumination. The 
approach used to study the stochastic parameters 
model is to first develop analytical or empirical 
distribution functions for the stochastic parame- 
ters and then to obtain an expected cost which is a 
function of deterministic parameters and design 
variables only. Addition of stochastic design varia- 
bles to the model requires not only that the dis- 
tributions for these variables be determined, but 
also that the distribution for the system cost func- 
tion be obtained in order to apply the expected 
value criterion or some other similar objective. 
The addition of function uncertainty is accom- 
plished through a systems analysis and cost sen- 
sitivity approach. The study indicates that algae 
production rate and cell concentration are of 



■MJM importance . while illumination intensity i 
deep tank an requirement* are of secondary m 
portancc Other variable* affect co»U 
caritly ( Settle- Wisconsin) 
W73-07824 



ALTERNATIVE HNAS< IN«, FOR STATE AN) 

UX Al. WATER KKSOIKt KS PROJECTS, 

( kmson ( ,'riiv Sf Ilept of hcooomic* 

A H Harnett 

South Carolina Water Resources Research u 

sUuite, Special Report, November, 1971 45 p. 

tab, 1 3 ref OWRR B-030-SC (3) 

Descriptors: 'Water resources developmeo 
•Financing, 'Economic efficiency * I, quit) 
)■ valuation. Ixcal governments, State goven 
merits, Federal government, Pollution Uxe 
(Charges), Bond issues. 
Identifiers User fees. 

The criteria of economic efficiency and equity ar 
employed in evaluating various approaches t 
state financing of local water supply and wast 
treatment facilities. One approach to such finanr. 
ing is to establish a state fund to be used for grant 
to local governments. The fund itself could b 
financed through water use fees or effluer 
charges. Other alternatives are stale gener. 
obligation bonds, state bonds financed by loci 
user charges on those receiving the services of th 
various projects, state loans to municipalities pre 
vided so as to meet federal requirements for ii 
creased federal aid, and local contributions to 
state fund used to provide matching grants to cor 
tributing municipalities. The evaluation suggest 
that any state water resource fund would be dil 
ficult to justify. A system requiring benefit tax* 
tion or payments would be preferable. In fact 
state aid for water projects other than waste treat 
ment seems unjustified except under the unusui 
conditions where a project's benefits exlende 
state-wide. Given the need to obtain federal aid, . 
seems that revenue bonds, applicant contribt 
lions, and loans to local government provide th 
most efficient and equitable alternatives. In an 
case, state sanctions are required to achiev 
desired water quality. (Settle-Wisconsin) 
W73-07825 



AN ECONOMIC APPROACH TO LAND AN1 
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: A RF 
PORT ON THE PUGET SOUND STUDY, 
Washington Univ., Seattle. Dept of Economics. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 
W73-07826 



A PRESENT VALUE-UNIT COS 

METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING WASTE 
WATER RECLAMATION AND DD1ECT REUS! 
AT A MTLITARY BASE OF OPERATION, 

Army Mobility Equipment Research and Develop 

ment Center, Fort Belvoir, Va. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W73-07838 



THE FINANCIAL FEASttHJTY OF RI 
GIONALIZATION, 

Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept. of Agricul 

tural Economics and Rural Sociology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 

W73-07919 



TERTIARY EFFLUENT DEMTNERALISATION. 

Permutit Co. Ltd., London (England). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W73-08097 



COST REDUCTION IN SULFATE PUL 
BLEACH PLANT DESIGN, 

Improved Machinery, Inc., Nashua, N.H. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 



W 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 06 
Water Demand — Group 6D 



W73-O8105 



ENGINEERING REPORT ON SHORE 
DISPOSAL OF SHIP GENERATED SEWAGE AT 
ACnvmES BS THE EASTERN AREA. 
VOLUME I. 

Reynolds, Smith and Hills, Jacksonville, Fla. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W73-08112 



EFFECT OF INCLUDING WATER PRICE ON 
THE CONJUNCTIVE OPERATION OF A SUR- 
FACE WATER AND GROUNDWATER 
SYSTEM, 

Plan Organization, Tehran (Iran). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04B. 

W73-08132 



THE ECONOMICS OF WATER TRANSFER, 

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Dept. of Agricultural and 

Resource Economics. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W73-08387 



6D. Water Demand 



THE MISSISSIPPI RTVER-A WATER SOURCE 
FOR TEXAS. (EVALUATION OF A PROPOSED 
WATER DIVERSION), 

Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W73-07816 



SYSTEMATIC DEVELOPMENT OF 

METHODOLOGIES IN PLANNING URBAN 

WATER RESO URCES FOR MEDIUM SIZE 

COMMUNnTES. EXPECTATION OF LD7E IN 

INDIANA, 1950-1970, 

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. Dept. of Sociology 

and Anthropology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W73-07964 



FUNCTIONAL PLANNING AND PRO- 
GRAMMING: HOUSING, WATER AND 
SEWER, RECREATION, LAND USE, ADMINIS- 
TRATION. 

Mark Twain Regional Planning Commission, 

Macon, Mo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W73-08056 



WATER OF SIBERIAN RIVERS FOR ARID 
LANDS OF THE SOUTH (VODU SIBIRSKIKH 
REK -ZASUSHLIVYM ZEMLYAM YUGA), 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 
W73-08162 



REGIONAL WATER AND SEWER GUIDE. 
Upper Savannah Planning and Development Dis- 
trict, Greenwood, S.C. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-210 905, $3.00 in paper copy, 
H.45 in microfiche. June 1972. 76 p, 7 fig, 21 tab, 
Href. 

Descriptors: *Sewers, *Water supply, 'Forecast- 
ng, Land use, South Carolina, Regional develop- 
nent, Water demand, Sewage districts, Water 
^sources, Water resources development. 
Identifiers: *Upper Savannah Region. 

'resent and future requirements are presented for 
vater and sewer facility needs in the six-county re- 
gon for which the Upper Savannah Regional 
lanning and Development Council has responsi- 
bility. The counties are Abbeyville, Edgefield, 



Greenwood, Laurens, McCormick, and Saluda. 
Information has been compiled and analyzed in 
areas of: (1) land use, (2) populations, (3) 
economics, (4) geography, and (5) existing utilities 
With a 1970 population of 159,000 that is expected 
to grow to 192,000 by 1990, the already inadequate 
sewer and water services in this region will 
become even more inadequate as water use rises 
from 27 mgd to 35 mgd. A major problem in 
providing these services is the rural nature of the 
area-more than 80 percent of the land is classified 
as agricultural or open space. Lack of coordination 
and political boundaries have also made it difficult 
to develop adequate facilities. Recommendations 
include: (1) regionalization of services to provide 
coordinated, cooperative facilities, (2) planning of 
future development of systems to control land use, 
preventing unwanted growth through denial of 
sewers and water and (3) continuation of the 
Upper Savannah Regional Planning and Develop- 
ment Council as the areawide planning organiza- 
tion for the six counties. (Poertner) 
W73-08177 



WATER, SEWER AND STORM DRAINAGE 
PLAN FOR THE CUMBERLAND PLATEAU 
PLANNING DISTRICT. 

Thompson and Litton, Inc., Wise, Va. 

Cumberland Plateau Planning District Commis- 
sion, Lebanon, Virginia, June 6, 1972. 1 13 p, 5 tab. 

Descriptors: *Planning, *Data collections, 
♦Drainage programs, *Water supply development, 
♦Sewerage, 'Virginia, Storm runoff, Storm drains, 
Water resources, Regional analysis, Public utility 
districts, Water pollution control, Waste water 
treatment, Water works, Surveys. 
Identifiers: 'Cumberland Plateau. 

The future development of the Cumberland 
Plateau Planning District, as well as the present 
level of development, requires adequate systems 
of water, sewerage and storm water drainage. Fu- 
ture development can be controlled by the 
devejopment of these systems to produce growth 
consistent with the land-use policy of the area, but 
present development must not be denied adequate 
facilities even if it doesn't fit into the master plan. 
As a first step towards providing these services, 
this report presents a complete inventory of water, 
sewer and storm drainage in the area, pointing out 
deficiencies and recommending measures for cor- 
recting these short-comings. Each of the four 
counties comprising the study area has water 
supply problems. The most severe problems exist 
in Buchanan and Dickinson Counties where many 
areas either have no central water systems or in- 
adequate systems. The proposed solution is the 
development of the John W. Flannagan Reservoir 
in Dickinson County to provide water for both 
counties. Similarly, sewerage problems exist. 
Using a set of criteria, projects have been rated. 
Those with the highest priority were recom- 
mended by the State Water Control Board for 
Federal and State construction grants. Develop- 
ment of a plan for storm water drainage is still in 
preliminary stages. (Poertner) 
W73-08179 



WATER AND SEWER PLAN. 

West Alabama Planning and Development Coun- 
cil, Tuscaloosa. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-210 955, $12.50 in paper copy, 
$1 .45 in microfiche. May 1972. 161 p, 30 fig, 10 tab. 
CPA-AL-04-09-1008. 

Descriptors: 'Planning, 'Regional analysis, 
'Water resources development, 'Water supply, 
'Sewerage, 'Surveys, Data collections, Long- 
term planning, Administration, Regional develop- 
ment, Water pollution control, Alabama, 
Forecasting, Public utility districts, Land use, 
Short-term planning. 



The West Alabama Planning and Development 
Council serves five counties with a total area of 
4,154 square miles and a population of 180,000, of 
which about 120,000 live in one county. Included 
in the report are: (1) the goals and policies for 
water and sewer system management, (2) an in- 
ventory of existing facilities, (3) an evaluation of 
these systems, (4) a short range (10 year) plan for 
water and sewers to meet present and future defi- 
ciencies, and (5) a long range (20 year) regional 
plan. The goals of the region are threefold: (1) to 
promote a co-ordinated regional approach to 
sewer and water, (2) to provide adequate water 
and sewer service to all area residents, and (3) to 
maximize the use of existing water resources in- 
cluding ground water, surface water and reclaimed 
waste water. Although population is not expected 
to change much in the next 20 years, increasingly 
stringent federal standards will require system up 
grading, especially for sewer systems. But a higher 
priority is generally to be assigned for water 
systems, than for sewer systems, and all improve- 
ments should provide maximum service at a 
minim u m cost. County level water systems are 
recommended with the Council acting as a regional 
coordinator. An areawide sewer system is seen as 
unfeasible but sewers are recommended for all in- 
corporated areas, with funding from outside 
sources. (Poertner) 
W73-08181 



REGIONAL WATER AND SEWER FACILITIES 
IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM. 

Southeastern Illinois Regional Planning and 
Development Commission, Harrisburg. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-210 108, $4.65 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. February 1972. 23 p, 4 tab 
HUD m.P-307 (1-16). 

Descriptors: 'Water resources, 'Regional analy- 
sis, 'Sewerage, 'Water supply, 'Illinois, 
•Planning, Project planning, Project purposes, 
Evaluation, Water pollution control, Short-term 
pl anning 

Identifiers: 'Southeastern Illinois. 

A previous study (see W72-00643) of this rural, 
five-county region in southeastern Illinois pointed 
out extensive municipal water and sewage defi- 
ciencies. Strategies are presented of the 
Southeastern Illinois Regional Planning and 
Development Commission in overcoming these 
deficiencies. Criteria for individual projects in- 
dlude: (1) regional economic impact, (2) environ- 
mental impact, (3) health factors, (4) public safety 
factors, (5) size of population served, (6) con- 
sistency with regional plans, (7) readiness to 
proceed and (8) a crisis factor, which rates the pro- 
ject on its need for prevention of a potential catas- 
trophe or to meet state regulations. The Commis- 
sion has set goals for five one-year phases includ- 
ing the provision of technical assistance to the 7 
highest priority projects. Funding is expected to be 
through utility rates and federal funding, with the 
Commission serving as the State-appointed 
clearinghouse for federal funds. The use of bonds 
is not expected to be required. The Commission 
also intends to establish a citizen advisory board to 
deal with all environmental issues in the region. 
(Poertner) 
W73-08184 



WATER SUPPLY PLANNING STUDY OF THE 
CAPITOL REGION OF CONNECTICUT, 

Connecticut Univ., Storrs. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 
W73-O8302 



93 



Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 
Group 6E— Water Law and Institutions 



6E. Water Law and Institutions 



INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATION! AND 
RESPONSES TO WATKR PKOBI.KMS IN 
FLORIDA, 

Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton. Dept of 
Political Science. 
R. D. Thomas. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 582, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1 45 in microfiche. Florida Water Resources 
Research Center Publication No. 19, 1972. 48 p, 20 
tab, 2 append. OWRR A-020-FI.A (2). 14-31-0001 
3809. 

Descriptors: 'Governmental interrelations, 
•Water resources, 'Florida, 'Attitudes, Water 
resources development, Water utilization, 'State 
governments. 

An exploratory analysis is presented of Florida's 
legislators' and county commissioners' images 
(perceptions and attitudes): (1) of eleven selected 
water problems; (2) of which level or levels of 
government should have the responsibility for 
handling and attempting to solve these problems; 
(3) of the effectiveness of ten selected measures 
for dealing with water use problems; and (4) of the 
related factor of growth and development. The 
data, derived principally from interviews with the 
legislators and commissioners, showed a basic dif- 
ference between the legislators and commissioners 
in their assessment of the severity of water 
problems; in their assessment of the severity of 
water problems relative to other public problems 
such as education, welfare, roads, and 
health/hospitals; and, in their evaluation of the 
need to impose controls on growth and develop- 
ment. On the other hand, the data showed con- 
siderable agreement between the legislators and 
commissioners in their evaluation of what solu- 
tions would be most effective in dealing with water 
use problems. (Morgan- Florida) 
W73-O7803 



THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF A CORPS OF 
ENGINEERS PROJECT REPORT: THE 
DELMARVA WATERWAY, 

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. 
L. A. Shabman, P. Willing, D. S. Allee, S. P. 
Lathrop, and C. Riordan 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 403, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. New York Water Resources 
and Marine Sciences Center, Ithaca, Technical 
Report No. 43, A.E. Res. 72-9, June 1972. 59 p, 1 
fig, 4 tab, 35 ref. c-2199; OWRR B-026-NY (3). 14- 
31-0001-3312; 14-31-0001-3409. 

Descriptors: 'Decision making, 'Planning, Pro- 
jects, 'Delaware, 'Maryland, 'Virginia, Econo- 
mies, Political aspects, Federal Government, State 
governments, Economic analysis, Economic effi- 
ciency, Estuaries, Ecosystems, Resources, Cost- 
benefit ratio. 

Identifiers: 'Delmarva Waterway, 'Information 
flow, Local interests, Leverage. 

A first step in correcting inadequacies in institu- 
tional arrangements is to understand such arrange- 
ments as they now function. The sequence of 
events and the system that produced a U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers navigation project report are 
examined. Its orientation is that of seeking rather 
than solving problems, though some tentative con- 
clusions and suggestions for change are offered. 
Specific reference is made to the process which 
led to the Congressional authorization of a water- 
way on the eastern shore of the Delmarva Peninsu- 
la in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. The 
method used to carry out the study involves three 
related procedures: (1) interviews with principals 
in the decision-making process and with local peo- 
ple; (2) maintenance of correspondence and 
memoranda files, studied intensively; and (3) sort- 



ing of the ir suiting data and compiling it according 
to a framework of theoretical organizing concept* 
which help illuminate the characteristics of M 
malum flow and use in the decision making 
process. Information is vital to decision making, 
with the result that the content of and power be 
hind information flows largely determine the out 
come of the planning process (Bell <Jornell) 
W73-078II 



AN APPRAISAL OF FLOODPLAIN REGULA- 
TIONS IN THE STATES OK ILIJNOIS, INDI- 
ANA, IOWA, MISSOURI, AND OHIO, 

Illinois Univ , Urbana. Dept. of landscape 

Architecture 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06F. 

W73-078I4 



REGIONAL WATER RESOURCE PLANNING 
FOR URBAN NEEDS: PART 1, 

North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Dept. of City 

and Regional Planning. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W73-07819 



UNDERSTANDING THE WATER QUALITY 
CONTROVERSY IN MINNESOTA, 

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis Water Resources 

Research Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-07822 



THE ENVIRONMENT AS PROBLEM: 
CLEAN RHETORIC AND DIRTY WATER, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W73-07827 



II, 



WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT: SOME 
INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS, 

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Coll. of Tropical Agricul- 
ture. 

C. Gopalakrishnan. 

The American Journal of Economics and Sociolo- 
gy, Vol 30, No 4, p 421-428, October, 1971. 

Descriptors: 'Water resources development, 'In- 
stitutional constraints, 'Water rights, 'Prior ap- 
propriation, Legal aspects, Economic efficiency, 
Beneficial use, Conservation, Dams, Water 
management (Applied ) , 'Montana. 

Some of the institutional impediments to Mon- 
tana's water resource development are examined. 
In Montana the ownership, control, and use of 
both surface and groundwater are governed by the 
doctrine of prior appropriation. Consequently, the 
system of water rights suffers from some of the 
following basic weaknesses of the appropriation 
doctrine: (1) the system is inflexible; (2) the 
emphasis on priority may result in economic inef- 
ficiencies; and (3) actual management of water 
programs is often vested with local water commis- 
sioners who have little expertise in water manage- 
ment. Some drawbacks specific to Montana's 
system of water rights include: (1) rights deter- 
mined by private suits in which it is not necessary 
to join all parties concerned, and (2) rules that 
define abandonment as the concurrence of 
relinquishment of possession and intent not to 
resume it for a beneficial use. Also, state water 
agencies are handicapped by a dearth of funds and 
a lack of coordination with local water develop- 
ment groups. Another institutional problem is the 
attitude of the general public toward federal par- 
ticipation in water projects. Finally, feuds 
between conservationists and dam-builders have 
greatly slowed the development of water 
resources. (Settle- Wisconsin) 
W73-07828 



SOUTH AFltH A CHOBI >MS <>t A IflAtXk 
-COWIROI I ED FISHERY 

World Fishing, Vol 21 . No 10. p 17. r> i/,t/rr iy72 

Descriptors 'Fisheries, Pishing. Regulation 
Identifiers 'Pelagic fish. 'Quotas, South Africa 
South West Africa 

The west coast of Africa is the last known mafp 
pelagic fishing ground in the world, all others ha* 
been destroyed Pelagic fish include pill hniMM 
anchovy, maaibanker , mackerel, redeye, and last 
terns Catches of pelagic shoal fish in South Af nc 
and South West Africa declined during the 1 770-7 
catching season, and were almost 350,000 too* lea 
than in the previous season The reduced Sout 
West A/nca/i catch occurred because of the appb 
cation of relatively severe conservation measure 
to """""■" the pilchard resources These roes 
sures were applied to limit the overall tonnage, a* 
one third of each quota had to comprise pilchard? 
When these were landed, fishing operations had l* 
cease. For the first time, a limit was also placed o 
the South African catch However, a poor seasot 
prevented the industry from even reaching tin 
limit. In addition, the International Commit sMB 
for the South Atlantic Fisheries will make recom 
mendaUons to member nations for regulation o 
fishenes off the west coast of Africa The Com 
mission predicts its conventions will boost lb 
present two million tons of cultivated pelagic fu. 
off the west coast to twenty million tons by 198C 
(Settle-Wisconsin) 
W73-07830 



MICHIGAN'S ENVIRONMENTAL PROTEC 
TION ACT OF 1570: A PROGRESS REPORT, 

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-07982 



ADMINISTRATION OF THE NATIONAL EN 
VTRONMENTAL POLICY ACT, PART 1. 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents - 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 
D.C. 20402. Price $5.00. Hearings-Subcomm. oi 
Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation-Comm. oi 
Merchant Marine and Fisheries, United State 
House of Representatives, 91st Cong, 2d Sess 
December 1970. 1270 p, 1 tab, 3 chart, 209 ref, 
append. 

Descriptors: 'Administrative agencies, 'Federe 
project policy, 'Legislation, 'Environmental ef 
fects, Governmental interelations, Hydroelecti* 
project licensing, Legal respects. Federal govern 
merit. Judicial decisions, Law enforcement, Regu 
lation, Federal Power Act, Environmental control 
Administrative decisions, Legal review. 
Identifiers: 'Congressional hearings, 'Nationa 
Environmental Policy Act of 1969. 

These hearings were designed to help determh> 
the effectiveness of the National Environments 
Policy Act (NEPA), and the adequacy of agenc 
responses to section 102 and 103 of the Act The 
hearing also investigated what changes, if any 
may be called for to improve the Act Section 10" 
requires federal agencies to include detailed en 
vironmental statements on every major federal ac 
tion affecting the environment Section 10 
requires federal agencies to review their operatm, 
procedures to collect any inconsistencies wind 
prohibit full compliance with the Act Inquires a 
to the status of the environmental impact state 
merit requirement indicates an important start ha 
been made in the implementation of the Act In 
eluded is a mercury report of the Council on En 
vironmental Quality, an analysis of Title 1 of th 
NEPA, the Draft Environmental Impact State 
ment for the Trans- Alaskan pipeline, and 
detailed analysis of licensing procedure under th 
Federal Power Act. (Beardlsey-Florida) 
W73-07983 



WATER RESOURCES PUNNING— Field 06 
Water Law and Institutions— Group 6E 



PROJECTS PROPOSED FOR INCLUSION IN 
OMNIBUS RIVER AND HARBOR AND FLOOD 
CONTROL LEGISLATION-1972. 

Por primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
SV73-07984 



POLECAT BENCH AREA OF THE SHOSHONE 
SXTENSIONS UNIT, WYOMING. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03F. 
A73-07985 



EFFECTS OF MERCURY POLLUTION ON 
OALJBUT AND THE ALASKAN FISHERY. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W73-07986 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS AT PUBLIC 
BEARINGS RELATING TO APPLICATIONS 
FILED (TO THE WATER AND ADR QUALITY 
CONTROL COMMITTEE OF THE NORTH 
CAROLINA BOARD OF WATER AND ADR 
RESOURCES). 

North Carolina Board of Water And Air 
Resources, Raleigh. Water and Air Quality Con- 
trol Committee. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W73-07987 



PROPOSED RECLASSIFICATIONS OF CER- 
TAIN WATERS DM THE CHOWAN, NEUSE, 
PASQ UOTAN K, ROANOKE, TAR-PAMLICO, 
AND WHITE OAK RIVER BASINS, ETC. 
North Carolina Board of Water and Air 
Resources, Raleigh. Water and Air Quality Con- 
trol Committee. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W73-07988 



NEW CLASSIFICATION ASSIGNED TO CER- 
TAIN WATERS IN THE CAPE FEAR RIVER 
BASIN. 

North Carolina Board of Water and Air 
Resources, Raleigh. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W73-07989 



(ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DELAWARE 
RIVER BASIN COMMISSION, 1972). 
Delaware River Basin Commission, Trenton, N J. 

1972. 28 p, 1 fig, 13 photo, 3 chart. 

Descriptors: * Delaware River Basin Commision, 
'Delaware River, 'Interstate compacts, •Govern- 
mental interrelations, *Water management (Ap- 
plied), River basins, Water sources, Water quality 
xmtrol, Air pollution, Floods, Flood damage, 
iVater pollution control, Interstate commission, 
Pollution abatement, River basin development, 
flood control, Water supply development. 

1971 MARKED THE END OF THE FIRST 
3ECADE OF THE ORIGINAL INTERSTATE- 
FEDERAL RIVER BASIN COMPACT. This an- 
lual report of the Delaware River Basin Compact 
>etween Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, 
ind Delaware and the United States covers not 
Mly the activities of the Delaware River Basin 
Commission during the year ending June 1972 but 
dso summarizes highlights of the Compact and the 
Commission since their inception in 1961. 
Moreover, comprehensive reports are furnished 
concerning the three floods that struck the 
ielaware River Valley duirng 1972. Topics 
bscussed include water quality, tidal clean up, 
raste discharge abatement, energy regulation, 
lood plain management, pipelines and spills, 
Judge inventory, and surveillance of the con- 
cerned water bodies. Far-reaching progressive 
>rograms have been initiated in order to stop water 
md air pollution in the Delaware River Basin. The 
ihort-term results of these projects, charts, 



graphs, and illustrations are included. (Mockler- 

Florida) 

W73-07990 



LIMITING FEDERAL RESERVED WATER 
RIGHTS THROUGH THE STATE COURTS, 
L. B. Craig. 

Utah Law Review, Vol 1972, No 1 , p 48-59, Spring 
1972.63ref. V ^ 

Descriptors: 'Reservation doctrine, *Water rights, 
♦Prior appropriation, 'Priorities, Legal aspects, 
Federal jurisdiction, Federal-State water rights 
conflicts, Jurisdiction, Remedies, Judicial deci- 
sions, Legislation, Appropriation, Diversion, 
Water utilization, Eminent domain, Compensa- 
tion. 
Identifiers: Estoppel. 

Much of the surface water currently being ap- 
propriated by private individuals in the arid 
western states is subject to superior federal rights 
based on the reservation doctrine. The possibility 
that the government could assert its superior rights 
to divert private appropriators has discouraged 
development of water resources in this region. A 
tracing of the historical development of the reser- 
vation doctrine is followed by a discussion of 
legislation introduced to initiate change. The role 
of the courts is also discussed; the courts must 
determine whether justice requires the private ap- 
propriator who has acquired water rights pursuant 
to state law without knowledge of the federal 
government's prior reserved rights to pay the cost 
of diversion of water to federal reserved lands or 
whether the cost would more property be borne by 
the public generally. The doctrine of equitable 
estoppel is examined in relationship to this 
problem. Condemnation and compensation for 
private water rights are also discussed. (Mockler- 
Florida) 
W73-07991 



WATER LAW-PRIMARY JURISDICTION OF 
THE BOARD OF CONTROL OVER QUESTIONS 
OF WATER RIGHTS. 

Land and Water Law Review, Vol 7, No 2, p 599- 
614, 1972. 72 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Wyoming, 'Jurisdiction, 'Water 
rights, 'Adjudication procedure, Legal aspects, 
State jurisdiction, Water law, Abandonment, 
Legal review, Judicial decisions, Administrative 
decisions, Watercourses (Legal aspects), Adminis- 
trative agencies, Water supply. 

Plaintiff reservoir company sued to have part of 
the water rights of defendant reservoir company 
declared abandoned. The plaintiff contended that 
the courts have concurrent jurisdiction with the 
Board of Control and may continue to initially 
determine abandonment questions; defendant con- 
tended that the Board had exclusive jurisdiction in 
this area. The court held that the Board of Control 
has primary jurisdiction over questions of aban- 
donment of water rights. Thus while the Board and 
the courts still have concurrent jurisdiction over 
abandonment questions, before the lower court 
will grant relief, the abandonment issue should 
usually be initially determined by the Board. This 
comment discussed this case in detail and includes 
a background discussion, discussion on initiation 
of proceedings, district court discretion, review by 
appeals courts, and the impact on other areas of 
water law. This doctrine of primary jurisdiction 
will provide much needed flexibility to the adjudi- 
cation procedure. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-07992 



ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENTS-A 
DUTY OF INDEPENDENT INVESTIGATION BY 
FEDERAL AGENCIES. 

Colorado Law Review, Vol 44, No 1, p 161-172, 
August 1972. 63 ref. 



Descriptors: 'Environmental effects, 'Legisla- 
tion, 'Administrative decisions, 'Federal project 
policy, Legal aspects, Judicial decisions, Legal 
review, Administration, Project planning, Water 
resources development, Watercourses (Legal 
aspects), Administrative agencies, Adjudication 
procedure. 

Identifiers: 'Environmental Impact Statements, 
'National Environmental Policy Act 

The heart of the National Environmental Policy 
Act, (NEPA), is the section which requires all 
agencies of the federal government to include in 
every recommendation or report on major federal 
actions significantly affecting the quality of the 
human environment, a detailed statement on the 
environmental impact of the proposed action. This 
comment focuses on the interpretation of this sec- 
tion presented by the Court of Appeals for the 
Second Circuit in Greene County Planning Board 
v. Federal Power Commission which held that the 
environmental impact statement is to be prepared 
by the agency itself which is proposing the action; 
the agency cannot satisfy NEPA by preparing the 
statement on the basis of information provided by 
others. This case may further the cause of long- 
range environmental planning. However, NEPA is 
in serious trouble due to the gap between the goals 
it sets out and the means and will to implement its 
procedures. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-07993 



PRIVATE REMEDIES FOR BEACH FRONT 
PROPERTY DAMAGE CAUSED BY OIL POL- 
LUTION OF MISSISSIPPI COASTAL WATERS, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W73-07994 



THE YEAR OF SPOHED PORK: COMMENTS 
ON THE COURT'S EMERGENCE AS AN EN- 
VIRONMENTAL DEFENDER, 

Florida Univ., Gains ville. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-07996 



F. W. GUEST MEMORIAL LECTURE: RIVER 
POLLUTION AND THE LAW, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W73-07997 



CRIMINAL LIABILITY UNDER THE REFUSE 
ACT OF 1899 AND THE REFUSE ACT PERMIT 
PROGRAM. 

Journal of Criminal Law, Criminal and Police 
Science, Vol 63, No 3, p 366-376, September 1972. 
117 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Federal Water Pollution Control 
Act, 'Law enforcement, 'Penalties (Legal), 'Per- 
mits, 'Legislation, Federal government, State 
governments, Judicial decisions, Negligence, 
Legal aspects, Water pollution, Pollution abate- 
ment, Water pollution control, Navigable waters, 
Water law, Rivers and Harbors Act. 
Identifiers: 'Refuse Act, Absolute liability, In- 
junctions (Prohibitory), Licenses. 

This comment deals with criminal liability for 
water pollution under the Refuse Act and the 
Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA). 
Section 41 1 of the Refuse Act provides for fines or 
imprisonment for discharges of any refuse into 
navigable water without a permit However, 
courts have been reluctant to find corporate offi- 
cials personally liable for violations caused by 
their companies. Consequently, the United States 
Supreme Court has held that injunctive relief is ap- 
propriate to insure effectiveness of the statute. 
The FWPCA does not impose criminal liability, 
but operates through civil enforcement of state 
water quality standards. These standards may con- 
flict with liability under the Refuse Act; since the 
Refuse Act is not superseded by FWPCA legisla- 



95 



Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 
Group 6E — Water Law and Institutions 



tion, it is possible that one may be officially in 
complicance with FWPCA standards and yet be 
criminally liable under the Refuse Act. In order to 
resolve this conflict the Refuse Act Permit Pro- 
gram was established which makes the issuance of 
a permit contingent primarily on the applicant's 
compliance with state water quality standards. 
(Adams-Florida) 
W73-07998 



ENVIRONMKNTAL LAW: STRICT COM- 
PLIANCE WITH PROCEDURAL REQUIRE- 
MENTS OF NEPA-THE AGENCIES MUST 
PLAY BY THE RULES, 
R. Nielsen. 

University of Florida Law Review, Vol 24, No 4, p 
814-820, Summer 1972. 74 ref . 

Descriptors: 'Decision making, •Administrative 
decisions, 'Federal project policy, 'Project 
planning, 'Legal review, Environmental effects, 
Administrative agencies. Permits, Porject 
benefits, Legal aspects, Federal government. Judi- 
cial decisions, Legislation, Water law, Planning, 
Analytical techniques, Nuclear powerplants. 
Thermal pollution. 

Identifiers: 'Environmental Impact Statement, 
'National Environmental Policy Act, 'Licenses. 

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 
was designed as an agency regulating statute, ap- 
plicable to all federal agency actions having a 
potential environmental impact. Substantively, the 
Act requires the federal government to insure en- 
vironmental quality in federal activities. It also de- 
mands that certain procedural requirements be fol- 
lowed to the fullest extent possible by any federal 
agency considering environment-affecting pro- 
jects. Recently, federal agencies have been under 
attack for lack of compliance with NEPA require- 
ments. In Calvert Cliffs' Coordinating Committee 
v. Atomic Energy Commission, an environmental 
protection group brought suit challenging the 
Commission's approval of a construction permit 
for two nuclear power plants pending a complete 
review of NEPA imposed requirements. The U.S. 
District Court of Appeals held that the Commis- 
sion's procedures were inadequate because they 
failed to sufficiently consider environmental 
values, failed to require environmental impact 
considerations, and omitted independent project 
evaluations. The court distinguished substantive 
duties imposed by NEPA from procedural provi- 
sions of the Act on the grounds that the former 
leave room for agency discretion while the latter 
must be strictly adhered to. In particular, agencies 
are required to implement a systematic balancing 
analysis in each action affecting the environment. 
(Adams-Florida) 
W73-07999 



DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES; 
DIVISION OF WATER POLLUTION CONTROL. 

Mass. Ann. Laws ch. 21 sees 1 thru 19, 26 thru S3 
(Supp. 1971). 

Descriptors: 'Legislation, 'Water pollution con- 
trol, 'Water management (Applied), 'Mas- 
sachusetts, Eminent domain. Flood control, 
Public access, Recreation, Aesthetics, Public 
health (Laws), Permits, Planning, Oil pollution, 
Administrative agencies, Law enforcement, Im- 
poundments, Water supply, Penalties (Legal), Pol- 
lution abatement. 

These Massachusetts statutory provisions provide 
for the creation of a Department of Natural 
Resources and for the implementation of its pur- 
poses. Included within the Department is a Divi- 
sion of Water Resources with various duties of 
water management and control. The Commission 
of Water Resources is impowered to purchase, 
give, lease or acquire by eminent domain any lands 
and waters to protect water impoundment sites. 



Reference is made lo recreational need* and pf ovi 
moiii for source are included A Division of Water 
PoOutioa Control il • mated and is especially 
cerned with oil pollution llus division mutt 
develop pollution control plank, cooduct studies, 
and adopt water quality standards The legislation 
provides for legal sanctions for anyone violating 
the water quality standards Municipal corpora 
lions may be authorized to construct abatement 
faculties. Fines are levied upon those who cause 
pollution in excess of the Commiuon standards, 
and orders may be issued lo cease (Smith- Adam- 
Honda) 
W73-08000 



WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM. 
42 USC sees. 1961 thru 1961a-4 (1972) 

Descriptors: 'United States, 'Grants, 'legisla- 
tion, 'Research and development, 'Resources 
development, Financing, Water resources 
development, Administration, Federal govern- 
ment, Water law. Water policy, Water utilization, 
Water resources planning, Institutions, Adminis- 
trative agencies, Planning, Research priorities, 
Management. 

The Secretary of the Interior is to provide money 
to each state to assist in establishing and carrying 
on the work of a competent and qualified water 
resources research institute at one college or 
university within the state. It shall be the duty of 
each institute to plan and conduct or arrange for a 
component of the college with which it is con- 
nected to conduct research in relation to water 
resources and to provide for training of scientists 
to conduct such research. The Secretary may also 
make grants to other institutions or foundations 
who are qualified to cooduct competent water 
research projects. All grant proposals must be sub- 
mitted to the President of the Senate and the 
Speaker of the House. The Secretary will insure 
that there is no duplication of programs. All results 
from these programs will be made available to the 
general public. A cataloging center is to be 
established for compiling current research in water 
resources. The President shall clarify agency 
responsibilities for federal water resources 
research and provide for interagency coordination 
of such research. (Glickman- Florida) 
W7 3-08001 



REGULATION OF RIVERS, LAKES, AND 
STREAMS. 

111. Ann. Stat. ch. 19 sees. 48 thru 78 (Smith-Hurd 
1972). 

Descriptors: 'Illinois, 'Legislation, 'Navigation, 
'Administrative agencies, 'Water management 
(Applied), Legal aspects, Water quality, Regula- 
tion, Obstruction to flow, Adjudication procedure, 
Leg-tf review. Flood control, Penalties (Legal), 
State jurisdiction, Data storage and retrieval, 
Docks, Water law. Watercourses (Legal aspects), 
Lake Michigan, Drainage, Permits, Harbors, 
Flood plain zoning. 
Identifiers: 'Obstructions to navigation. 

The State Department of Transportation shall 
have jurisdiction and supervision over all of the 
rivers and lakes of Illinois, in which the state or 
the general public shall have any rights or in- 
terests. Included within this Chapter are statutes 
on jurisdiction, data reports, encroachments, 
navigation, docks and wharves, deep waterways 
data, duties and powers of the state environmental 
protection agency, beautifying bodies of water, 
reclamation and drainage, permitting procedures, 
taking materials from beds of public waters, build- 
ing harbors and mooring facilities, flood plain 
development, water power data, natural 
resources, fish propagation, flood waters, and 
rights of the public. Statutes on investigations, 
hearings, and judicial review are also included. 
Specific penalties for violations of the statutes are 
also set out. (Mockler-Florida) 



W73-«Mr2 



ILIJNOIS AND DESM-ALUfcA 
KASKASK1A RJVKR V* A 7 MUSHED. 



RJVEB 



111 Ann SUI ch 19 sees >* thru 41 I (S 
Hurd 1972) 



Dcscnptors 'Illinois, Megitlaito: 
management. 'Obstructions tu flow, 'Navsj 
legal aspects, Navigable rivers, JunwLcuc 
Flood control. Drainage Water supply, Wau 
courses (legal aspects). Water storage. Wai 
management (Applied), River basin devekopmaar 

This statute formally recognizes the Deapssia 
and Illinois Rivers as navigable in law and chart 
the Governor and Attorney General of Uunou w. 
the responsibility of preventing the erection of a 
structure in or across the streams without expav 
authority These officials are also directed to la 
necessary legal action to remove all obstructio 
now existing that in any way interfere with the . 
tent and purpose of the legislation Another slab, 
contained herein gives the Illinois Department 
Transportation the authority to independently c 
gage in the formulation of plans, acquisition 
rights of way, construction, operation and an 
lenancc of any navigation, flood control, dramaa 
levee, water supply and water storage and oth 
water resource improvements and facilities in co 
nection with the development of the Kasfcaab 
River Watershed. The Department has junsdjet* 
and supervision over any and all phases 
developments and improvements in the bmi 
(Mockkr- Florida) 
W73-08003 



REMOVAL OF OBSTRUCTIONS. 

111. Ann. Stat ch. 1 9 sees 42 thru 47e (Smitb-Hu 
Supp. 1971). 

Descriptors: 'Illinois, 'Navigation, 'Ship 
'Legislation, 'Flotsam, Legal aspects. Water pi 
icy. Obstruction to flow, Penalties (Legal), Trail 
portauon Boats, State jurisdiction, Admimsti 
tive agencies. 

It is unlawful to tie up or anchor vessels or oth 
water craft in public or navigable waters in suet 
manner as to prevent or obstruct in any mano 
the passage of any vessels or craft The owner of 
sunken craft has the duty to immediately mark 
with a buoy or beacon during the day and 
Lighted lantern at night, and to maintain sw 
marks until the sunken craft is removed or aba 
doned, and the neglect or failure of the owner 
do so is unlawful. If such obstruction is left f 
more than thirty days, the State Department 
Transportation shall remove it in any mans 
within its discretion. The expense of removal shi 
be charged to the owner of the vessel. Violatio 
of this act shall be punishable by fines of betwea 
five hundred and one thousand dollars and/or I 
imprisonment of between thirty days and one yes 
(Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08004 



HJRSCH V. STEFFEN (LIABIJJTY FOR O: 
STRUCTION OF NATURAL DRAINWAY). 

488 S.W.2d 240-245 (Ct App. Mo. 1972). 

Descriptors: 'Drainage patterns (Geologic), *IC 
souri, 'Natural drainage, 'Obstruction, Leg 
aspects, Constitutional law, Dams, Water contn 
Drainage practices, Drainage water, Natural fk) 1 
Drainage engineering, Judicial decisions, Drains 
effects. 

Plaintiffs, upstream riparian landowners, sued 
compel defendants, downstream riparian la 
downers, to remove an obstruction to the natui 
drainage. Defendants had erected a dam on a riv 
bed which was usually dry. Hoever, the dam d 
cause an overflow on upstream lands at times 1 



96 






WATER RESOURCES PUNNING— Field 06 
Water Law and Institutions— Group 6E 



blocking the flow of surface water. Prior to con- 
struction of the dam the old river bed had been the 
natural drainage flow for the area. The Missouri 
Court of Appeals held that a natural watercourse 
or drainway may not be obstructed without liabili- 
ty to those harmed by the obstruction. Moreover, 
this river bed was a natural drainway and the court 
xrnld issue a mandatory injunction requiring 
removal of the obstruction. Furthermore the court 
could order defendant to restore the old river 
channel to a near proximation of its previous depth 
and width prior to defendant's action in damming 
the old river bed and blocking the channel. 
(Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08005 



CONNERY V. PERDIDO KEY, INC. (OWNER- 
SHIP OF LANDS BETWEEN MEANDER LINE 
AND HIGH WATER MARK). 

270 So. 2d 390-394(1 st D.C. A. Fla. 1973). 

Descriptors: 'High water mark, *Florida, ♦Mean- 
ders, 'Boundaries (Property), *Boundary 
disputes, Legal aspects, Islands, Ownership, Sur- 
veys, Mapping, Measurement, Judicial decisions, 
Water level fluctuations. 
Identifiers: *Meander lines. 

Plaintiff landowner brought an ejectment action 
against defendant realty company to determine 
ownership of a part of an island. Following a 
government survey and meandering, the island 
was conveyed by the United States to plaintiff's 
predecessor in title. The land in dispute lay outside 
of the government meander line. Defendant con- 
tended it was omitted from the survey line either 
intentionally or as a result of a gross error and thus 
is not included in the original conveyance. Defen- 
dant has filed a homestead application for the un- 
surveyed land. The District Court of Appeals held 
that unless lands lying between the meander line 
and the present high water mark were excluded 
from the survey intentionally or due to gross error, 
the meander line does not constitute the boundary; 
rather the high water mark of the waterbody is the 
boundary. Meander lines were not designed to be 
boundaries. The court further held that the 
evidence was insufficient to support the conten- 
tion that the lands in dispute were omitted inten- 
tionally or because of gross error. Thus, the high 
ivater mark is the boundary of plaintiff's lands, not 
the meander line. The court affirmed the trial court 
folding for plaintiff. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-O8O06 



■ RE WEST MANAGEMENT DISTRICT (PETI- 
ITON TO CREATE DRAINAGE DISTRICT). 

»9 So. 2d 405-407 (2d D.C.A. Fla. 1972). 

>escriptors: 'Florida, *Public rights, *Local 
governments, 'Drainage districts, Legal aspects, 
drainage, governments, Water policy, Drainage 
ystems, Drainage programs, Jurisdiction, 
legislation, Judicial decisions, Surface runoff. 

Petitioner, a county resident, sought to create a 
Irainage district pursuant to state statute but was 
ipposed by the county. The trial court denied the 
aunty's motion to dismiss the petition and also 
lenied the county's right to intervene. The appeals 
ourt held that under the rule allowing anyone 
laiming an interest in pending litigation to assert 
is right by intervention, the county was entitled 
o intervene in an action to create a drainage dis- 
rict The court based its decision on the rationale 
hat the county must be given this right since it had 
he authority to establish and administer programs 
onceming drainage and to cooperate with govern- 
mental agencies and private enterprises in the 
levelopment and operation of such programs. The 
ourt also indicated that the statute providing that 
ny landowner who did not sign the petition for a 
rainage district may advocate or resist the or- 
amzation and incorporation of a drainage district 



did not preclude the county from intervening in the 
petition to create the drainage districts. (Mockler- 
Florida) 
W73-08O07 



SEEGREN V. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTEC- 
TION AGENCY (PETITION FOR HARDSHIP 
VARIANCE FOR USE OF SANITARY SEWERS). 

291 N.E.2d 347-349 (Ct. App. Dl. 1 972). 

Descriptors: 'Illinois, 'Judicial decisions, 'Treat- 
ment faculties, 'Sewage treatment, Legal aspects, 
Sanitary systems, Public health, Sewage, Waste 
disposal, Municipal wastes, Legal review, Sewage 
effluents, Sewers, Permits, Adjudication 
procedure, Administrative decisions, Land 
development, Urbanization. 

Petitioner, land developer, sought review of an 
order of the respondent Illinois Pollution Control 
Board denying a petition for a hardship variance to 
permit construction of sewer extensions to a hous- 
ing development and apartment complex built by 
petitioner. The Board was under a court order 
banning further extensions to existing facilities 
until the treatment plant could adequately treat ad- 
ditional effluents. Petitioner contended that the 
Board had consistently granted variances and per- 
mitted connections to existing facilities where it 
was shown that substantial investment in and 
development of the project had occurred prior to 
the prohibitory order. Petitioner had completed 
two apartment buildings a month prior to the 
order. The Illinois Appellate Court held that in 
view of previous variance policy of the Board, 
petitioner had proven an unreasonable hardship 
and the Board's decision was contrary to the 
weight of evidence. The Court remanded the case 
to the Board with directions to issue the proper 
certificates. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-O8O08 



STALEY MANUFACTURING CO. V. ENVIRON- 
MENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (REGULA- 
TION OF DISCHARGES FROM PRIVATE 
SEWER INTO MUNICIPAL SEWER). 

290 N.E.2d 892-897 (Ct App. Dl. 1972). 

Descriptors: 'Illinois, 'Sewage treatment, 'Ju- 
risdiction, 'Waste treatment, Legal aspects, 
Water quality, Water law, Water pollution control, 
Water pollution sources, Legal review, Adminis- 
trative decisions, Treatment facilities, Industrial 
wastes, Effluents. 

Petitioner, industrial plant, sought judicial review 
of a regulation promulgated by the respondent, 
State Pollution Control Board. Petitioner owned a 
private sewer which emptied into the municipal 
treatment system. The disputed regulation would 
restrict the types, concentrations and quantities of 
contaminants which could be discharged into mu- 
nicipal sewer systems. Petitioner contended that 
respondent's jurisdiction extended only to 
discharges into waters of the state and that this ad- 
ministrative regulation therefore exceeded the 
Board's statutory authority. The Illinois Appellate 
Court held that there was a proper nexus between 
controlling what flows into a sewage treatment 
plant and what flows out of the plant and into the 
waters of the state; thus, the Board did have 
authority to compel the operator of a private sewer 
system which empties into a municipal sewer to 
adequately treat its contaminants before they 
reached the municipal system. The court thereby 
affirmed the regulation by the Pollution Control 
Board. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-080O9 



BOOKER V. WEVER (OWNERSHIP OF RE- 
LICTED LAND). 

202 N.W.2d 439-443 (Ct. App. Mich. 1972). 



Descriptors: 'Michigan, 'Riparian rights, 'Boun- 
daries, 'Boundary disputes, Legal aspects, Ad- 
jacent landowners, Judicial decisions, Lakes, 
Riparian land, Watercourses (Legal aspects). 
Identifiers: 'Reliction. 

Plaintiff riparian landowner sought a declaratory 
judgment against defendant adjacent riparian lan- 
downer to determine the ownership of land un- 
covered by reliction. The issue was raised as a 
result of the lowering of the water level of the lake. 
The appeals court held that the relicted land 
should be divided in proportion to shoreline 
owned. The shoreline to be used would be that 
shoreline at the time the lake and surrounding land 
was patented by the United States to the State of 
Michigan. The court also added that courses and 
distances in the deed description would yield to 
natural monuments such as the shoreline of the 
lake. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08010 



WDLSON CONCRETE COMPANY V. COUNTY 
OF SARPY (LIABnjTY FOR OBSTRUCTION 
OF NATURAL FLOW). 

202 N.W.2d 597-600 (Neb. 1972). 

Descriptors: 'Nebraska, 'Obstruction to flow, 
'Drainage effects, 'Drainage patterns (Geologic), 
Barriers, Stream flow, Judicial decisions, 
Highway effects, Drainage engineering, Natural 
flow, Alteration of flow, Culverts, Drainage 
water, Drainage practices, Legal aspects. 
Identifiers: Injunctive relief. 

Plaintiff landowner sued for damages and an in- 
junction requiring the defendant county to provide 
an adequate drainway under a highway for water 
of a natural watercourse. In constructing the 
highway, defendant had placed a single ten-by-ten 
foot box culvert where there had previously been 
an open ditch as an outlet for a creek to drain from 
the plaintiff's land. The Nebraska Supreme Court 
held that the culvert was inadequate and that it 
would cause considerable backwater. The court 
further held that removal of the culvert, thus leav- 
ing an open cut, would reduce the flooding, and 
therefore plaintiff was entitled to a mandatory in- 
junction requiring defendant to remove the ob- 
struction in order to provide for the passage of the 
surface waters. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08011 



PROCEEDING 1971 TECHNICAL CON- 
FERENCE ON ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC 
NORTHWEST. 

Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W73-08051 



BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, 

Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. Applied 
Sciences Branch. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W73 -08108 



FORECAST STUDY FOR PRAIRIE PROVINCES 
WATER BOARD, 

Water Survey of Canada, Calgary (Alberta). Al- 
berta and Northwest Territories District Office. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04 A. 
W73-08143 



A WDLDERNESS SNOW COURSE, 

Forest Service (USDA), Kalispell, Mont. Flathead 

National Forest 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W73-08148 



97 






Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 
Group 6E — Water Law and Institution* 



WILDERNESS IN THE NATIONAL PARKS, 

National Park Service, Denver, Colo. Denver Ser- 
vice Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04C. 
W73-08149 



CLEAN WATER FOR SAN FRANCISCO BAY. 

California State Water Resources Control Board, 
Sacramento. 

April 1971. 16 p, 13 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Water reuse, *Bays, 'Planning, 
'Administration, 'Water pollution control, 'Water 
quality control, California, Water pollution 
sources, Water pollution effects, Regional analy- 
sis, Domestic wastes, Industrial wastes. Waste 
disposal. 
Identifiers: 'San Francisco Bay. 

In order to preserve and enhance water quality in 
San Francisco Bay, in view of the inevitable in- 
crease in waste loads, the present system of inde- 
pendent decision making by each wastewater 
discharger must be replaced by an areawide ap- 
proach. Establishment of a Bay Area service agen- 
cy, or utility, with powers to plan, finance and 
construct facilities is needed. Three feasible 
methods of forming such an agency are: (1) create 
a permanent agency by special enactment of the 
California State Legislature (preferred method); 
(2) create a permanent agency by the voluntary 
cooperation of all Bay Area wastewater districts; 
and (3) create a temporary agency by voluntary 
cooperation until a permanent agency can be set 
up. While studies show that the Bay is being badly 
polluted by many sources, including municipal and 
industrial, and that these pollutants range from 
nutrients, organics and coliform to toxic materials, 
these studies have also shown that there is a great 
potential for wastewater reclamation in the Bay 
area, especially municipal sewage. Along with 
maps and pictures showing areas on the Bay which 
are posted and have yearly fish kills is a map 
showing the potential reuse of reclaimed water for 
industrial use, aquifer recharge, landscape irriga- 
tion and spray irrigation. The potential market for 
reclaimed water is estimated at 200 mgd of the 800 
mgd currently discharged into the Bay. (Poertner) 
W73-08176 



BRIDGES, WALLS, FILLS, CHANNEL 
CHANGES, ETC. (FOR THE INFORMATION 
OF THOSE INTERESTED IN THE CONSTRUC- 
TION OF). 

Pennsylvania Dept of Environmental Resources, 

Harrisburg. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 

W73-08182 



THE CLEAN STREAMS LAW OF PENNSYL- 
VANIA. 

Pennsylvania Dept of Environmental Resources, 
Harrisburg. 

1971. 19 P. 

Descriptors: 'Water quality act, 'Water quality 
control, 'Legislation, 'Pennsylvania, Water quali- 
ty standards, Water pollution control, Municipal 
wastes, Industrial wastes, Legal aspects, Permits, 
Water pollution sources. 

The Clean Streams Law, which became effective 
January 19, 1971 in Pennsylvania, established the 
Department of Environmental Resources, the En- 
vironmental Quality Board, and a citizen advisory 
council. Concurrent with this was the abolishment 
of the Sanitary Water Board and the Department 
of Mines and Mineral Industries, with the transfer 
of their duties to the newly created Department of 
Environmental Resources. Along with this change 
also came the rewording of laws to correspond to 
these governmental structural changes and the 



new law is the subject of this publication 'I he 
general rules concerning water pollution are 
described in ten sections. These ten article* in- 
clude: (1) general provisions and purpose, (2) 
sewage pollution, (3) industrial wastes, (4J other 
pollutions and potential pollutions, (5) domestic 
water supplies, (6) procedure* and enforcement, 
and (7) existing rights under the old law Some 
parts of the old laws were repealed, while addi- 
tions were made to the new law, including the ad- 
dition of penalties and other remedies for con- 
trolling pollution (Poertner) 
W73-08I83 



INVENTORY OF INTERSTATE CARRIER 
WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS. 

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, 

DC. Water Supply Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W73-08192 



GREAT DISMAL SWAMP AND DISMAL 
SWAMP CANAL. 

Hearing-Subcomm. on Parks and Recreation- 
Comm. on Interior and Insular Affairs, United 
States Senate, 92d Cong, 2d Sess, May 9, 1972. 25 
p, 1 map. 

Descriptors: 'Swamps, 'Wetlands, 'legislation, 
'Marsh management, Drainage effects, Legal 
aspects. Land reclamation, Marshes, Irrigation ef- 
fects, Recreation, 'Virginia, 'North Carolina, 
Boating, Urbanization. 
Identifiers: 'Congressional hearings. 

This hearing took testimony on a bill to authorize a 
study to determine the most feasible means of pro- 
tecting and preserving the Great Dismal Swamp 
and the Dismal Swamp Canal. Encroaching 
metropolitan areas have threatened and begun to 
affect the Great Dismal; because it is an area of 
great national significance the states of Virginia 
and North Carolina have made efforts to deter- 
mine the best ways to preserve it. These states de- 
cided to apply to all state and federal agencies to 
obtain aid. This hearing speaks favorably of 
preserving the Great Dismal, as it is unique in its 
physical properties, both flora and fauna. Included 
is a Department of the Interior study and state- 
ments by numerous interested parties, including 
the chairman of the Dismal Swamp Committee, 
Virginia Division of the Isaac Walton League of 
America, an Administrative assistant of the Wil- 
dlife, National Parks and Conservation Associa- 
tion and senators from the State of Virginia. 
(Smith-Adam-Florida) 
W73-08193 



PRESERVATION AND ENHANCEMENT OF 
THE AMERICAN FALLS AT NIAGARA. 

For primary bmUograpbic entry see Field 06G. 
W73-08194 



THE IMPACT OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRON- 
MENTAL POLICY ACT UPON ADMINISTRA- 
TION OF THE FEDERAL POWER ACT. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 
W73-08195 



HOW AN ENFORCER BECOMES THE POLLU- 
TER'S DEFENDER, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W73-08196 



A SURVEY OF STATE REGULATION OF 
DREDGE AND FILL OPERATIONS IN NON- 
NAVIGABLE WATERS, 

Florida Univ., Gainesville. School of Law. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 
W73-08197 



THI wa IK* IDOUn ks < OUNCIL, 

National Water < ocuiuisuou. Arungloo. V* 

B I-iebmaa 

Available from the National technical Infom 

Uon Service a* PB 211 443, V, 75 in pa;- 

SI 45 in microfiche May 1972 224 p. 357 ret 



Descnptor* 'Water resource* deve 
•IJ S Water Resources Council, 'National Wat 
Commission, 'Water Resources planning Ac 
'Planning, Water resources. Flood control, ija 
resource*, Inters la le compacts. Water poUutin 
Administration, I -eg) slauon . Project plana** 
Governmental interrelations, '.iver basin comaa 
(ton*, Grants, Government finance, Adrmntttl 
live agencies, Flood plain zoning. Cost sharing. 

this report on the Water Resources Council wi 
prepared for the National Water Commi*stoa 
assist in its deliberation* on national wat 
problems. A number of recommendation* a 
made for improving the Council including the a 
pointment of an independent full-time chainna 
the addition of an independent board of review 
and the provision in future legislation for wat 
resources p lanning coordination at the slate ai 
federal levels. The Water Resources Planning A 
and its historical background, the Wat 
Resources Council and its activities, the pnncipi 
and standards for planning water and related bn 
resources, flood hazards, compact*, water poH 
Uon p lanning and an evaluation of the assum 
lions underlying the Water Resource* Planni 
Act are discussed. Portions of vital legislation CO 
ceming the Council and its activities are include 
(Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08198 



OCEANOGRAPHIC COMMISSION. 

Washington Natural Resources and Recreati 
Agencies, Olympia. 

In: 1972 Annual Report State of Washington, p 4 
49, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Washington, 'Oceanograpk 
'Research and development, •Administratr 
agencies, Administration, Water law, Wal 
rights, Education, Oil pollution, Water polk 
Oceans, Government finance, Oil spills, Data o 
lection, Governmental interrelations. 
Identifiers: Hazardous substances (Pollution). 

The 1972 annual report of the Oceanograpi 
Commission of the State of Washington 
presented. This Commission, created in 1967, 
the only state agency specifically mandated 
promote, develop, and advise on oceanography, 
has neither regulatory powers to enforce su 
laws nor landlord responsibilities for managi 
state property. Fiscal year 1972 provided the Co 
mission with a solid economic footing to enable 
to meet many of its goals. Programs undertaken 
the Commission included: an oil transportati 
study, a study on hazardous wastes in the ares 
waters, and oil handling studies. In addition I 
Commission operated a news bureau, held pn 
conferences, participated in various workshop 
and provided speakers for civic groups, schoo 
a'd professional societies during the year. In I 
future the Commission will expand and become 
volved in such areas as advancement of appli 
marine research and knowledge, standarchzati 
of data, cooperative coordination of state oceai 
graphic and marine programs, and improvement 
school and university curricula relating 
oceanography. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08199 



DEPARTMENT OF ECOLOGY. 

Washington Natural Resources and Recreati 

Agencies, Olympia. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 

W73-08200 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 06 
Water Law and Institutions — Group 6E 



TIDELANDS -URGENT QUESTIONS IN SOUTH 
CAROLINA WATER RESOURCES LAWS, 

South Carolina Univ., Columbia. School of Law. 
C. H. Randall, Jr. 

Paper presented at Fifth Annual South Carolina 
Governor's, Conference on Water Resources, 
September 21, 1971. 23 p. OWRR-B-023-SC(1). 

Descriptors: *Land management, *Coasts, 
•Legislation, 'South Carolina, Navigable waters, 
Land use, Land development, State jurisdiction, 
Permits, Regulation, Zoning, Water law, Oceans, 
Ownership of beds, Environmental control, En- 
vironmental effects, Water pollution, Judicial 
decisions, Submerged Lands Act, Rivers and Har- 
bors Act, Governmental interrelations, Legal 
review. 

Identifiers: *Coastal zone management, Tide- 
lands, Coastal waters, Estuarine Areas Act of 
1968. 

In developing a sound tidelands policy, there are 
important interests that must be weighed in the 
balance with protection of the environment. One is 
the interest in developing the economy of the 
state. Closely related is the interest in providing 
citizens the maximum freedom compatible with 
protecting the environment. The legal device most 
capable of meeting the problem is the combination 
of zoning of the tide lands for specified ap- 
propriate uses, and the granting of permits for par- 
ticular activities. The problems and current 
developments in rethinking tidelands law are 
discussed under three headings: federal legislative 
policy; state legislative policy; and judicial policy. 
Pending legislation, pertinent federal statutory 
law, and current state law are all discussed. If the 
question involving title to the tidelands were sub- 
stantially resolved in favor of the state of South 
Carolina, power to zone and set up a permit 
system would be largely unquestioned. Several 
legal justifications for such a zoning statute are 
suggested. (Reed-Florida) 
W73-08201 



DIGEST OF PROPOSED REGULATION 
RELATING TO MONITORING AND REPORT- 
ING WASTEWATER DISCHARGES AND 
THEIR EFFECTS UPON RECEIVING WATERS. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W73-O8202 



REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CON- 
FERENCE ON HUMAN ENVIRONMENT, HELD 
KT STOCKHOLM, 5-16 JUNE, 1972. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 
W73-08203 



LEGAL ASPECTS OF COASTAL ZONE 
MANAGEMENT IN ESCAMBIA AND SAN 
KOSA COUNTIES, FLORIDA (ESCAROSA), 
3. M. O'Connor. 

Report submitted to Coastal Coordinating Coun- 
al, Florida Department of Natural Resources, 
March 1972. 77 p, 2 append. 

Descriptors: *Land management, *Land develop- 
ment, *Florida, *Local governments, *Coasts, 
-egal review, State jurisdiction, Judicial deci- 
lions, Institutional constraints, Coastal marshes, 
Wetlands, Legal aspects, Land use, Governmental 
nterrelations, Water law, Water resources 
levelopment, Zoning, State governments, Legjsla- 
ion. 
dentifiers: 'Coastal zone management. 

Vhile any effective coastal zone management prc- 
iram must provide statewide and nationwide 
miformity, the substantial jurisdictional powers 
if county and local governments must be taken 
nto account. The integration of these local 
[overnments into the coastal zone managmenet 
irogram can provide better management than 
ould be achieved by the state and federal authori- 



ties acting alone. Present activities of local govern- 
ments in coastal zone management in Escambia 
and Santa Rosa Counties, Florida were examined. 
Local laws and judicial decisions relevant to coun- 
ty governments, municipal governments, a port 
authority and the Santa Rosa Island Authority, are 
examined in relationship to coastal zone manage- 
ment. State laws and federal laws are also 
discussed in this context There appear to be a 
number of opportunities for cooperation between 
state, county and local bodies which should be ex- 
plored and developed in order to make Florida 
coastal zone management fully effective. (Beard- 
sley-Florida) 
W73-08204 



IMMINENT TRREPARABLE INJURY: A NEED 
FOR REFORM, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W73-08205 



ARTIFICIAL ADDITIONS TO RIPARIAN 
LAND: EXTENDING THE DOCTRINE OF 
ACCRETION, 

R. E. Lundquist. 

Arizona Law Review, Vol 14, No 2, p 315-343, 

1972. 134 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Arizona, 'Accretion (Legal 
aspects), 'Riparian rights, 'Ownership of beds, 
'Riparian land, Land tenure, Common law, Ease- 
ments, Judicial decisions, Riparian waters, 
Usufructuray right, Submerged Lands Act, Bank 
erosion, Boundaries (Property), Land reclama- 
tion, Navigable rivers, Federal government, 
Dredging, High water mark, Avulsion, Watercour- 
ses (Legal aspects). 
Identifiers: Reliction. 

The Supreme Court of Arizona in State v. Bonelli 
Cattle Company, a case of first impression, 
declined to extend the doctrine of accretion to 
man-made additions to riparian land. The Bonelli 
decision is analyzed in terms of its implications for 
Arizona riparian landowners. In Bonelli the court 
distinguished between natural and man-made 
accretions and held that title to lands exposed by 
dredging projects of the federal government vests 
in the state. Four arguments are presented in favor 
of including in the doctrine of accretion man-made 
additions to riparian land, contrary to the Bonelli 
holding. This decision fails to consider the certain 
loss of riparian status due to man-made accretion. 
Such an omission forbodes the demise of the 
riparian right of access to navigable waters in 
Arizona. It is proposed that the riparian owner 
should be given the right to purchase these accre- 
tions with the proceeds going to establish a fund to 
promote the public use of navigable waters. 
(Adams-Florida) 
W73-08206 



ENVIRONMENTAL LAW-PRTV.TE CAUSE OF 
ACTION UNDER THE RIVERS AND HARBORS 
APPROPRIATION ACT OF 1899 FOR INJURY 
TO THE ECOLOGY OF NAVIGABLE WATERS, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W73-08207 



THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY 
ACT OF 1969 SAVED FROM 'CRABBED IN- 
TERPRETATION', 

H. A. Cubell. 

Boston University Law Review, Vol 52, No 2, p 

425-442, Spring 1972. 104 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Judicial decisions, 'Federal project 
policy, 'Legislation, 'Decision making, 'Adminis- 
trative decisions, Legal review, Project p lanning , 
Cost-benefit analysis, Federal government, Ad- 
ministrative agencies, Ecology, Environmental ef- 
fects, Legal aspects, Project feasibility. Adminis- 
tration, Alternate p lanning , Environment, 



Economic justification, Comprehensive planning 
Water law. v-»—m. 

Identifiers: 'National Environmental Policy Act. 

The judicial interpretation of the National En- 
vironmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 was, in 
Calvert Cliffs' Coordinating Committee v. Atomic 
Energy Commission, recently expanded. Section 
101 of NEPA is a broad policy statement insuring a 
federal commitment to preserve environmental 
quality. Section 102 of the Act contains procedural 
duties which must be met by any agency consider- 
ing major federal activity which might have an ad- 
verse effect on the environment The court in the 
Calvert Cliffs' case, after adopting a substantive- 
procedural dichotomy between Section 101 and 
102, held that agencies, in determining the overall 
desirability of a project, must strike a balance 
between economic, technical, and environmental 
costs and benefits. The court acknowledged that 
the plain language of the Act does not require a 
balancing analysis; Section 102 only requires that 
environmental values be given appropriate con- 
sideration. However, the court recognized mat en- 
vironmental protection is to be considered as a 
competing priority to be assessed in view of other 
essential considerations, which implies a need for 
a balancing of these values on a case-by-case ba- 
sis. (Adams-Florida) 
W73-08208 



ILLINOIS WATERWAY. 

111. Ann. Stat Ch. 19 sees. 79 thru 1 12 (Smith-Hurd 
1972). 

Descriptors: 'Illinois, 'Legislation, 'Navigable 
waters, 'Navigation, 'Canals, Channels, Trans- 
portation, Ships, Civil engineering, Inland Water- 
ways, Legal Aspects, Jurisdiction, Eminent 
domain, Water law. 
Identifiers: 'Illinois Waterway. 

The statutes govern the location, name, general 
route, dimensions of the channel and locks, plans 
and specifications for construction, maintenance 
and operation, lease of surplus waters, rates of 
toll, rules and regulations, maintenance of power 
plants and storage facilities, acquisition of proper- 
ty, repair, replacement or reconstruction of public 
bridges, and sale or lease of lands pertaining to the 
Waterway. The State Department of Transporta- 
tion is charged with the overall responsibility of 
maintaining and improving the Waterway. Other 
areas covered by statute include permits, con- 
tracts, eminent domain procedures, construction 
procedures, drainage systems, sanitary regula- 
tions, and bridges. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08225 



NATURAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT 
BOARD. 

111. Ann. Stat, ch. 19 sees. 1071 thru 1077.13 
(Smith-Hird 1972). 

Descriptors: 'Illinois, 'Legislation, 'Water 
supply, 'Water policy, 'Water management (Ap- 
plied), Conservation, Water resources, Water 
resources development, Water law, Water de- 
mand, Water supply development, Flood control. 
Flood plains, Watershed management, Naviga- 
tion, Public health, Future p lanning (Projected), 
Legal aspects, Governmental interrelations, Ad- 
ministrative agencies, Project planning. 

In order to provide sound p lanning for the proper 
conservation, development and use of water 
resources, upon which the health, welfare and 
economic progress of Illinois depend, the Natural 
Resources Development Board is created. The 
Board shall receive staff services from the Depart- 
ment of Business and Economic Development, but 
when necessary shall receive the assistance of any 
state educational institution or experiment station. 



99 



Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 
Group 6E — Water Law and Institutions 



The Board shall prepare a biennial assessment of 
the adequacy of the water supplies of the state, 
and shall recommend to the Governor and State 
Assembly appropriate policies, legislation and pro- 
grams necessary to insure the availability of 
adequate supplies of water. It shall effect max- 
imum coordination between all state agencies in 
planning and developing water resources, as well 
as review all proposed legislation, water resources 
projects and developments, and any state water 
programs and activities. The Board shall also in- 
vestigate any project involving navigation im- 
provement, flood control or watersheds of the 
state. (Glickman-Florida) 
W73-08226 



UPPKR MISSISSIPPI RIVKRWAY COMPACT. 
Ill Ann. Stat , ch. 19 sees 1101 thru 1103 (Smith 
Hurd 1972). 

Descriptors: •Interstate compacts, *River basin 
development, 'Illinois, 'legislation. Resources 
development, Water management (Applied), In- 
terstate commissions, Mississippi River Basin, 
Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Missouri, Natural 
resources, Conservation, Resource allocation, 
Research and development, Wildlife conservation, 
Recreation facilities, Agriculture, Administration, 
Permits, Planning. 

Identifiers: 'Upper Mississippi Riverway Com- 
pact. 

The size of the Upper Mississippi region, the com- 
plexity of its economic and social development 
and the resource needs of its people require a for- 
mal instrument for joint and cooperative action in 
the development and maintenance of a sound and 
attractive Upper Mississippi region. The purposes 
of the compact are stated and the geographical 
area comprising the Upper Mississippi Riverway 
District is specified within these statutes. A Com- 
mission composed of representatives from each 
party state is established. The structure, powers, 
duties and responsibilities of the Commission are 
detailed in the statute. A study of means of 
preserving and developing the scenic value of both 
public and private property is to be made by the 
Commission. The Commission may acquire such 
easements and make such agreements as may be 
suitable to preserving or securing patterns or fea- 
tures of land and water use that will be consistent 
with the terms of the compact. The statute pro- 
vides that the compact shall enter into force when 
enacted into law by three of the participating 
states. (Reed-Florida) 
W73-08227 



SULLIVAN V. MORENO (WHETHER A SIM- 
PLE RIPARIAN BOUNDARY OPERATES BY 
LEGAL PRESUMPTION TO CARRY THE 
RIGHT TO THE SOIL TO THE EDGE OF THE 
CHANNEL). 

19 Fla. 200-231 (1882). 

Descriptors: 'Ownership of beds, 'Florida, 
'Riparian land, 'Riparian rights, Water law, Water 
rights, Legal aspects, Legislation, Remedies, 
Water sources, Judicial decisions, Beds under 
water, Boundary disputes, Adjacent landowners. 
Identifiers: Injunctive relief. 

This case, decided by the state's supreme court in 
1882, involved an action brought by plaintiff lan- 
downer against defendant adjacent landowner to 
determine whether a simple riparian boundary 
operates by legal presumption to carry the right to 
the soil at the edge of the channel under the Ripari- 
an Act of 1856. Plaintiff contended the possession 
and enjoyment of his riparian rights had been vio- 
lated by the defendant's construction of a wharf 
thereby denying plaintiff access to his wood and 
coal yard. The court noted that under state law the 
title to the submerged soil from the channel to the 
shore is in such riparian proprietor as is contem- 



plated by the act of 1856 and held that thi* ao 
templates riparian proprietorship a* requiring a 
water boundary. An allegation by plaintiff that the 
party through whom he claims title owned and 
possessed parcels of land lying on the bay, and 
that such party had been for thirty years in quiet 
possession and enjoyment of all npanan rights, 
does not constitute a sufficient allegation of a 
riparian proprietorship. As a result plaintiff's in- 
junction was reversed and the case remanded for 
further proceedings (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08228 



ADAMEK V. CITY OF PORT RICHEY (APPLI- 
CATION FOR PERMIT TO CONSTRUCT A 
DOCK). 

214 So. 2d 374-375 (2d D.C.A Fla. 1968). 

Descriptors: 'Florida, 'Judicial decisions, 'Per- 
mits, 'Docks, Legal aspects, Regulation, State 
governments, Engineering structures, Riparian 
rights, Riparian lands, Legislation, IxicaJ govern- 
ments. 
Identifiers: Corps of Engineers. 

Plaintiff riparian landowner sued defendant city 
for a judgment compelling the issuance of a per- 
manent permit for construction of a dock. The Cir- 
cuit Court of Pasco County denied summary 
judgment to the property owner and an interlocu- 
tory appeal was taken. The Florida District Court 
of Appeals held that denial of summary judgment 
was proper where the ordinance required the 
owner to obtain the approval of the Army Corps of 
Engineers as a condition precedent to the issuance 
of a permanent permit and that the property owner 
failed to allege that approval of the Corps of En- 
gineers had been obtained. (Mockler-Flonda) 
W73-08229 



CARTISH V. SOPER (RESERVATION OF 
RIPARIAN RIGHTS FOR SUBDIVISION LOT 
OWNERS). 

157 So. 2d 150-154 (2d D.C.A. Fla. 1963). 

Descriptors: 'Florida, 'Legal aspects, 'Riparian 
land, 'Riparian rights, Water law, Water rights. 
Remedies, Judicial decisions, Access routes, 
Easements, Right of way. 

Identifiers: Right of Ingress and egress, Water 
rights (Non-riparians). 

Plaintiffs subdivision lot owners sued to obtain a 
declaration of their riparian rights and the rights of 
defendants, owners of lots abutting a private park- 
way, to the parkway and to enjoin the defendants 
from obstructing the plaintiffs' free use of all parts 
of the parkway and rebuilding of a dock. The sub- 
division plat reserved the parkway to allow ingress 
and egress to an adjacent bay on behalf of all sub- 
division lot owners. Defendants contend this 
reservation did not encompass riparian rights. The 
Florida District Court of Appeals held that riparian 
rights necessary and incidental to access to the bay 
were implicit in the plat reservation. Further the 
court held that the right to build a dock to facilitate 
the access of the easement holders to the waters 
was implied. The court thereby affirmed the lower 
court decision for plaintiffs. (Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08230 



BLOMQUIST V. COUNTY OF ORANGE (LO- 
CAL RESERVOIR CONSTRUCTION SUBJECT 
TO STATE APPROVAL). 

69 Misc. 2d 1077-1081 (Sup. Ct. N.Y. 1972). 

Descriptors: 'Municipal water, 'Judicial deci- 
sions, 'Eminent domain, 'New York, 'Reservoir 
construction, Reservoirs, Condemnation, Reser- 
voir storage, Reservoir sites, Legislation, 
Planning, Local governments, Water supply 



development, Stale gave 



' oasuuiuae. 



law, l^egal aspect*. Water supply 
Identifier* 'Injuncuori 'Prohibitory) 

Plaintiff landowner* *ued to enjoin the defrudtu 
county from acquiring land for a re*ervotr Plan 
tiffs contended inter alia thai the county had m 
kubmitled it* map* and plan* to the Stale Wall 
Resource* Commmton for approval a* require 
by the Conservation I^aw Defendant cooleooa 
that it wa* not a public corporation within It 
meaning of that legulauve provision Thi* la 
gives the State Commuuoo broad regulate* 
power* over the potable water *upp)y of the com 
state The New York Supreme Court held thai 
county is a public corporation within the conservi 
lion law and defendant must obtain the stale coo 
mission's approval prior to condemning land for 
reservoir Since defendant has not complied wn 
the requirement* of the Conservation law, it 
without authority to acquire land for the reservoi 
However, the court denied plaintiff * mouon for 
summary judgment on other ground* (Staid 
Adam -Florida) 
W73-08231 



STATE V. BLACK RIVER PHOSPHATE Of 
(TITLE ASSERTION TO SUBMERGED LAND 
ON EDGE OF CHANNEL OF NAVICABL 
STREAM). 

13 So. 640-658 (Fla. 1893). 

Descriptors: 'Ownership of bed*, 'Floridi 
'Riparian land, 'Riparian nghls. Legal aspect: 
Beds under water, Judicial decision*, Pubii 
rights, High water mark. Navigable rivers. 
Idenufierv Public trust doctrine. 

The plaintiff state sued to enjoin the defendar 
phosphate company from taking phosphate froi 
the bed of a navigable river. Defendant contende 
that it owned the bed under the Riparian Act c 
1856. The court noted that so long as the Ian 
remains submerged the governmental control ore 
it is not lost. The Court held for the state, statin 
that the Riparian Act of 1856 does not vest i 
riparian owners an unqualified fee in the land 
below the high-water mark, and out to the edge c 
the channel in navigable streams, bays of the ses 
or harbors of the state. The court based its dec 
sion on the rationale that so long as such sot 
merged lands remained unimproved by the cot 
s true Lion of wharves, or unreclaimed by filling i 
from the shore and converting the water into land 
the riparian owner, though the legal title is in hur 
has, insofar as the statute is concerned, no greate 
right to the beneficial use of such submerged land 
and the waters above them than any other ciuzer 
except for the purpose of protecting from invasio 
the right to improve which the statute gives bin 
Moreover, the statute was held not to give to th 
riparian owner the right to take phosphates frot 
the beds of navigable streams, bays of the sea, o 
harbors, below high-water mark, and out to th 
edge of the channel, for the purposes of sak 
(Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08232 



UTTLE CALUMET RTVER: LAKE CALUMET 
HARBOR. 

Dl. Ann. Stat. ch. 19 sees 112.1 thru 117 (Smith 
Hurd 1972). 

Descriptors: 'Illinois, 'Pollution abatement 
•Legislation, 'Water pollution control, Adminis 
trative agencies, Management, Water law, Wate 
policy, Water pollution, Water quality, Publi 
health, Harbors, Industries, Water pollution treat 
ment, Legal aspects, Excavation. 

The interests of the people of Illinois require tha 
the Little Calumet River be cleaned up. The Com 
mission on Operation Little Calumet River i 



100 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 06 
Ecologic Impact of Water Development— Group 6G 



established to coordinate the efforts to free the 
river from pollution. The Commission shall identi- 
fy the problems relating to the pollution, coor- 
dinate efforts of various parties to effectuate a 
cleanup, develop a handbook of procedures for 
similar situations and recommend necessary 
legislation. A harbor is to be constructed in and 
near Lake Calumet in the City of Chicago. The city 
is obligated to maintain the harbor at the specified 
depth. The City of Chicago may grant, lease or 
xmvey any land granted the city by this act for in- 
dustrial manufacturing or harbor purposes, pro- 
vided that approval is received from the Depart- 
ment of Public Works and Buildings. (Glickman- 
Florida) 
W73-08233 



LEVEL OF LAKE MICHIGAN. 

111. Ann. Stat. ch. 19 sees 119 thru 120.11 (Smith- 
Hurd 1972). 

Descriptors: *Water levels, *Water distribution 
(Applied), *Water utilization, 'Illinois, ♦Legisla- 
tion, Water policy, Water sources, Water alloca- 
tion (Policy), Administrative agencies, Regulation, 
Control, Water law, Adjudication procedure, 
Water resources development, Water resources 
planning, Watershed management, Watersheds 
[Basins), Water yield, Water supply, Rationing 
Water), Lake Michigan, Lakes. 
Identifiers: Approved consumptive use, Water 
rights (Non-riparians). 

rhe Illinois Department of Transportation shall 
:ooperate with federal and other state and local 
igencies for the regulation and maintenance of the 
evel and use of the waters of Lake Michigan. All 
necessary data for the formulation of plans and 
instruction of works for the regulation of the 
vater level and water utilization shall be collected 
>y the Department The Department shall devise a 
:ontinuing program for the apportionment of 
rater diverted from Lake Michigan, but the 
mount shall be metered, and shall not exceed a 
et level. Organizations desiring water shall apply 
o the Department, who shall consider their needs 
ind other possible sources in allocating the water. 
failure to properly use allocated water will result 
□ a hearing to terminate the allocation. The De- 
artment shall prescribe reasonable rules relating 
o control and utilization of water from the Lake 
ilichigan watershed. The Department may con- 
ract for any professional services necessary in the 
iroper exercise of its duties under this act. 
Glickman-Florida) 
V73-08234 



ML SPILLS CONTROL MANUAL FOR FIRE 
JEPARTMENTS, 

Upine Geophysical Associates, Inc., Norwood, 

U. 

■or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

V73-08288 



iT. Nonstructural Alternatives 



iN APPRAISAL OF FLOODPLAIN REGULA- 
TOR IN THE STATES OF ILLINOIS, INDI- 
ANA, IOWA, MISSOURI, AND OHIO, 

linois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Landscape 
irehitecture. 
V. M. Keith. 

ivailable from the National Technical Informa- 
on Service as PB-219 234, $3.00 in paper copy, 
1.45 in microfiche. Illinois Water Resources 
enter, Urbana, Termination Report, April 1973. 
»p,6fig. OWRR A-030-ILL(2). 14-31-0001-3013. 

tescriptors: *Floodplain zoning, Flood protec- 
on, Non-structural alternatives, Floodplain in- 
iirance, 'Illinois, 'Indiana, *Missouri, *Regula- 
on, Legislation, Zoning. 



The objectives were to determine why state 
statutes and local zoning ordinances are not effec- 
tively used in floodplain management, to deter- 
mine alternative preventive methods available and 
to analyze the alternatives to determine their suita- 
bility for management purposes. The objectives 
were only partly achieved within the time frame of 
the study. A repository of enabling legislation, in- 
formation and inventory reports and ordinances 
relating to floodplains has been established for Il- 
linois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri and Ohio. This can 
be used for monitoring and evaluating changes in 
regulations and management procedures. An anal- 
ysis of the floodplain regulations in these five 
states is presented. It is concluded that local com- 
munities are not self-motivated to adopt regula- 
tions and require external encouragement Several 
areas suitable for regional case studies are 
identified. A basis for evaluation criteria for a 
floodplain management program is presented. It is 
suggested that useful results can be gained through 
examination of the effectiveness of regional agen- 
cies on floodplain management. 
W73-07814 



NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR MANAGING 
FLOOD LOSSES, GUIDELINES FOR PREPARA- 
TION, TRANSMITTAL, AND DISTRIBUTION 
OF FLOOD-PRONE AREA MAPS AND 
PAMPHLETS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 
W73-07849 

6G. Ecologic Impact of 
Water Development 



WALKER BRANCH WATERSHED: A STUDY 
OF TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC SYSTEM 
INTERACTION, 

Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04D. 

W73-07947 



RECTIFICATION OF DEFICIENCIES IN 
COMPLETED LOCAL PROTECTION PRO- 
JECT, WELLSVTLLE, NEW YORK (FINAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Buffalo, N.Y. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 

W73-07975 



BRANTLEY PROJECT, NEW MEXICO (FINAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08D. 

W73-07976 



DESALINIZATION PLANTS, VIRGIN ISLANDS 
(FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATE- 
MENT). 

Department of Housing and Urban Development, 

San Juan, Puerto Rico. Region II. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03A. 

W73-07977 



AGRI-INDUSTRIAL PARK WATER IMPROVE- 
MENTS, SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES, 
BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT LOAN (FINAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Economic Development Administration, Austin, 

Tex. Southwestern Region. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W73-07978 



COPAN LAKE, LITTLE CANEY RIVER, 
OKLAHOMA (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IM- 
PACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Tulsa, Okla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 



W73-07979 



LOST CREEK LAKE PROJECT, ROGUE 
RIVER, OREGON (SUPPLEMENT TO FINAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Portland, Oreg. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 

W73-07980 



SNAGGING AND CLEARING PROJECT ON 
MILL CREEK AT RIPLEY, WEST VIRGINIA 
(FINAL ENVHtONMENTAL IMPACT STATE- 
MENT). 

Army Engineer District, Huntington, W. Va. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 
W73-07981 



ADMINISTRATION OF THE NATIONAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT, PART 1. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W73-07983 



ENVHtONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENTS-A 
DUTY OF INDEPENDENT INVESTIGATION BY 
FEDERAL AGENCD2S. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W73-07993 



THE ENERGY NEEDS OF THE NATION AND 
THE COST IN TERMS OF POLLUTION, 

Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.C. 
J. T. Ramey. 

Atomic Energy Law Journal, Vol 14, No 1 , p 26- 
58, Spring 1972. 10 fig, 16ref. 

Descriptors: *Water pollution sources, *Energy 
budget, *Energy dissipation, *Nuclear energy, 
Oil, Coal, Natural gas, Electricity, Electric power 
production, Thermal powerplants, Nuclear power- 
plants, Hydroelectric plants, Alternative planning, 
Future planning (Projected), Estimated benefits. 
Estimated cost, Research and development, En- 
vironmental effects, Thermal pollution. 

In a lecture, the Commissioner of the Atomic 
Energy Commission described the energy crises 
now facing the United States and suggested ac- 
tions to be taken which could resolve the crisis 
while minimising further environmental damage 
caused by increasing energy demands. In 1970, ap- 
proximately ninety-six per cent of the country s 
energy needs were being met by a rapidly 
diminishing supply of coal, oil, and natural gas. 
Between 1965 and 1970, energy consumption in- 
creased at an average rate of five per cent per 
year. The most important growth has occurred in 
the use of energy for the production of electricity. 
Since the production of oil and natural gas is al- 
ready reaching a critical stage in this country, al- 
ternatives must be developed. One alternative to 
be considered is the expanded use of nuclear reac- 
tors for gneration of electricity. In the distant fu- 
ture fusion power, using hydrogen in the oceans as 
an energy source, may offer an answer to the ener- 
gy problem. Use of nuclear power will also result 
in a significant reduction in combustion pollution 
which at present causes about eight-five per cent 
of all U.S. air pollution. (Adams-Florida) 
W73-07995 



THE YEAR OF SPOILED PORK: COMMENTS 
ON THE COURT'S EMERGENCE AS AN EN- 
VIRONMENTAL DEFENDER, 

Florida Univ., Gainsville. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-07996 



ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: STRICT COM- 
PLIANCE WITH PROCEDURAL REQUIRE- 
MENTS OF NEPA-THE AGENCIES MUST 
PLAY BY THE RULES, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 



101 



Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 

Group 6G — Ecologic Impact of Water Development 



W73-07W9 



PRESERVATION AND ENHANCEMENT Ot 
THE AMERICAN FALLS AT NIAGARA. 

Interim Report to the International Joint Commis- 
tion, December 1971. 77 p, 21 plate. 

Descriptors: 'New York, 'Environmental effects, 
'Aesthetics, 'Scenery, 'International Joint Com- 
mission, Rivers and Harbors Act, Legislation, 
Water quality control, Creativity, Recreation, 
Erosion control. Plow control. Urbanization, 
Water levels. 
Identifiers: Niagara (New York), American Palls. 

Results are summarized of investigation and 
research authorized under the 1965 Rivers and 
Harbors Act. The purpose of the study is to con- 
tider the nature and extent of measures necessary 
to preserve and enhance the scenic beauty of 
American Falls at Niagara, New York. The histori- 
cal background of the problems is presented the 
aesthetic factors and physical conditions which 
must be considered in reaching a solution are 
discussed. The range of aesthetic and physical op- 
tions for preserving or enhancing the beauty of the 
American Falls and for securing the safety of the 
viewing public are explored. These options are 
grouped into a few broad alternative courses of ac- 
tion, followed by the Board's conclusions and 
recommendations. (Mockler- Florida) 
W73-08194 



THE IMPACT OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRON- 
MENTAL POLICY ACT UPON ADMINISTRA- 
TION OF THE FEDERAL POWER ACT. 

Land and Water Law Review, Vol 8, No 1 , p 93- 
124, 1973. 32 p, 118 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Administrative decisions, 'Federal 
Power Act, 'Decision making, 'Hydroelectric 
project licensing, Administrative agencies, 
Federal project policy, Interstate rivers, Legal 
aspects. Legislation, Hydroelectric plants, Judi- 
cial decisions, Project planning, Environmental ef- 
fects. 

Identifiers: 'National Environmental Policy Act, 
Environmental impact statement, Administrative 
regulations, Licenses. 

This article discusses the Federal Power Commis- 
sion's efforts at compliance with the National En- 
vironmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), the 
problems encountered to date, and some of the 
conflicts ot be anticipated. The history and the 
provisions of the Federal Power Act and NEPA 
are outlined along with the Commission's regula- 
tions formulated to comply with NEPA in light of 
guidelines established by the Council on Environ- 
mental Quality. The impact of recent federal court 
decisions indicates that the Commission's regula- 
tions may violate the requirements of NEPA, 
especially in regard to the granting or renewing of 
a license for non-federal hydroelectric projects 
which affect the navigable waterways or lands of 
the United States or which develop power for 
transmission to interstate commerce without filing 
an environmental impact statement prior to a hear- 
ing upon application for a license. It is also possi- 
ble that the court decisions may require environ- 
mental statements by the Commission prior to its 
issuing orders involving wholesale utility rates, in- 
terconnections, and the issuance of certain securi- 
ties by utilities under the regulation of the Federal 
Power Commission. (Dunham-Florida) 
W73-08195 



A SURVEY OF STATE REGULATION OF 
DREDGE AND FILL OPERATIONS IN NON- 
NAVIGABLE WATERS, 

Florida Univ., Gainesville. School of Law. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04 A. 
W73-08197 



I UK WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL, 

National Water Commission, Arlington, Va 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 061 
W73-08I9K 



DEPARTMENT OK ■COLOGT. 

Washington Natural Resources and Recreation 
Agencies, Olympia. 

In: 1972 Annual Report, Stale of Washington, p 
11-14,1972. 

Descriptors: 'Washington, 'Environmental cf 
feels, 'Administrative agencies, 'Water manage- 
ment (Applied), Administration, Legal aspects, 
Recreation, Water quality, Land use, Coasts, 
Legislation, Water resources development, 
Government finance, Law enforcement, Oil spills, 
Planning, Water rights, Flood control, Water 
quality control, Water pollution control, Water 
quality standards. 
Identifiers: Coastal zone management. 

In 1970, three separate state agencies were con- 
solidated into the Washington Department of 
Ecology to create an environmental quality main 
tenance department. Information is presented on 
the Deaprtment's new programs, shoreline 
management, the state environmental policy act, 
oil spills, water resources, flood control, water 
quality, air quality, solid waste disposal manage- 
ment plans, and environmental economics. One of 
the primary issues is the compatibility of environ- 
mental concerns and economic needs; near the end 
of the fiscal year the Department began work on a 
major undertaking which could, in the future, 
resolve this environmental-economic issue. The 
project is an attempt to develop a line of communi- 
cation which could lead to the issuance of total en- 
vironmental authorizations. These authorizations 
would embody the latest technology to meet all en- 
vironmental requirements while also meeting in- 
dustry's economic goals. The primary goal of the 
Department is to balance environmental concerns 
with public needs. (Mockler- Florida) 
W73-08200 



REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CON- 
FERENCE ON HUMAN ENVIRONMENT, HELD 
AT STOCKHOLM, 5-16 JUNE, 1972. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-211 133, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$1.45 in microfiche. United Nations General As- 
sembly Report A/CONF.48/14. July 3, 1972. 144 p, 
5 append. 

Descriptors: 'United Nations, 'International law, 
'International commissions, 'Environmental con- 
trol, Public health. Environmental engineering. 
Water resources, Water conservation, Water 
resources development, Political aspects. Area 
redevelopment, Urban renewal, Governments, 
Foreign countries, Environment, International 
waters, Legislation. 

The Conference adopted this report which con- 
tains a declaration on the human environment, an 
action plan for the human environment and an en- 
vironmental fund. The fund would be in addition 
to monies which governments made available to 
development programs. Certain priorities that 
require urgent and large-scale action include: 
water supply sources and ocean and sea pollution. 
Other areas designated top priority action are un- 
derstanding and controlling man-produced 
changes in the ecological systems, acceleration of 
environmentally sound technology, and encourag- 
ing broad international distribution of industrial 
capacity. Emphasis was also placed on new codes 
of international law and means for better manage- 
ment of the world's property resources. Included 
are the following resolutions: World Environment 
Day, nuclear weapons tests, and the next United 
Nations Conference on the Human Environment 
(Beard sley-Florida) 
W73-08203 



THE SAIIOSAI ENVIRONMENTAL KOI.R 
M I OK \tVt SAVE!! KROM < KABBKU I 

mPKETATlON', 

I or primary bibliographic eulry tec f-aeid Wfc 
W73-0K20* 



SMALL IIOA'I IIAKHOfc. *JN(, r ov 

ALASKA (UNA) ENVIRONMENTAL IMPAt 

STATEMK'- 

Army Engineer District, Anchorage. Alaska 

unary bibliographic entry sec Field 0KD. 
W7348209 



SMITH VILI.E IJUCE, LITTLE PLAT1E RIVE 

MISSOURI (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL D 

PAtT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer Duma Kansas City Mo 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. . 

W73 -0*210 



BACON CREEK WATERSHED, PLYMOUT 
AND WtX>DBURY COUNTIES, IOWA, (VTHA 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMK 

Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. | 
W73-08211 



WALKER DAM IMPOUNDMENT, AQUATI 
PLANT CONTROL PROJECT, NEW KEN 
COUNTY, VIRGINIA (FINAL ENVTJtONMEr 
TAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Norfolk, Va. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W73-08212 



COW CREEK WATERSHED, STEPHENS AN 
JEFFERSON COUNTIES, OKLAHOMA (ETNA 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W73-08214 

CONSTRUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL REEFS I 
THE ATLANTIC OCEAN OFF CAPE HENRI 
VIRGINIA (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPAC 
STATEMENT). 

National Marine Fisheries Service, Beaufort, N.C 
Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Center. 

Available from the National Technical Inform; 
tion Service as EIS-VA-72-5392-F, $3.50, in papc 
copy, $1 .45 in microfiche. October 2, 1972. 23 p, 
fig. 

Descriptors: 'Virginia, 'Fish attractants, *Et 

vironmental effects, 'Reefs, 'Sport fishing 

Recreation, Habitat improvement, Aquah 

habitats, Fish management, Fish populations 

Fishing. 

Identifiers: 'Environmental Impact Statements 

'Artificial reefs, 'Cape Henry (Va). 

This action consists of the construction of two at 
tificial reefs in the Atlantic Ocean fifteen and tfaii 
ty miles off Cape Henry, Virginia. The reefs wi 
be built with surplus navy vessels and will cove 
approximately 80 and 400 acres. The project wi 
create habitats attractive to sport fishes in an are 
where such habitats do not occur naturally. Ud 
derwater observations wifl be made by the Na 
tional Marine Fisheries Service to determh> 
changes in the biota on and surrounding the reefs 
No significant adverse environmental effects an 
anticipated as a result of this project The physics 
alteration of the ocean that will occur is expecte 
to create new habitats for many types and substao 
rial numbers of marine organisms including gar* 
fishes. Other alternative means of increasing ganv 
fish population have been considered but are no 
considered feasible in this particular area 
(Mockler-Florida) 
W73-08215 



102 



WILLOW ISLAND LOCKS AND DAM OHIO 
RIVER, OHIO AND WEST VIRGINIA (FINAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Huntington, W. Va. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08 A. 
W73-08216 



DETAILED PROJECT REPORT, INVESTIGA- 
TION FOR FLOOD PROTECTION, MDNDAY, 
TEXAS, BRAZOS RIVER BASIN, TEXAS 
(FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATE- 
MENT). 

Army Engineer District, Fort Worth, Tex. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08 A. 
W73-08217 



KAHULUI HARBOR WEST BREAKWATER 
REPAIR, MAUI, HAW AH (FINAL ENVKON- 
MENTAL DUPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Corps of Engineers, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Pacific Ocean Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08 A. 

W73-08218 



GILA RIVER BASIN, NEW RIVER AND 
PHOENIX CITY STREAMS, ARIZONA, DREA- 
MY DRAW DAM, MARICOPA COUNTY, 
ARIZONA (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 
STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Los Angeles, Calif. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08 A. 
W73-08219 



T OR C WILLIAMSBURG ARROYOS 
WATERSHED, SIERRA COUNTY, NEW MEX- 
rcO (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 
STATEMENT). 

Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W73-08220 



PEARL RIVER BASIN, EDINBURG DAM AND 
LAKE, MISSISSIPPI AND LOUISIANA (FINAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT), 

Army Engineer District, Mobile, Ala. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08 A. 

W73-08221 



KANAWHA RIVER COMPREHENSIVE BASIN 
STUDY, NORTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, AND 
WEST VIRGINIA, (FINAL ENVHtONMENTAL 
IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Ohio River Basin Commission, Cincinnati. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 
W73-08222 



SAN LUIS UNIT, CENTRAL VALLEY PRO- 
JECT, CALIFORNIA (FINAL ENVHtONMEN- 
TAL IMPACT STATEMENT), 

Bureau of Reclamation, Sacramento, Calif. Mid- 
Pacific Regional Office. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W73-08223 



CACHE RIVER BASIN FEATURE, MISSISSIPPI 
RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES PROJECT, AR- 
KANSAS (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 
STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Memphis, Tenn. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as EIS-AR-72-5350-F, $5.75 in paper 
copy, $1.45 in microfiche. August 1972. 70 p, 3 
plate, 1 map, 1 append. 

Descriptors: 'Arkansas, 'Environmental effects, 
•Wildlife habitats, *Fish conservation, River basin 
development, Wildlife, Flood control, Water con- 
trol, Recreation, Oak trees, Hickory trees, Water- 
fowl, Hunting, Flood routing, Eminent domain, 
Land use, Aesthetics, Fish management. 



Identifiers: 'Environmental Impact Statements, 
'Cache River Basin (Arkansas), Fish and Wildlife 
Coordination Act. 

This action consists of recommendations to Con- 
gress on the modification of the authorized Cache 
River Basin Project, to acquire approximately 
30,000 acres of lands and their development for 
mitigation of fish and wildlife losses pursuant to 
general authorities contained in the Fish and Wil- 
dlife Coordination Act of 1958. Certain proposed 
mitigation measures will preserve significant hunt- 
ing and fishing opportunities; protect biological 
productivity, aesthetics and other environmental 
values; and will enhance outdoor recreation op- 
portunities. The Cache River Basin encompasses 
portions of thirteen counties within the alluvial 
valley of the Mississippi River in Northeastern Ar- 
kansas and Southeastern Missouri. The project it- 
self is for purposes of flood control. (Smith- Adam- 
Florida) 
W73-08224 

07. RESOURCES DATA 
7A. Network Design 



MANAGEMENT MODEL AS A TOOL FOR STU- 
DYING THE WORTH OF DATA, 

Geological Survey, Arlington, Va. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06A. 

W73-07882 



ERRORS OF THE THERMOMETRIC METHOD 
OF DEPTH DETERMINATION, 

Akusticheskii Institut, Moscow (USSR). 

R. D. Sabinin. 

Oceanology, Vol 12, No 2, p 285-289, 1972. 1 tab, 2 

ref. Translated from Okeanologiya (USSR), Vol 

12, No 2, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Instrumentation, Thermometers, 
'Measurement, 'Depth, Water temperature, Ther- 
mocline, Time lag, Sampling, Equations. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, Thermometry. 

Errors in the thermometric method of depth deter- 
mination attributable to differing time lags of pro- 
tected and unprotected thermometers are 
discussed. Because of the greater time lag of un- 
protected thermometers, the thermometric 
method yields depth values that are too low as am- 
bient water temperature increases and too high as 
temperature decreases. Formulas are derived for 
computing these errors, and an error estimate is 
made for reduced instrument depth during expo- 
sure of sampling bottles at various depths and for 
temperature changes caused by internal waves. In 
the thennocline of the Arabian Sea these errors 
may exceed 7.6 m, which precludes use of unpro- 
tected thermometers or necessitates equalization 
of the rime lags of protected and unprotected ther- 
mometers. (Josefson-USGS) 
W73-07911 



LAKE SURVEY CENTER 1972 RESEARCH 
PROGRAM. 

National Ocean Survey, Detroit, Mich. Lake Sur- 
vey Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02H. 
W73-08160 



EXPERIMENTAL CURVES AND RATES OF 
CHANGE FROM PD2CEWISE PARABOLIC 
FITS, 

Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Dept. of Mathe- 
matics. 

P. C. DuChateau, D. L. Nofziger, L. R. Ahuja, and 
D. Swartzendruber. 

Preprint, Journal Paper No. 4442, Purdue Univer- 
sity Agricultural Experiment Station, Lafayette, 



RESOURCES DATA— Field 07 
Data Acquisition — Group 7B 



Indiana, 1971. 22 p, 3 fig, 3 tab, 18 equ, 5 ref. 
OWRR-B-014-IND(2). 

Descriptors: Computer programs, Equations, 
Hydraulics. 

Identifiers: 'Mathematical analysis, 'Data analy- 
sis, Sliding parabola, Parabolic splines, Prism 
method, Form-free curve fitting, Least squares, 
Nonlinear data, Slope evaluation. 

The determination of experimental curves and 
rates of change for nonlinear data is approached 
and solved without assuming an artificially restric- 
tive mathematical form for the complete range of 
the data. This relatively form-free result is 
achieved by least-squares computer fitting of 
parabolic segments to short subranges of the ex- 
perimental data. Two ways of doing this, referred 
to as the sliding-parabola and parabolic-splines 
methods, are developed. These are tested on both 
smooth and scattered data generated basically 
from the function y ± xl/2, without and with ran- 
dom error, respectively. For smooth data, the slid- 
ing-parabola method is slightly better than the 
parabolic splines, but in general both are subject to 
only very small errors, and they are also in good 
agreement with a previously presented graphical 
prism method. For scattered data wherein the in- 
herent errors of function and slope evaluation are 
much increased, the parabolic -splines method is 
distinctly superior to the sliding parabola. Both 
methods require only relatively short computing 
times, on the order of 1 sec for 40 data points, and 
are of utility for determining nonconstant experi- 
mental rates of change and for least-squares curve 
fitting without specification of a complete-range 
mathematical curve. (Bell-Comell) 
W73-08300 



A PROBABILISTIC MODEL FOR STRUCTUR- 
ING A DRAINAGE NETWORK, 

Army Project Mobile Army Sensor Systems Test 
Evaluation and Review Activity, Fort Hood, Tex. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 
W73-08380 



7B. Data Acquisition 



STUDY OF THE HYDROGEOLOGICAL CON- 
DITIONS OF ALLUVIAL FANS BY MULTIPLE 
LANDSCAPE AND GEOPHYSICAL METHODS, 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody 

(USSR). Geographic Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W73-07844 



INDICATION OF ROCKS BY DRAINAGE PAT- 
TERNS, 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody 

(USSR). Geographic Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W73-07846 



THE USE OF DRAINAGE PATTERNS FOR IN- 
TERPRETING THE MORPHOSTRUCTURES OF 
THE MOSCOW DISTRICT, 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody 

(USSR). Geographic Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W73-07847 



EXTRAPOLATION OF INDICATOR SCHEMES 
WITHIN SALT MARSHES, 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody 

(USSR). Geographic Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02 H. 

W73-07848 



103 



Field 07— RESOURCES DATA 
Group 7B — Data Acquisition 



AN INEXPENSIVE, RECORDING TIDE 
GAUGE, 

Brookhaven National I .it > , Upton, NY Dept. of 

Biology. 

N. R. Tempel. 

Limnology and Oceanography, Vol 18, No I, p 

178-180, January 1973. 3 fig, I ref. 

Descriptors: 'Tides, 'Instrumentation, 'Gaging, 
•Gages, 'Water level fluctuations, Data collec- 
tions, Telemetry, Water levels. 
Identifiers: 'Tide gages. 

An inexpensive, recording tide gage was con- 
structed and tested in a small tidal pond on the 
north shore of Long Island. The instrument costs 
less than $50 if a 0-1 mA recorder is already availa- 
ble. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-07852 



CHANGES IN CLAY MINERAL ASSEM- 
BLAGES BY SAMPLER TYPE, . 

George Washington Univ., Washington, D.C. 

Dept. of Geology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field OZI. 

W73-07868 



A TECHNIQUE USING POROUS CUPS FOR 
WATER SAMPLING AT ANY DEPTH DM THE 
UNSATURATED ZONE, 

Geological Survey, Lubbock, Tex. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02G. 

W73-07901 



ERRORS OF THE THERMOMETRY METHOD 
OF DEPTH DETERMINATION, 

Akusticheskii Institut, Moscow (USSR). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07 A. 
W73-0791 1 



A NEW SIMPLE WATER FLOW SYSTEM FOR 
ACCURATE CONTINOUS FLOW TESTS, 

Kristinebergs Zoologiska Station, Fiskebackskil 

(Sweden). 

A. Granmo, and S. O. Kollberg. 

Water Research, Vol 6, No 12, p 1597-1599, 

December, 1972. 1 fig, 1 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Bioassay, 'Laboratory equipment, 
•Design, 'Construction, Flow, Research equip- 
ment, Flow rates. 
Identifiers: 'Continuous flow system, Accuracy. 

A new simple water flow system is described for 
use in tests on living organisms in which a continu- 
ous controlled flow of water must be utilized. The 
entire system is made of Perspex plastic. A con- 
stant water level is m aintain ed via an overflow and 
the outlets consist of nozzles screwed onto 
threaded tubes. By screwing a tube up or down the 
distance changes and also the velocity of 
discharge. By this method it is possible to make an 
adjustment of up to approximately 10 per cent in 
the rate of flow. Other rates of flow can be ob- 
tained simply by replacing the nozzles by other 
with a cross-section area corresponding to the 
desired rate. The system can be used for rate of 
flow ranging from milliters to liters, and has 
proved to be accurate and easy to handle. A dia- 
gram and description of construction of the water 
flow system are provided. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08022 



SUPPORT-BONDED POLYAROMATIC 

COPOLYMER STATIONARY PHASES FOR 
USE IN GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, 

Applied Automation, Inc., Bartlesville, Okla. 

Systems Research Dept. 

E. N. Fuller. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 11, p 1747-1753, 

September 1972. 8 fig, 3 tab, 17 ref. 



Descriptors: 'Methodology, 'Gat chromatog- 
raphy, Separation ir< liniqur-. ' hemical analysis, 
Porous media, Effk icm iet, Organ* 1 i 'impounds. 
Identifiers *('olum preparation M'olyarornatic 
copolymer*, 'Chromatography column, Aliphatic 
hydrocarbons, Aromatic hydrocarbons, Styrene, 
In vmyliirri/i :ne, I Idyl vinyl!*- n/rnr Chromalog 
raphy peaks, Methane, Ethane, Propane, Isobu- 
tane, n Butane. 2 Melhylbulane, n-Pentane, Sam 
pie preparation. 

The preparation of porous polyaromaUc 
copolymers of divinylbenzene, ethylvinylbenzene, 
and styrene physically bonded to a solid support is 
described together with initial results illustrating 
the utility of these materials as GC column 
packings. While similar in nature to the widely 
used porous polymer beads, the support-bonded 
phases provide more rapid separations and greater 
column efficiency. Experiments showing the ef- 
fects of cross linking and of initial dilution with 
inert solvent on the resulting copolymer product 
are also discussed. (Long-BatteUe) 
W73-08034 



ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL AS A CAS CHRO- 
MATOGRAPH-MASS SPECTROMETER INTER- 
FACE, 

Northgate Lab., Hamden, Conn. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W73-08035 



IMPROVED UREA ELECTRODE, 

Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans. Dept. of 

Chemistry. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05 A. 

W73-08042 



ACnVITY MEASUREMENTS AT HIGH IONIC 
STRENGTHS USING HALIDE-SELECnVE 
MEMBRANE ELECTRODES, 

State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Dept. of 

Chemistry. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W73-08043 



ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF 
THE GOLD MICROMESH ELECTRODE, 
Wisconsin Univ., Madison. DepL of Chemistry. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 
W73-08044 



HYDRAULIC TESTS US HOLE UAE-3, 
AMCHTTKA ISLAND, ALASKA, 

Geological Survey, Lake wood, Colo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04B. 

W73-08071 



INFLUENCE OF 'BOUND' WATER ON THE 
CALIBRATION OF A NEUTRON MOISTURE 
METER, 

Ibadan Univ., (Nigeria). Dept. of Agronomy. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02G. 
W73-08087 



APPLICATION OF RHEOLOGICAL MEASURE- 
MENTS TO DETERMINE LIQUID LIMIT OF 
SOILS, 

Central Building Research Inst., Roorkee (India). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02G. 
W73-08089 



AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE STRUC- 
TURE, THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETIC 
BEHAVIOR OF WATER, 

Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, Mo. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 01 A. 
W73-08188 



lilMOt.NIABL* KJNf. U1SK tX K HUMM 

Illinois (Jniv , Urban* School -A 
Sciences 

W Harnngtoo. H A l^UoenandV 

1 rendafuov 

Analytical <" hermsLry Vol 45, No 2, p 433 AM 
hebmary 1973 I fig, H ref 

llescnptors •' ooslrucuon, Mies^a, 

•Methodology, 'Efficiencies, Electrochemistry, 

1 .aboralory equipment 

Identifiers 'Ring disk electrode, 'Platinum, Scsv 
sors, Tin oxide -coaled glass. Precision 

Although the nng disk electrode has become a 
valuable tool in studying many electrochemical . 
processes, there are difficulties in fabricating aad 
centering the electrode The use of differeal 
materials requires fabrication of an entirely new 
electrode for each material With the preseat 
designs, heat treatment of coated electrodes it iav 
possihle An electrode has been spccificaly 
designed to permit the use of different materials 
for the disk and to eliminate problems associated 
with centering the electrode Two platinum diak- 
plaunum nng electrodes were constructed aad 
tested with soluUons of Cu <II j in 5 M K< I the 
results agreed exactly with those published previ- 
ously. Experimental collection efficiency agreed 
with the theoretical value of 0.345 within less than 

2 percent. The electrodes were disassembled aad : 
reassembled several Umes with no changes in the 
experimental collection efficiency. The procedure, 
accompanied by a diagram, is given for construct- 
ing such an electrode. A tin oxide-coated glass 
disk platinum nng electrode and an electrode k 
which both disk and nng are of tin oxide-coaled 
glass also are described (Holoman-Battelle) 
W73-08260 



LINEAR AND NONLINEAR SYSTEM CHARAC- 
TERISTICS OF CONTROLLED-POTENTIAL 
ELECTROLYSIS CELLS, 

California Univ., Livennore. Lawrence Liver- 
more Lab. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 
W73-0826I 



AN IMPROVED VARIABLE-INTENSITY SPRIN- 
KLING INFTLTROMETER, 

Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). DepL of Sol 
Science. 

E. Rawitz, M. Margolin, and D. Hillel. 
Soil Sci Soc Am Proc. Vol 36, No 3, p 533-535. 
1972. DJus. 

Identifiers: 'Instrumentation, Flow, Infiltration, 
•Infiltrometers, Intensity, Movement, Rain, Simu- 
lator, Soils, Sprinkling. 

Improvements of the Purdue- Wisconsin inffl- 
trometer are described. A winch was added to the 
tower to facilitate assembly and the windshield 
was redesigned. Water distribution was improved 
by changes in the revolving shutter and the surplus 
water collection trough. The nozzle mounting was 
simplified, and water level in the vacuum runoff 
tank was transmitted to an external recorder. 
Good uniformity was obtained over a wide range 
of application rates. -Copyright 1972, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08340 



APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING TO 
SOLUTION OF ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS, 

IBM Federal Systems Div.. Bethesda, Md. 
A. Adelman. 

Proc. available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402 
- Price $4.50. In: Space for Mankind's Benefit; 
Proc of space congress, November 15-19, 1971, 
Hunts ville, Ala: Washington, D C, National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Publication 
NASA SP-313, p 105-108, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Remote sensing, 'Satellites (Artifi- 
cial), Water resources. Stream gages, Ecology. 



104 



RESOURCES DATA— Field 07 
Data Acquisition — Group 7B 



The point of applying remote sensing techniques 
to the determination of the hydrologic regime of 
watersheds is twofold: the improvement in predic- 
tive accuracy of already instrumented and 
modeled watersheds and the determination of the 
hydrologic regimes of as yet unknown watersheds, 
with potentially significant reductions in time, 
labor, and cost over present methods. Such a 
determination is an essential prerequisite for the 
planning of flood control and water resource 
utilization works within the watershed. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W73-08358 



APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING TO 
STREAM DISCHARGE PREDICTION, 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration , 
Huntsville, Ala. George C. Marshall Space Flight 
Center. 

F. R. Krause, and C. B. Winn. 
Proc available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402 - 
Price $4.50. In: Space for Mankind's Benefit; Proc 
of space congress, November 15-19, 1971, Hunt- 
sville, Ala: Washington, D C, National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration Publication NASA 
SP-313, p 109-119, 1972. 9 fig, 17 ref. 

Descriptors: *Remote sensing, 'Discharge mea- 
surement, *Flood forecasting, *Streamflow 
forecasting, Gages, Gaging stations, Data collec- 
tions, Instrumentation, Mathematical models. 

The use of remote earth observations was studied 
for augmenting stream discharge prediction for the 
design and/or operation of major reservoir 
systems, pumping systems, and irrigation systems. 
The near-term objectives of the feasibility study 
are the interpolation of sparsely instrumented 
precipitation surveillance networks and the direct 
measurement of water loss by evaporation. The 
first steps of the study covered a survey of exist- 
ing reservoir systems, stream discharge prediction 
methods, gage networks and the development of a 
self-adaptive variation of the Kentucky Watershed 
model, SNOPSET, that includes snowmelt. As a 
result of these studies, a special three-channel 
scanner was designed to provide snow, tempera- 
ture and water vapor maps for the spatial and tem- 
poral interpolation of stream gages. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W73-08359 



USE OF DATA FROM SPACE FOR EARTH 
RESOURCES EXPLORATION AND MANAGE- 
MENT IN ALABAMA, 

Alabama State Oil and Gas Board, Tuscaloosa. 
P. E. LeMoreaux, and H. R. Henry. 
Proc available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402 - 
Price $4.50. In: Space for Mankind's Benefit; Proc 
of space congress, November 15-19, 1971, Hunt- 
sville, Ala: Washington, D C, National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration Publication NASA 
SP-313, p 143-148, 1972. 3 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Remote sensing, 'Resources, 
•Alabama, 'Satellites (Artificial), Land resources, 
Water resources, Data collections, Instrumenta- 
tion, Surveys. 

The University of Alabama, the Geological Survey 
of Alabama, and the George C. Marshall Space 
Flight Center are involved in an effort to use 
remotely sensed, multispectral observations to as- 
sess earth resources and environmental quality in 
Alabama. It is the goal of this effort to interpret 
these data and provide them in a format which is 
meaningful to and readily usable by agencies, in- 
dustries, and individuals throughout the State. 
Detailed uses considered are flood control, soil 
studies, resource inventory, surface water studies, 
mineral exploration, groundwater studies, water 
temperature studies, growth trends, surveying and 
mapping, air quality management, water quality 
management, disaster detection, damage evalua- 
tion, sediment transport, traffic studies, erosion 
control, irrigation, zoning, crop conditions, 



recreation, management, urban and regional 
planning, and pesticide studies. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08360 



A DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM (DAS) FOR 
MARINE AND ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 
FROM AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY, 

Mississippi State Univ., Bay Saint Louis. Missis- 
sippi Test Facility. 
R. A. Johnson. 

Proc Available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402, 
Price $4.50. In: Space for Mankind's Benefit; Proc 
of space congress, November 15-19, 1971, Hunt- 
sville, Ala: Washington, DC, National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration Publication NASA 
SP-313, p 149-153, 1972. 3 fig, 2 ref. NASA Grants 
NGL 25-001-02, 25-001-032, and 25-001-040. 

Descriptors: 'Telemetry, 'Data collections, 
•Remote sensing, 'Instrumentation, 'Mississippi, 
Water resources, Ecology, Aircraft, Water pollu- 
tion, Air pollution. 

A self-contained portable data acquisition system 
was developed for use in marine and ecological 
research. The compact, lightweight system is 
capable of recording 14 variables and is suitable 
for use in either a boat, pickup truck, or light air- 
craft. Both self-contained analog recording and a 
telemetry transmitter are used for real-time digital 
readout and recording. The prototype system has 
been utilized in several investigations of air pollu- 
tion and weather modification. It is currently being 
used on the Mississippi State University Eco- 
System Research Project for marine data acquisi- 
tion. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08361 



SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS OF TEMPORAL 
TERRESTRIAL FEATURES, 

Allied Research Associates, Inc., Concord, Mass. 
G. Rabchevsky. 

Proc Available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402, 
Price $4.50. In: Space for Mankind's Benefit; Proc 
of space congress, November 15-19, 1971, Hunt- 
sville, Ala: Washington, DC, National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration Publication NASA 
SP-313, p 155-179, 1972. 34 fig, 1 tab, 37 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Remote sensing, 'Satellites (Artifi- 
cial), 'Data collections, Water temperature, 
Ocean currents, Sea ice, Snow cover, Snowpacks, 
Lakes, Reservoirs, Floods, Vegetation effects, 
Mapping, Surveys, Volcanoes, Playas, Deltas, 
Sedimentation, Forest, Forest fires. 

Since the launch of the first orbiting meteorologi- 
cal Television and Infrared Observation Satellite 
(TIROS I) on April 1 , 1960, over 1 million pictures 
of the earth have been recorded by 25 weather 
satellites. During the Gemini program, the as- 
tronauts took over 2400 color photographs; 2100 
pictures were taken during the Apollo Program. 
Nimbus radiometers sense thermal boundaries of 
major ocean currents. Some areas of upwelling 
have been studied in detail. Pack ice boundaries 
have been established for both polar seas using 
satellite imagery. Polar (and temperate) ice con- 
centrations can be extracted from satellite data. 
Changes of the snowline in the upper Missouri- 
Mississippi River valley were mapped. The 
seasonal progression of the average surface tem- 
perature of Lake Michigan has been obtained 
using the Nimbus High Resolution Infrared 
Radiometer. The Nimbus and ITOS television and 
infrared imaging sensors monitor surface moisture 
and extent of water bodies. Maps of polar areas 
have been updated using the Nimbus satellite 
imagery. Volcanic activity has been recorded by 
orbital infrared systems. Western U.S. playas have 
been examined from space. Delta sedimentation 
plumes have been observed on Nimbus I imagery 
at the mouth of the Colorado River and at the 
mouth of the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers. Smoke 
from large fires in Alaska has been observed on 
ESSA satellite imagery. (Knapp-USGS) 



W73-08362 



INTERDISCIPLINARY APPLICATIONS AND 
INTERPRETATIONS OF REMOTELY SENSED 
DATA, 

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. 
G. W. Petersen, and G. J. McMurtry. 
Proc Available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402, 
Price $4.50. In: Space for Mankind's Benefit; Proc 
of space congress, November 15-19, 1971, Hunt- 
sville, Ala: Washington, DC, National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration Publication NASA 
SP-313, p 181-186, 1972. 2 fig, 2 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Remote sensing, 'Pennsylvania, 

'Resources, Environment, Soils, Surveys, 

Forests, Data collections, Recreation, Vegetation, 

Runoff, Geology, Terrain analysis, Land use, 

Groundwater, Rivers, Air pollution, Acid mine 

water. 

Identifiers: 'Susquehanna River basin. 

The use of remote sensing for inventory of natural 
resources and land use, determination of pollution 
sources and damage, and analysis of geologic 
structure and terrain is under investigation. The 
geographical area of primary interest is the 
Susquehanna River basin. The specific tasks con- 
sidered are: identification and characterization of 
soil; location, inventory, and monitoring of strip- 
mining spoils; survey and inventory of forest 
resources; evaluation of potential recreation sites; 
survey of insect and plant disease epidemics; col- 
lection of data for land use management; develop- 
ment of natural resource inventory systems; 
characterization and analysis of geologic struc- 
tures and terrain; inventory of mineral resources 
and mines ; detection of groundwater sources from 
drainage, lineaments, and fracture patterns; deter- 
mination of runoff; monitoring the environmental 
effects of power generating plants; detection of 
sources of acid mine drainage, determination of 
mixing patterns in surface waters; detection of air 
pollution damage; and definition and characteriza- 
tion of water quality problems. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08363 



ORBITAL SURVEYS AND STATE RESOURCE 
MANAGEMENT, 

Battelle Columbus Labs., Ohio. Aerospace 
Mechanics Div. 

G. Wukelic, T. L. Wells, and B. R. Brace. 
Proc Available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402, 
Price $4.50. In: Space for Mankind's Benefit; Proc 
of space congress, November 15-19, 1971, Hunt- 
sville, Ala: Washington, DC, National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration Publication NASA 
SP-313, p 187-197, 1972. 15 fig, 4 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Remote sensing, 'Ohio, Resources, 
Surveys, Satellites (Artificial), Data collections, 
Management. 

Ohio, with highly diversified industry, agriculture, 
and geography, proposes to use orbital survey data 
and related space capabilities to manage its 
resources, attack increasing environmental 
problems, and plan future developments. Short- 
and long-range benefits are described. The State 
Government of Ohio foresees opportunities, chal- 
lenges, and potential benefits in orbital surveys 
not only for government management responsibili- 
ty but also for its constituency by providing alter- 
native approaches to resource and environmental 
problems heretofore unavailable. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08364 



RIVERBED FORMATION, 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept. of Civil 
Engineering. 
M. Skinner. 

Proc Available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402, 
Price $4.50. In: Space for Mankind's Benefit; Proc 
of space congress, November 15-19, 1971, Hunt- 
sville, Ala: Washington, DC, National Aeronau- 



105 



Field 07— RESOURCES DATA 
Group 7B — Data Acquisition 



in s and Space Administration Publication NASA 
SP-313,p 199-210, 1972. 9 fig, 20 ref. 

Descriptom: 'Remote sensing, 'AenaJ photog- 
raphy, 'Channel morphology, 'Drainage patterns 
(Geologic), 'Alluvial channels, Terrain analysis, 
Colorado, Beds, Streambeds, River beds, Mean- 
ders, Braiding, Erosion, Flood plains, 
Geomorphology . 

The general fluvial processes that work to form a 
riverbed and produce the characteristic pattern of 
either meandering, braided, or straight are 
reviewed. A method for quantification of river pat- 
tern and correlation, with the basic hydraulic 
characteristics of discharge and slope, is 
presented. Additional characteristics of a river 
system may be deduced from high-quality photog- 
raphy and imagery obtained from either aircraft or 
space platforms. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08365 



DOMESTIC APPLICATIONS FOR AEROSPACE 
WASTE AND WATER MANAGEMENT 
TECHNOLOGIES, 

General Electric Co., Schenectady, N.Y. 
F. DiSanto, and R. W. Murray. 
Proc Available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402, 
Price $4.50. In: Space for Mankind's Benefit; Proc 
of space congress, November 15-19, 1971, Hunt 
sville, Ala: Washington, DC, National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration Publication NASA 
SP-313,p 221-230, 1972. 10 fig, 1 tab, 3 ref . 

Descriptors: 'Water management (Applied), 
'Research and development, 'Waste treatment, 
•Water utilization, 'Water reuse. Technology, En- 
gineering, Systems analysis. 
Identifiers: 'Aerospace technology. 

Tools for solving many pollution problems have 
been developed by aerospace technologists. These 
approaches may be used to identify very complex 
problems, to select the best solution, and to imple- 
ment vast programs. None of these approaches or 
technical processes is unique to the aerospace 
community. Some of the aerospace developments 
in solid waste disposal and water purification 
which are applicable to specific domestic 
problems are described. An overview is presented 
of the management techniques used in defining the 
need, in utilizing the available tools, and in 
synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water 
recovery processes are available for domestic ap- 
plicability, including filtration, distillation, cata- 
lytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialy- 
sis. Also solids disposal methods include chemical 
treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. 
The latest developments in reducing household 
water requirements and some concepts for reusing 
water are outlined. (Knapp-USGS) 
W73-08366 



USING LIGHT TO COLLECT AND SEPARATE 
ZOOPLANKTON, 

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Dept. of 
Fisheries and Wildlife. 
J. L. Ervin, and T. A. Haines. 
Prog Fish-Cult. Vol 34, No 3, p 171-174, 1972. II- 
Ius. 

Identifiers: 'Light, Plankton, 'Zooplankton, Col- 
lection device, Design, Construction. 

Design and construction details of a zooplantkton 
trap in expensive materials using either 1 or 2 
lamps are given.-CopyTight 1973, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W73-08406 



THE BOREAL BIOCLIM ATES, 

Toronto Univ., (Ontario). Dept. of Geography. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02B. 

W73-08437 



I IIK KXPhNIJAHI.K. HATHYOX YMETK.R, 

Oregon State tjmv , Corvalhs Dept of Oceanog 

raphy. 

M W Jeter. I-. l-oyn, M King, and I. I Gordon 

l.imnol Oceanogr Vol 17, No 2, p 288-292. 1972 

Illus 

Identifiers: 'Bathyoxymcter, 'Dissolved oxygen. 

Oxygen, Instrumentation 

A free-fall device is described, analogous to the 
expendable bathythermograph, which make* dis- 
solved 02 profiles to 500 m in 80 sec. -Copyright 
1973, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08438 



SOLUTE POTENT! AKS OK SUCROSE SOLU- 
TIONS, 

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Botany 
B. K Michel 

Plant Physiol. Vol 50. No 1 , p 196-198 1972. 
Identifiers: Freezing point depression, Hydro- 
static pressure, 'Isopiestic method. Osmometer, 
Solute potential, Sucrose solutions, Vapor pres- 



Comparative solute potentials were calculated 
using the isopiestic method, hydrostatic pressure, 
freezing point depression and a vapor pressure 
osmometer in an attempt to resolve existing dis- 
crepancies in the literature. -Copyright 1973, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W73-08450 

7C. Evaluation, Processing and 
Publication 



A MANUAL ON COLLECTION OF 
HYDROLOGIC DATA FOR URBAN DRAINAGE 
DESIGN, 

Hydrocomp, Inc., Palo Alto, Calif. 
R. K Linsley. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-219 360, $3.00 paper copy, 
$1.45 microfiche. March 1973. 60 p, 8 fig, 2 tab, 15 
ref, append. OWRR X-l 20 (3750) (1 ). 

Descriptors: 'Storm runoff, 'Urban drainage, 

Precipitation, Evaporation, Solar radiation, 

'Storm drains, Water quality, 'Data collections, 
Management, Publications. 

There are very little data on urban storm flow and 
quality and application of modem methods to 
urban storm drain management is limited by this 
lack. This manual is intended to indicate to city 
and county engineers the types of data which 
could be gathered by local staff as an aid in the 
design of future urban runoff management facili- 
ties. 
W73-07801 



THE USE OF LANDSCAPE-INDICATOR 
METHODS IN HYDROGEOLOGICAL IN- 
VESTIGATIONS, 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody 

(USSR). Geographic Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W73-07843 



STUDY OF THE HYDROGEOLOGICAL CON- 
DITIONS OF ALLUVIAL FANS BY MULTIPLE 
LANDSCAPE AND GEOPHYSICAL METHODS, 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody 

(USSR). Geographic Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W73-07844 



LANDSCAPE-INDICATOR INVESTIGATIONS 
OFKARST, 

Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody 

(USSR). Geographic Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W73-07845 



IMlIf A I ION OK H<X K.S BY DRAINAGE PA1 

mm, 

. skoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Pnrod 
fUSSR) Geographic Div 

f-or primary biMiographu entry sec Pield 02J 
W73-07846 



NATIONAL PROGRAM KOR ManaGIM 

HOOD I OSSr.S (,l IDE! INKS FOR PRKKAftA 

HON TRANSMITTAL, AND DLS'IRUU.TKM 

OK KMJOD-PKONK AREA MAPS ANI 

PAMPHLETS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, I) < 

G W Ldelen.Jr 

Geological Survey open file report, 1973 28 p. 

'UJ 

Descriptors: 'Floods, 'Flood plains, 'Mapping 

'Flood protection. Reviews, Flood profiles, Dat 

processing, Maps, United Slates, AenaJ photo 

graphs. Flood frequency, Boundaries 'Surfaces) 

Flood control. Data transmission, Planning 

Governments 

Identifiers: 'Flood-plain mapping guidelines 

Information is presented to assist Wale 
Resources Division offices in preparing flood 
prone area maps and pamphlets. Background ant 
history of the program, legal authority, analytic* 
techniques . printing distribution, and other opera 
tional details are discussed. The instructions anc 
advice should be considered primarily at 
guidelines. In general, the instructions for maf 
bases, lettering sizes, and reproduction require 
rnents must be followed quite closely whereas in- 
structions pertaining to techniques of delineabnf 
flood boundaries may require liberal interpretation 
in unusual situations. The 89th Congress (1966) in 
House Document 465 recommended preparation 
of flood-prone area maps to assist in minimi7m g 
flood losses by quickly identifying areas of poten- 
tial flood hazards. Flood -prone area maps 
produced to date have been particularly useful 
during floods in planning the evacuation of areas 
likely to be flooded. (Woodard-USGS) 
W73-07849 



MANAGEMENT MODEL AS A TOOL FOR STU- 
DYING THE WORTH OF DATA, 

Geological Survey, Arlington, Va. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry sec Field 06A. 

W73-07882 



MEASURE OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL 

DRAINAGE BASIN FORM, 

Cambridge Univ. (England). Dept. of Geography. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 
W73-07892 



MULTISITE DAILY FLOW GENERATOR, 

Department of the Environment, Ottawa (On- 
tario). Water Management Service. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 
W73-07899 



THE TRANSIENT FLOW PROBLEM - A ONE- 
-DIMENSIONAL DIGITAL MODEL, 

Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Dept of Civil and 

Architectural Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W73-07916 



HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF 
THE VALLEY-FILL AQUIFER IN THE ARKAN- 
SAS RIVER VALLEY, BENT COUNTY, 
COLORADO, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

R. T. Hurr, and J. E. Moore. 

Available for sale by USGS, Washington, D.C. 

20242, Price $1.00 per set Geological Survey 

Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-461, 1972. 2 

sheet, 2 fig, 4 map, 1 1 ref. 



106 



RESOURCES DATA— Field 07 
Evaluation, Processing and Publication — Group 7C 



Descriptors: 'Groundwater resources, *Aquifers, 
•Hydrogeology, *Colorado, Valleys, Rivers, 
Water wells, Water supply, Water yield, Ground- 
water recharge, Water levels, Transmissivity, 
Aquifer characteristics, Irrigation, Hydrologic 
data, Maps, Groundwater movement 
Identifiers: 'Arkansas River valley (Colo), *Bent 
County (Colo). 

This atlas describes the hydrologic characteristics 
of the valley-fill aquifer in a 36-mile reach of the 
Arkansas River valley in Bent County, southeast- 
ern Colorado. The reach is underlain by saturated 
valley-fill alluvium consisting of gravel, sand, silt, 
and clay of Pleistocene to Holocene age. The allu- 
vium occupies a trough eroded in the shale, 
limestone, and sandstone bedrock of Cretaceous 
age. In Bent County, the Arkansas River is a gain- 
ing stream most of the year owing to groundwater 
return flow from applied irrigation water. Max- 
imum withdrawals of groundwater in the county 
occurrred in 1964 when about 34,000 acre-feet of 
water was pumped from 225 irrigation wells and 
six municipal wells. The yields of the wells range 
from 100 to 2,500 gpm, and vary considerably 
from place to place, due mainly to variation in 
saturated thickness and hydraulic conductivity of 
the aquifer. The average hydraulic conductivity is 
about 4,000 gallons per day per square foot. A map 
of aquifer transmissivity is based on saturated 
thickness and hydraulic conductivity. (Woodard- 
USGS) 
W73-08068 



WATER-RESOURCES RECONNAISSANCE OF 
THE OZARK PLATEAUS PROVINCE, 
NORTHERN ARKANSAS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

A. G. Lamonds. 

Available for sale by USGS, Washington, D.C. 

20242, Price $1.00 per set. Geological Survey 

Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-383, 1972. 1 

sheet, 6 fig, 12 map, 4 tab, 23 ref . 

Descriptors: *Water resources, *Surface waters, 
•Groundwater resources, 'Arkansas, Hydrologic 
data, Water yield, Water quality, Rainfall-runof- 
frelationships, Flow characteristics, Flood 
frequency, Low flow, Aquifers, Hydrogeology, 
Aquifer characteristics, Water wells, Water 
utilization, Geology, Hydrology, Basic data col- 
lections. 
Identifiers: 'Ozark Plateaus Province (Ark). 

This hydrologic atlas describes the water 
resources of the Ozark Plateaus province in 
northern Arkansas. The area is underain by deeply 
dissected plateaus; the Salem Plateau, the Spring- 
field Plateau, and the Boston Mountains. The 
Ozark Plateaus in Arkansas encompass all or parts 
of 22 counties for a total area of about 12,245 
square miles. Tributaries to the Arkansas River 
drain the western and southwestern parts of the 
plateaus; about 27% of the area. The White River 
and its tributaries drain about 73% of the area. 
Geologic units consist mostly of limestone, 
doiomite, sandstone, and shale. On the basis of 
geologic and hydrologic similarity, the geologic 
units are combined into eight hydrologic units. 
Wells in most of the units generally are less than 
300 feet deep and yield less than 10 gpm. The 
chemical quality of water from 88 springs and 
wells is summarized. The quality of groundwater 
generally is suitable for most uses. A map showing 
flood-frequency regions and hydrologic areas 
delineates three regions and six areas in the 
plateaus. The natural quality of surface water is 
excellent, and pollution is not a serious problem at 
present (1969). (Woodard-USGS) 
W73-08069 



ENTROPY AS A MEASURE OF THE AREAL 
CONCENTRATION OF WATER-ORIENTED IN- 
DUSTRY, 

Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Coll. of Business Ad- 
ministration. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03E. 



W73-08131 



SECTION 22, 'SNOW SURVEY AND WATER 
SUPPLY FORECASTING,' OF THE SCS NA- 
TIONAL ENGINEERING HANDBOOK, 

Soil Conservation Service, Portland, Oreg. Water 

Supply Forecast Unit. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W73-08153 



QUALITY OF SURFACE WATERS OF THE 
UNITED STATES, 1968: PART I. NORTH AT- 
LANTIC SLOPE BASINS. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

Available from Sup Doc GPO, Washington, DC 
20402 Price $1 .75 (paper cover). Geological Survey 
Water-Supply Paper 2091 , 1972. 373 p, 1 fig, 39 ref. 

Descriptors: *Water quality, 'Surface waters, 
'Northeast U.S., 'Water temperature, 'Sediment 
transport, Streamflow, Flow rates, Water analy- 
sis, Chemical analysis, Water chemistry, 
Sampling, Basic data collections. 
Identifiers: 'North Atlantic Slope basins. 

During the water year ending September 30, 1968, 
the U.S. Geological Survey maintained 175 sta- 
tions on 1 17 streams in the North Atlantic Slope 
basins for the study of chemical and physical 
characteristics of surface water. Samples were 
collected daily and monthly at 128 of these loca- 
tions for chemical-quality studies. Samples also 
were collected less frequently at many other 
points. Water temperatures were measured con- 
tinuously at 58 and daily at 39 stations. At chemi- 
cal-quality stations where data are continuously 
recorded at the stream site (monitors), the records 
consist of daily maximum, minimum, and mean 
values for each constituent measured. Quantities 
of suspended sediment are reported for 33 sta- 
tions, and particle-size distributions of sediments 
for 29 stations. Quality of water stations usually 
are located at or near points on streams where 
streamflow is measured. (Woodard-USGS) 
W73-08155 



RECORDS OF WELLS AND TEST BORINGS IN 
THE SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN, NEW 
YORK, 

Geological Survey, Albany, N.Y. 
A. D. Randall. 

New York Depaitment of Environmental Conser- 
vation Bulletin 69, 1972. 92 p, 3 fig, 2 plate, 5 tab, 6 
ref. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater resources, 'Water 

wells, 'Well data, 'Water quality. 'New York, 

Drillers logs, Aquifer characteristics, Geology, 

Water levels, Water yield, Water utilization, 

Chemical analysis, Hydrologic data, Basic data 

collections. 

Identifiers: 'Susquehanna River basin (N Y). 

Groundwater resources data collected from 1965 
through 1968 in the Susquehanna River basin in 
New York include records of 1 ,990 wells, chemi- 
cal analyses of water from 315 wells, detailed logs 
of 385 wells, and logs of 725 test borings. Well 
records (except for remarks) and chemical 
analyses were compiled using automatic data- 
processing equipment They are stored by the U.S. 
Geological Survey on machine cards and magnetic 
tapes. At least 90% of the records are from the 
major valleys, which constitute no more than J 5% 
of total basin area. The valleys were emphasized 
because it is in the valleys that the most productive 
aquifers occur, most urban development has taken 
place, and future development is likely to concen- 
trate. A few small upland areas were selected for 
intensive study. Salt water is known to exist at 
depth beneath much of the basin. To document its 
position, salt-water wells were sought and inven- 
toried wherever possible. (Woodard-USGS) 
W73-08159 



GLOSSARY OF TERMS IN SOIL SCHCNCE. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02G. 
W73-08161 



MAP SHOWING GENERAL CHEMICAL 
QUALITY OF GROUNDWATER IN THE 
SALINAQUADRANGLE, UTAH, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
D.Price. 

Available For Sale by USGS, Washington, D.C. 
20242, Price - 75 cents. Geological Survey Miscel- 
laneous Geologic Investigations Maps, Map 1-591- 
K, 1972. 1 sheet, 1 map. 

Descriptors: 'Water quality, 'Groundwater, 'Dis- 
solved solids, 'Utah, Maps, Locating, Springs, 
Water wells, Aquifers, Geochemistry, Data collec- 
tions. 
Identifiers: 'Salina quadrangle (Utah). 

This map of Salina quadrangle, Utah, scale 
1:250,000, shows the general chemical quality of 
water as determined from quality-of-water data 
collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and 
cooperating State, local, and Federal agencies. 
Sources of data include springs, and wells that tap 
aquifers at depths of less than 1 ,000 feet. Various 
colors are used to indicate locations where dis- 
solved solids range from 250 to 1 ,000 mg/liter, 500 
to 1,000 mg/liter, 500 to 3,000 mg/liter, and 1,000 
to 3,000 mg/liter. Also shown are locations where 
dissolved solids are less than 500 mg/liter. 
(Woodard-USGS) 
W73-08172 



DRAINAGE AREAS, HARTFORD NORTH 
QUADRANGLE, CONNECTICUT, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
M. P. Thomas. 

Available For Sale by USGS, Washington, D.C. 
20242, Price - 75 cents. Geological Survey Miscel- 
laneous Geologic Investigations Maps, Map 1-784- 
J, 1972. 1 sheet, 1 map. 

Descriptors: 'Drainage area, 'Streams, 'Reser- 
voirs, 'Gaging stations, 'Connecticut, Surface 
waters, Maps, Streamflow, Discharge measure- 
ment, Sampling, Sites, Locating, Watersheds (Di- 
vides), River basins, Watersheds (Basins), Cities. 
Identifiers: 'Hartford north quadrangle (Conn). 

A map scale 1:24,000) shows drainage areas that 
contribute streamflow to selected sites on streams 
in the Hartford north quadrangle, Connecticut In 
addition to the drainage area boundary markings, 
the numbers of square miles drained is shown at 
stream gaging sites, outlets of surface water im- 
poundments, surface water sampling sites, and 
mouths of tributary streams. (Woodard-USGS) 
W73-08173 



MAP OF DEPOSITS ESPECIALLY SUSCEPTI- 
BLE TO COMPACTION OR SUBSIDENCE, 
PARKER QUADRANGLE, ARAPAHOE AND 
DOUGLAS COUNTD2S, COLORADO, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
J. O. Maberry. 

Available For Sale by USGS, Washington, D.C. 
20242, Price - 75 cents. Geological Survey Miscel- 
laneous Geologic Investigations Maps, Map 1-770- 
J, 1972. 1 sheet, 1 map, 1 ref. 

Descriptors: *Geology, 'Geologic units, 'Struc- 
tural engineering, 'Sedimentology, 'Colorado, 
Subsidence, Settlement (Structural), Physical pro- 
perties, Loess, Sands, Alluvium, Sedimentation. 
Identifiers: 'Arapahoe and Douglas Counties 
(Colo), Parker quadrangle (Colo). 

A map (scale 1:24,000) of Parker quadrangle, 
Arapahoe and Douglas Counties, Colorado, shows 
areas of geologic deposits especially susceptible to 
compaction or subsidence. This information could 
be important in structural engineering. Colors on 
the map indicate three different types of geologic 



107 



F.eld 07— RESOURCES DATA 

Group 7C — Evaluation, Processing and Publication 



material*: eolian sill (loess), eolian Hand, and allu- 
vium. These uinls are more susceptible to compac- 
tion and subsidence or differential settling than 
other sediments or sedimentary rocks in the 
quadrangle. Loess occurs in two broad northwest- 
trending belts west of Cherry Creek and comprises 
material brought into the area from the Platte 
River valley by northwesterly winds. It is as much 
as 18 feet thick. Kolian sand covers the land in a 
belt along the uplands east of Cherry Creek. It was 
deposited by northwesterly and westerly winds 
blowing material out of the Cherry Creek valley 
and is as much as 40 feet thick. The alluvium con- 
sidered is the post- Pine y Creek alluvium, the 
youngest in the map area. This alluvium occupies 
the streambeds of Cherry Creek and its major 
tributaries. It is made up of loose fine to coarse 
sand and fine gravel with minor amounts of clay. 
(Woodard-USGS) 
W73-08174 



THE REGRESSION OF NET RADIATION UPON 
SOLAR RADIATION, 

Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Water Resources 

Research Inst. 

For primary b